Final Exam Review Chem 107
Final Exam Review Chem 107 Chem 107
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Johnson on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 107 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Jacqueline Butler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Health Science in Chemistry at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Final Exam Review- based on the in class review 1. Unit 1 a. Significant Figures i. Guidelines 1. 19 are always significant 2. Leading zeros are not significant 3. If a zero is surrounded by a 19, it is significant 4. Trailing zeros are only significant if followed by a decimal point ii. Addition/Subtraction rule LINE EM’ UP!! iii. Multiplication/Division Smallest amount b. Density i. Density is the ratio of an objects mass to its volume ii. D=m/v iii. Units g/ml, g/cm , or g/L c. Periods vs. Groups i. A period is one horizontal line on a periodic table ii. A group is on column on the periodic table 1. Elements within a group have similar properties iii. Know all group names d. Charges i. Transition metals have multiple charge states ii. Mercury, Tin, and Lead may also have different charges iii. Silver is always +1 and Zinc is always +2 e. Electronegativity i. The strength of the electrons pull ii. If difference between two atoms is between 2.0 and 4.0, it is ionic iii. If difference between two atoms is between 0.4 and 1.9, it is polar covalent iv. If difference between two atoms is between 0.0 and 0.4, it is nonpolar covalent f. Atomic Notation i. Atomic number number of protons or electrons in an elements ii. Mass number average atomic mass (protons+ neutrons) g. Atomic Theory 1. S- One orbital level that fits 2 electrons 2. P Three orbital levels that fit 2 electrons each for a total of 6 electrons 3. D Five orbital levels that fit 2 electrons each for a total of 10 electrons 2. Unit 2 a. Naming i. Ionic compound naming rules 1. Make sure there is a metal and a nonmetal 2. The cation will be named first (+) 3. If the element is a transition metal, then remember to add its charge 4. Name the anion second, end in –ide in binary ii. Molecular compound naming 1. Make sure all elements are nonmetals 2. Atom listed first will only have a prefix if there is more than one 3. Second element will always have a prefix 4. Will end in –ide only if it is binary iii. Polyatomic ion compounds 1. Write cation and then the anion iv. Naming acids 1. Begin with an H 2. If it is binary, than it is a hydro___-ic acid 3. If no binary, it is a _____-ic acid 4. If compound ends in –ate, the acid will end in –ic 5. If the compound ends in –ite, the acid will end in –ous v. Oxyacid Naming 1. If the poly atomic ends in –ate, change ending to –ic 2. If the polyatomic ends in –ite, change ending to –ous b. Lewis Structure i. Based on valence electrons ii. Octet rule 1. All atoms want 8 electrons around it to be stable. 2. Hydrogen, beryllium and boron are exceptions 3. Third period elements can exceed the octet rule and use d orbitals iii. Steps 1. Determine number of valence electrons that each atom has 2. Arrange into a molecule a. Carbon will always be in the center 3. Attach each atom with a bond a. Use multiple bonds if necessary 4. Distribute remaining electrons among outer atoms to assure octet rule iv. Resonance 1. There can be more than one possible Lewis Structure for certain atoms 2. They can be shown through dotted lines on the original v. VSPER Model 1. Based on how electrons have a tendency to repel 2. Molecular geometry a. Draw appropriate Lewis structure b. Determine electron clouds around the central atom c. Arrange the pairs in a specific shape around the atom based on a set group of shapes. i. Linear, Trigonal Planar (Bent), Tetrahedral (Trigonal Pyramidal, Bent) 3. Electron geometry a. Based on specific number of electron clouds i. 2- linear ii. 3- trigonal planar iii. 4- tetrahedral c. Molar Mass i. g/mol ii. Use the mass from the periodic table 1. Equal to one mole of any substance NO BALANCING EQUATIONS ON THE FINAL 3. Unit 3 a. Gas laws i. Matter is in constant motion unless at absolute zero ii. Pressure = force/ area iii. Conditions of STP 1. 0°C 2. 1 ATM 3. 1 mole = 22.4 liters iv. Laws P1V 1 P 2V 2 1. Combined- = T 1 T2 2. Partial Pressure- Total=P1 +P2…. V 1 V 2 3. Avogadro’s- N 1= N 2 4. Ideal- PV= nRT 5. Density = molar mass/ 22.4L b. Intermolecular Forces i. Types 1. Van Der Waals a. London Dispersion- in all molecules, only force in nonpolar b. Dipole-Dipole- only in polar molecules, opposite charges attract 2. Hydrogen bonding a. Strongest attraction b. Must have a hydrogen bonded to F, O, or N ii. Vapor pressure 1. The weaker the forces, the higher the vapor pressure because less energy is needed to break the bonds iii. Boiling point 1. The more bonds, the more energy is need to disrupt them, so boiling point will be high iv. Surface tension 1. Stronger forces means more tension along the substance 4. Unit 4 a. Review all notes on these chapters as she did not specify what will be needed
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