BIOL 120 ECOLOGY UNIT 4 EXAM STUDY GUIDE
BIOL 120 ECOLOGY UNIT 4 EXAM STUDY GUIDE BIOL120
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL120 at Towson University taught by Dr.Partain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Julia Delaluz BIOLOGY 120 Christa Partain Ecology Study Guide May 1 , 2016 E C O L O G Y The study of organisms and how they interact with their environment Biotic: living (plants, animals) Abiotic: nonliving (climate, light, water, disasters) Organization of Ecology Biosphere: global ecosystem Biome: large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups Ecosystems: the community & abiotic factors in an area Community: all the populations in an area Population: all the individuals of a species in an area Low solar irradiance: at poles. Sun shines at low angle o Large surface area is hit by sun, objects have long shadows High solar irradiance: at equator. Sun shines directly o Small surface area hit by sun, objects have small shadows Earth’s Tilt leads to Seasonal Temperature Patterns: o North pole tilted towards sun Northern Hemisphere in summer o North Pole tilted away from sun Northern Hemisphere in winter Thermal Momentum: Sun energy converted to energy, released gradually to Earth Moderating Influence of Water: Ocean Gyres Effects of Elevation on Temperature: Temperature decreases as elevation increases How Vegetation Influences Temperature: Snow/Ice: high reflectance, low solar energy absorption Forest: less solar reflectance than snow, high evaporation Urban: high solar absorption, fossil fuels produce heat & AC vent heat outside Agriculture: more solar absorption, low evaporation Distribution of Rainfall High temps = high evaporation Air cools = evaporation rate decreases, water molecules clump into droplets Cooler, dry air drops to Earth at about 30 degrees north and south= deserts B I O M E S Type of place with specific characteristics, such as climate, temperature, amount of annual rainfall, anima and plant life As temperature, rainfall and climate change on earth, the distribution of biomes changes Aquatic Biomes Freshwater: (low salt) ponds, lakes, streams and rivers, wetlands Estuary: where salt water meets fresh water Marine: (high salt) intertidal regions, coral reefs, oceans Lake Life Zones: more sunlight (surface & shoreline) more photosynthesizers more oxygen more animals (biodiversity) o Less sunlight colder water, less photosynthesis Nutrients in Lakes: o Eutrophication: high nutrient levels from fertilizer runoff lead to “blooms” of algae growth. As the algae die, bacteria feed on them, which depletes oxygen, and can cause fish kills Rivers and Streams Headwater: lake, spring, or melting snowpack. Clear, cold, fast- moving; trout Mouth: water slows and becomes cloudy with sediments, fewer plants; carp Floodplains & meandering nature of rivers and streams reduced the incidence of floods by allowing rain more time to infiltrate the soil Wetlands Standing water with a variety of submerged and emergent plants High nutrient levels at interface of water and land Comparable to tropical rain forests in number of species Slows water- reduces flood, helps absorb access nutrients (pollution) Estuaries Provides habitat for 75% of commercial fish populations, “Nurseries of the sea” Rich in shellfish & salt marshes Vegetation provides a buffer zone that stabilizes a shoreline & prevents erosion Chesapeake Bay “great Shellfish Bay” largest estuary in North America Open Ocean 2/3 of earth’s surface 50% of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere is generated by single- celled photosynthetic plankton phytoplankton also make up the basis of the food chain generates most of Earth’s freshwater because water molecules evaporating form its surface condense & fall as rain and snow Ocean Life Zones Intertidal Zone: underwater during high tide, above water during low tide o Very harsh environment o Plants and animals must be able to anchor to structures and retain water Open Ocean: heavily exploited o Species diversity declined by 50% in past 50 years Abyssal Plain: deep ocean, dark, cold, pressure is intense o Surprisingly rich in life o Source of energy- hydrogen sulfide from volcanic vents- chemotrophs Coral Reefs Found throughout the tropics in warm and well-lit water Habitat is composed of skeletons of the dominant organism- coral animals Coral feeds on photosynthetic algae they harbor inside their bodies and filter dead organic material from the water Symbiotic relationship between algae and coral is threatened by humans in these ways: o 1. Acidification because of increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere, causes coral to disintegrate o 2. Increasing Ocean Temperatures algae produces toxin, coral spits out algaecoral bleaching o 3. Sedimentationerosion on land make sediment go out into water, water is too cloudy for photosynthesis algae dies o 4. Eutrophication increase in nutrients (fertilizers) increase in algae o 5. Overfishing too much algae, no fish to keep it down o 6. Tourism ignorant people disrupting ecosystem Tropical Forest High solar irradiance & high water levels Most of the biomass is the tree canopy, Plants and animals live in canopy Plants and animals decompose quickly. The dense vegetation quickly reabsorbs the nutrients that are produced by decomposers, resulting in poor soil Deforestation due to slash/burn agriculture & cattle grazing Temperate Deciduous Forest Seasons: abundant water during the growing seasons to support large trees, but cold winters limit photo synthetics and freezes water in the soil Taiga (Boreal Forest) Largest biome on earth, Very cold, long, snowy winters, Short moist summers Dominant plants are evergreen conifers, Photosynthesizes very quickly Only land area where flowering plants are not dominant vegetation type Large mammals and great diversity of summer resident birds Grassland Precipitation is too limited too support woody plants/trees, dominated by grass Maintained by: periodic fires, grazing animals o Animals have evolved: Mutualism with fiber digesting bacteria Specialized chamber in their digestive system (rumen) for grass o Soils excellent for agriculture Savannah Tropical grassland, has scattered individual trees Supports huge herds of grass-eating mammals and their predators Very long dry season (winter) and very wet season (summer) Desert Rainfall is less than 20’’ a year, can be cold Plants and animals adapted to retain and conserve water Succulents: covered in thick wax, protected Annuals: complete entire life cycle in 2-3 weeks during wet season Kidneys of some mammals conserve water and produce urine 4x more concentrated than ours Attractive to humans and highly developed, drawing down water reserves Tundra Permafrost: ice on top of soil o High temps are not sustained long enough to melt all the soils ice o Impedes water drainage and soils above are often boggy and saturated Plants are adapted to wind and freezing temps; grow in mutualistic multispecies “cushions” Animals survive by storing fat, producing extra fur/feathers, hibernate, migrate Threatened by our reliance on fossil fuels Population Ecology Population: a group of individuals of the same species that share the same habitat and interact with each other to the point of being able to interbreed o Population size- number of individuals o Density- number of individuals per area Growth Rate: o Exponential Growth: population starts out slowly and speeds up as the population increases, Resources are not limiting population growth o Logistic Growth: begins as exponential growth when the population is small, but will decreased wit time as the population encounters resource limitations Carrying Capacity Number of individuals of a certain species an area can support Population growth is limited by…Resources, climate, competition Fluctuate/oscillate around carrying capacity, temperature, weather, environmental resistance K-Selected Species: o Population size by carrying capacity (K) o Density dependent, Relatively stable o Organisms: larger, long lived, produce fewer offspring, provide greater care from offspring r-Selected Species: o Limited by reproductive rate, Density independent, relatively unstable o Organisms: smaller, short-lived, produce many offspring, provide no care for offspring K Selected Species are more vulnerable than r Selected Species Demographic Transition transition from high birth/death rates to low birth/death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system big changes in fertility- children number going down in many countries Community Ecology Community: a group of populations of plants and animals in a given place, the habitat Community Ecology: concerns diversity of life on earth. Includes: o Diversity: species richness & relative abundance o Interaction with in the community for resources o Trophic Structure: food chain/web Producer (autotroph) consumer (heterotroph) primary (herbivores), secondary (carnivores), omnivores and detrivores Community Structure o Niche: a specie’s functional role within it’s habitat. This is the sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use the resources necessary for its survival and reproduction o Keystone Species: a species with a dominant role in shaping the community structure o Species diversity (richness) and Geographic diversity (evenness) Species Diversity & Community Stability o A community’s ability to resist adverse environmental conditions increases with species richness o Long-term stability of communities may thus depend on the biodiversity of their many interrelating species, rivet hypothesis Biodiversity and its Threats o Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Climate change, Hunting Species Interactions Mutualism: relationship where both members benefit (pollination) Parasitism: relationship where one member benefit (zombie ants) Competition: for mates/territory Resource partitioning: uses diff. parts of a resource to avoid/reduce competition Coevolution of Predator & Prey: o Camouflage: Body shapes, colors, or patterns that enable an organism to blend in with it’s environment, remain concealed from danger o Warning Coloration: Defense strategy of prey species that warns predators that they produce distasteful/toxic substances that kill/harm predators o Chemical Warfare: Defense strategy of prey species where they produce distasteful or toxic substances that kill/harm predators o Mimicry: Evolution of similar appearance in two or more species, which often gives one or all protection Trophic Structure: o Food chain: one member from each level- plant eaten by herbivore eaten by carnivore o Food web: more realistic, many members from each level o Biomass Pyramid- producers biggest part, then herbivores, then carnivores o Energy Pyramid: law of tens (10% of energy available) Communities Over Time: o Succession: process through which a regular progression of communities will regrow at a particular site Pioneer Community: o species that are first to colonize a habitat after a disturbance (fire, plowing, logging) Transition (intermediate) Community: o community of organisms that establish themselves at a particular site based upon conditions produced by activities of pioneers Climax Community: o most stable community in a habitat, one that tends to persist in the absence of a disturbance Ecosystem Ecology Concerned with the passage of energy and nutrient through communities and what effects energy and nutrients have on those communities Nutrient Cycling: nutrients cycle through an ecosystem, and are renewed if the ecosystem is sustainable. o Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, water cycle Energy Flow is one way from the sun & out as heat Carbon Cycle: o Remaining Reservoirs: Sediment/rocks, ocean, soil, land biomass o Enters Atmosphere by: o Aerobic respiration, burning fossil fuels, volcano eruption, deforestation o Gets back to Reservoir: decomposing organic matter, photosynthesis o Human Impact: Global Warming Nitrogen Cycle: o Remaining Reservoirs: Atmospheric nitrous oxide Seafloor sediment, Ocean water, Soil, Land, marine biomass o Enters Atmosphere by: bacteria, volcanic eruption, lightning o Gets back into Reservoir: denitrification o Human Impact: Global Warming Phosphorous Cycle o Reservoir: Earth’s crust, No gaseous phase (solid) resists leaching o Gets out of Reservoir: mining for fertilizer, weathering, uplifting over geologic time o Gets back into Reservoir: poop, animals die, sedimentation o Human Impact: eutrophication The Greenhouse Effect: o Greenhouse Gases: carbon dioxide, water, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons The greenhouses gases impede the escape of infrared wavelengths (heat) from the Earth into space These molecules absorb these wavelengths and radiate much of that energy back toward the Earth Effects of Climate Change o The lower atmosphere’s temperature may spike higher by 2.5 to 10.4 F degrees in this century Rising sea level, Increased rainfall & flooding, water wars Heat waves & wildfires, Crop failures, contagious diseases Laws of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, Can be changed from one kind to another Entropy: Every time energy is changed from one kind to another, some of the energy is lost to space as heat energy and cannot be recovered Energy flow: Energy cannot be recovered so a constant inflow of energy from the sun is necessary to sustain the planet Photosynthesis and Respiration: o Aerobic Respiration: Process by which food energy is turned into ATP energy that the cell can use, produces ATP, CO2, water Contemporary Issues Bioaccumulation: Gradual buildup over time of a chemical in a living organism o Occurs either because chemical is taken up faster than it can be used, OR chemical cannot be broken down for use by organism (metabolized) o Methylmercury: waste incinerator or coal combustion smokestacks without scrubbers release methylmercury into atmosphere o DDT: used after WW2 for insect control- eliminated malaria in US Ramifications: eggshell thinning of birds of prey Acid Rain: cause- sulfur dioxide o Gases released into atmosphere, carried by wind, dissolve in rainwater o Kills plant life, pollutes rivers and streams, erodes, PH rises in water Smog: o VOCS- motor vehicles, Volatile Organic Compounds o Nitrogen oxide- motor vehicles, power plants, industrial stuff Both produce ground level ozone, fine particulates (smog) Ozone: CFCs: Chlorofluorocarbons- thinning ozone layer Conservation Biology: Studying the planet in order to protect biodiversity Endangered Species: o Habitat destruction: deforestation, desertification o Invasive species: 1) non-native or alien to the ecosystem 2) causes economic or environmental harm to human health o Pollution, Harvesting, Disease o Global warming (climate change) o Over harvesting wildlife Global Water Crisis amount of water on earth never changes, water becomes unavailable o pollution o deforestation and desertification shifts water availability o increased demand from increased population o intensive irrigation in desert regions- salinization of soil Ocean Pollution Oil, plastic, medical waste & sewage sludge, red tide
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