ANTH 1000 Spring Final Cox
ANTH 1000 Spring Final Cox ANTH 1000 - 002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Waters on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1000 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Christopher David Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Acculturation: process of change, outside culture introduces new culture standards to other cultures, happens quickly Revolution: process of change, happens within culture Stimulus Diffusion: process of change, change from outside factors, adopting from another culture; ex) American revolutionfrench revolution and others Aesthetics: ideas and philosophies about what has beauty in art Altruism: doing something for another without personal regard for own wellbeing or safety; other species have it to not just humans Animism: most basic religious beliefs; belief in the soul, not god Apes and sign language: Washo learned from Alan and Beatrice Garner in 1960s Applied anthro and examples: Binary constructs: 2 opposing elements in conflict with eachother. Good vs evil, man vs nature, etc Carrying capacity: max population an environment will allow Causes of warfare: primary cause is resource stress, review Dani of Papa New Guinea. Also revenge, recreation and sport, Charles Darwin: wrote Origin of Species, evolution by natural selection, HMS beagle and finches Cognates: words that are similar in different language; historical linguist would use these to figure out how closely languages are related Concept of race: socially constructed, folk taxonomy Culture: is learned, inherited, not genetic, not biological, not instinctual Religion: system of symbols and ideas and rules for behavior based on supernatural explanations Supernatural: outside known laws of nature Linguistics fields and characteristics: 4 fields, descriptive, structural, historical, socio Diffusion and Stimulus Diffusion: diffusion is process by which info spreads; flow of info from one culture to another Discovery and Invention: process of culture change. Discovery is finding things that have always existed Food Taboos (materialism vs symbolism): materialist interested in economic considerations and environmental considerations (Marvin Harris). Symbolist humanist experiences, labels, something about the food didn’t look right Economic exchange for marriage dowry, bride price and service. Dowry system is when brides family pays money to husband; bride wealth is when grooms family pays; brides service is when man works to marry a woman Egalitarianism: band level sociopolitical level, hunteringgathering Emerging Disease: any disease that’s new and emerging Enculturation: process by which we learn our culture; we aren’t born knowing our culture Ethnocentrism: judging culture by own cultural standards Explanations for origin of religion: want to control things and impose order; Edward Tyler and common dreams and out of body experiences; maintain order; fear of mortality Feature vs Artifact: objects that are human made, you can’t move a feature but you can move an artifact to study it Four paradigms of art: memetic: mimic real life; representational: idealizes; instrumental: communicate a message; formalist: abstract, concentrates on color Functions of Kinship in nonindustrial societies: primary unit of production, they do everything. Cross and Parallel Cousins: crossparents opposite sex siblings kids. Parallel parents same sex siblings kids. Omaha system is patrilineal and cross cousins are preferred marriage partner Globalization: worldwide impact of industrialization and its socioeconomic, political and cultural consequences on the world Modernization: forces associated with industrialization will eventually transform all societies into modern industrial states Goal of Kula Ring: system of redistribution, goal is to solidify long term relationships Ascribed vs Achieved status: ascribed born with. Class vs Caste System: A class system divides society into groups based on some method, most often income or ownership, and allows certain privileges to the upper classes. Normally, it is possible to move between classes by marriage, education, military exploit, or other talent. A caste system divides according to parentage and ancestry and normally strongly restricts a person from getting outside the caste, limiting where they can live and what jobs they can hold. 3 Criteria of Stratification : Power is the ability to control resources in one’s own interest. Wealth is the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources. Prestige is social honor or respect. Humans place in taxonomic classification: primates, anthropoids, catarrhines, hominoids, hominids, homo sapien sapiens (humans are considered all of the following except..) Types of Kinship systems: Bilateral: a Kinship system in which an ndividual is a member of both parent’s descent line (our system) Unilineal: A kinship system in which an individual is a member of only one parent’s descent line. Patrilineal: A unilineal kinship system in which an individual is a member of the father’s descent line Matrilineal: A unilineal kinship system in which an individual is a member of the mother’s descent line Omaha, Hawaiian, Eskimo systems Schools of anthropological thought, know people associated with each (Unilineal evolutionism – postmodernism): Unilineal Evolution: Edward Tylor Functionalism: RadcliffeBrown, Malinowski Neoevolutionism: Leslie White Cultural Ecology: Julian Steward Cultural Materialism: Marvin Harris Marxist: Karl Marx Symbolic: Mary Douglass Postmodernism: James Clifford and George Marcus Kuru and endocannibalism: endocannibalism causes Kuru, don’t eat people Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery: Magic: attempt to mechanically control supernatural forces Witchcraft: ability to harm someone by thinking bad thoughts towards them Sorcery: Conscious and intentional use of magic Main Features of Human Language and definitions Mana: a generalized, supernatural force or power, which may be concentrated in objects or persons Morpheme: the smallest unit in a language that carries a grammatically distinct meaning Phoneme: the smallest unit of sound that does not alter the meaning of words in which it occurs Motivation for move to writing system (rise of civ lecture): record keeping Neolithic Revolution (rise of civ lecture): Rise of domesticated food products, domesticating plants and animals Open v Closed Language systems: closed non human, openhuman Religious practitioners priests, shamans, healers, etc Requirements of Art Artifacts of human creation ▯ reated through the exercise of exceptional physical,conceptual or imaginative skill I▯ntended to affect the senses ▯ hare stylistic conventions with similar works Revitalization movement deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture Ritualized warfare among the Dani in New Guinea, for ghosts, SapirWhorf Hypothesis the structure of a language determines or greatly influences the modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken Science vs Religion (ch 2): You can’t test religion, its faithbased. Different, both ways to obtain info Sex vs gender (ch 7): biological sexanatomical assets at birth; cultural gender characteristics we assign, cultural meanings given to biological differences, masculine v feminine Sustainability Model: Syncretism: mingling different philosophies, religions or traditions of belief and practice, resulting in hybrid forms. (It is distinct from eclecticism) Anthropological perspective (holism) (Ch 1): holistic, look at it from many different perspectives Scientific Method: hypothesizing, testing, developing theories 3 models of globalization and characteristics: 1) Modernization Theory: A theory that the forces associated with industrialization will eventually transform all societies into modern industrial states Culture transforms society Traditional vs. Rationality First, second and third world Types of oral literature ¤ 2) Dependency Theory: The Theory that under development in Third World societies is the result of domination by capitalist, industrial societies Marxism Satellite and Metropole countries 2) WorldSystems Theory: The view that the core societies dominate peripheral and semiperipheral societies to create a global economic system Core societies Peripheral societies ¤ Semiperipheral societies When did early hominids appear? (ch 6): 67 million years ago
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