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ANTH 1000 Spring Final Cox

by: Kayla Waters

ANTH 1000 Spring Final Cox ANTH 1000 - 002

Kayla Waters
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

This is the outline she gave us filled out. I will probably add onto it later in the week as well!
Introduction to Anthropology
Christopher David Berk
Study Guide
Anthropology, Cox, Auburn University, final
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Waters on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1000 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Christopher David Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 05/02/16
Acculturation: process of change, outside culture introduces new culture standards to other  cultures, happens quickly Revolution: process of change, happens within culture Stimulus Diffusion: process of change, change from outside factors, adopting from another  culture; ex) American revolutionfrench revolution and others  Aesthetics: ideas and philosophies about what has beauty in art Altruism: doing something for another without personal regard for own wellbeing or safety;  other species have it to not just humans Animism: most basic religious beliefs; belief in the soul, not god  Apes and sign language: Washo learned from Alan and Beatrice Garner in 1960s Applied anthro and examples:  Binary constructs: 2 opposing elements in conflict with eachother. Good vs evil, man vs nature, etc Carrying capacity: max population an environment will allow  Causes of warfare: primary cause is resource stress, review Dani of Papa New Guinea. Also  revenge, recreation and sport,  Charles Darwin: wrote Origin of Species, evolution by natural selection, HMS beagle and  finches  Cognates: words that are similar in different language; historical linguist would use these to  figure out how closely languages are related Concept of race: socially constructed, folk taxonomy Culture: is learned, inherited, not genetic, not biological, not instinctual  Religion: system of symbols and ideas and rules for behavior based on supernatural explanations Supernatural: outside known laws of nature Linguistics fields and characteristics: 4 fields, descriptive, structural, historical, socio Diffusion and Stimulus Diffusion: diffusion is process by which info spreads;  flow of info  from one culture to another Discovery and Invention: process of culture change. Discovery is finding things that have  always existed Food Taboos (materialism vs symbolism): materialist­ interested in economic considerations  and environmental considerations (Marvin Harris). Symbolist­ humanist experiences, labels,  something about the food didn’t look right Economic exchange for marriage­ dowry, bride price and service. Dowry system is when  brides family pays money to husband; bride wealth is when grooms family pays; brides service is when man works to marry a woman Egalitarianism: band level sociopolitical level, huntering­gathering  Emerging Disease: any disease that’s new and emerging  Enculturation: process by which we learn our culture; we aren’t born knowing our culture Ethnocentrism: judging culture by own cultural standards Explanations for origin of religion: want to control things and impose order; Edward Tyler and common dreams and out of body experiences; maintain order; fear of mortality Feature vs Artifact: objects that are human made, you can’t move a feature but you can move  an artifact to study it Four paradigms of art: memetic: mimic real life; representational: idealizes; instrumental:  communicate a message; formalist: abstract, concentrates on color Functions of Kinship in nonindustrial societies: primary unit of production, they do everything.  Cross and Parallel Cousins: cross­parents opposite sex siblings kids. Parallel­ parents same sex  siblings kids. Omaha system is patrilineal and cross cousins are preferred marriage partner Globalization: world­wide impact of industrialization and its socioeconomic, political and  cultural consequences on the world Modernization: forces associated with industrialization will eventually transform all societies  into modern industrial states Goal of Kula Ring: system of redistribution, goal is to solidify long term relationships  Ascribed vs Achieved status: ascribed­ born with.  Class vs Caste System: A class system divides society into groups based on some method, most  often income or ownership, and allows certain privileges to the upper classes. Normally, it is  possible to move between classes by marriage, education, military exploit, or other talent.  A caste system divides according to parentage and ancestry and normally strongly restricts a  person from getting outside the caste, limiting where they can live and what jobs they can hold. 3 Criteria of Stratification :  Power is the ability to control resources in one’s own interest. Wealth is the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these  resources. Prestige is social honor or respect. Humans place in taxonomic classification: primates, anthropoids, catarrhines, hominoids,  hominids, homo sapien sapiens (humans are considered all of the following except..) Types of Kinship systems: Bilateral: a Kinship system in which an ndividual is a member of  both parent’s descent line (our system) Unilineal: A kinship system in which an individual is a member of only one parent’s descent  line. Patrilineal: A unilineal kinship system in which an individual is a member of the father’s  descent line Matrilineal: A unilineal kinship system in which an individual is a member of the  mother’s descent line Omaha, Hawaiian, Eskimo systems Schools of anthropological thought, know people associated with each (Unilineal  evolutionism – postmodernism):  Unilineal Evolution: Edward Tylor Functionalism: Radcliffe­Brown, Malinowski Neoevolutionism: Leslie White Cultural Ecology: Julian Steward Cultural Materialism: Marvin Harris Marxist: Karl Marx Symbolic: Mary Douglass Postmodernism: James Clifford and George Marcus Kuru and endocannibalism: endocannibalism causes Kuru, don’t eat people Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery:  Magic: attempt to mechanically control supernatural forces Witchcraft: ability to harm someone by thinking bad thoughts towards them Sorcery: Conscious and intentional use of magic Main Features of Human Language and definitions Mana: a generalized, supernatural force or power, which may be concentrated in objects or  persons Morpheme: the smallest unit in a language that carries a grammatically distinct meaning Phoneme: the smallest unit of sound that does not alter the meaning of words in which it occurs Motivation for move to writing system (rise of civ lecture): record keeping Neolithic Revolution (rise of civ lecture): Rise of domesticated food products, domesticating  plants and animals Open v Closed Language systems: closed­ non human, open­human Religious practitioners­ priests, shamans, healers, etc  Requirements of Art­     Artifacts of human creation ▯ reated through the exercise of exceptional  physical,conceptual or imaginative skill I▯ntended  to affect the senses ▯ hare  stylistic conventions with similar works Revitalization movement­ deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a society to  construct a more satisfying culture Ritualized warfare among the Dani­ in New Guinea, for ghosts,  Sapir­Whorf Hypothesis­ the structure of a language determines or greatly influences the  modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken Science vs Religion (ch 2): You can’t test religion, its faith­based. Different, both ways to obtain info Sex vs gender (ch 7): biological sex­anatomical assets at birth; cultural gender­ characteristics  we assign, cultural meanings given to biological differences, masculine v feminine Sustainability Model:  Syncretism: mingling different philosophies, religions or traditions of belief and practice,  resulting in hybrid forms. (It is distinct from eclecticism) Anthropological perspective (holism) (Ch 1): holistic, look at it from many different  perspectives Scientific Method: hypothesizing, testing, developing theories 3 models of globalization and characteristics: 1) Modernization Theory: A theory that the forces associated with industrialization will eventually transform all societies into modern industrial states ­Culture transforms society ­Traditional vs. Rationality ­First, second and third world ­Types of oral literature ¤ 2) Dependency Theory: The Theory that under development in Third World societies is the result of domination by capitalist, industrial societies ­Marxism ­Satellite and Metropole countries 2) World­Systems Theory: The view that the core societies dominate peripheral and semiperipheral societies to create a global economic system ­Core societies ­Peripheral societies ¤ ­Semiperipheral societies When did early hominids appear? (ch 6): 6­7 million years ago  


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