Final Exam Study Guide for International Relations
II. International Economics
III. International Organizations and Law
______________________________________________________________________________ I. Security
a. Peace Through Strength: Orthodox realist strategy for peace which requires a state to develop and possess as many weapons as possible in order to deter other states from wanting to engage in conflict.
i. Problems with Peace Through Strength: potential misallocation of
resources, causes tension, temptation to use weapons, arms race.
b. Deterrence: The policy of maintaining a large military force and arsenal to discourage any potential aggressor from taking action; states commit
themselves to punish an aggressor state.
i. What is needed for deterrence to work?: credibility and
communication of threats.
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ii. When countries engage in deterrence, they relinquish the first-mover advantage.
B. Mixed (Realist-Liberal) Alternatives
a. Arms Control: engage in treaties that disarm a country to where a country can still defend itself.
b. Disarmament: the policy of eliminating a state’s offensive weaponry; may occur or all classes of weapons or for specified weapons only; the logic of the policy is that fewer weapons leads to greater security.
i. Qualitative Disarmament: freezing weapon levels or ratios (ex. SALT or START)
ii. Quantitative Disarmament: controlling the types of weapons a country is allowed to have/banning a certain type of weapon all together
C. Collective Defense: A group of countries agreeing to defend each other from attacks that come from outside the group (ex. NATO)
D. Collective Security: An agreement among countries to create peace and security where all countries renounce the use of force in disputes and all agree that everyone will attack any member that violates the agreement. This agreement expects potential threats to come from within the organization. (Ex. League of Nations, United Nations)
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a. Democratic Peace: Theory supported by empirical evidence that democratic states do not fight wars against each other, but do fight wars against authoritarian states.
i. Dyadic level of analysis
a. What is the source of war? : Capitalist countries- the global north exploiting the global south. Don't forget about the age old question of math 31 sjsu
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b. Marxist prescription for ending wars: end capitalism
______________________________________________________________________________ II. International Economics
A. Comparative Advantage: when a country is relatively more efficient at producing one good than another compared to another country.
B. IPE: International Political Economy
a. Classic View: Mercantilism: economic theory that international commerce should increase a state’s wealth, therefore a state should be exporting more than it is importing. We also discuss several other topics like ancient rome study guide
b. Modern View: Trade only when it preserve your relative power position D. Liberalism We also discuss several other topics like mgt 166 midterm
a. Modern View: economic exchange has profit-making potential and you should trade when it makes you better off.
b. Liberalism advocates for: Free Trade
c. Common Forms of Protectionism: Tariffs, quotas, regulatory barriers, subsidies, currency exchange controls.
d. Why might a country engage in protectionism?: to protect domestic
a. Imperialism: how capitalism saves itself via colonialism in order to obtain cheaper raw material, cheaper labor, and new markets.
b. Marxist Views on IPE: all about economic exploitation since prosperity requires that someone remains poor. The global north uses the IPE to exploit the global south.
c. Marxist Views on IGO’s: Intergovernmental Organizations are tools of oppression and the global south needs to become self-sufficient in order to exit the capitalist trading system and create its own trading zone.
d. Who trades with who?: The north trades with the north and the north trades with the south but the south does not trade with the south.
F. Dependency Theorists: individuals whose ideas are derived from radicalism, and explain poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries based on their historical dependence on and domination by rich countries.
G. Import Substitution Industrialization: the global south typically engages in the IPE by specializing in producing low end goods, but they should stop buying high end goods from the north and learn to make them themselves by engaging in protectionism and state-led investment/subsidies.
______________________________________________________________________________ III. International Organizations and International Law
A. Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs): international agencies or bodies established by states and controlled by member states that deal with areas of common interests. B. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs): private association of individuals or groups
that engage in political, economic, or social activities, usually across national borders. C. Liberalism:
a. Rease Reading: IGOs are a “good” phenomena that help countries cooperate by institutionalizing rules of interactions and promoting efficient interactions while decreasing costs of desirable behavior.
a. IGOs are a tool of powerful states to advance own interests, which makes IGOs irrelevant because powerful countries will use them when they’re beneficial and ignore them when they’re not.
a. IGOs are a tool of global exploitation that promotes a global capitalist system, especially the IMF.
b. International Monetary Fund (IMF): the Bretton Woods institution originally charged with helping states deal with balance-of-payments problems; now plays a broader role in assisting debtor developing states by offering loans to those who institute specific policies, or structural adjustment policies.
F. Bureaucratic Politics: staff members of IGOs have their own interests and will pursue those interests in order to expand their influence and gain power.
G. International Law:
a. Realists think: International law doesn’t matter because the laws cannot even be enforced and powerful states will only agree to treaties that they would follow anyways.
b. Liberals think: International law helps cooperation and codifies agreements and obligations/
c. Constructivists think: International law definitely matters because it creates the norms that states believe they are obligated to follow.
d. Constructivism: an alternative international relations theory that hypothesizes how ideas, norms, and institutions shape state identity and interests.