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by: Upasana Raja

Chap8&9 2301

Upasana Raja

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Hey guys! I've prepared the study material for exam 3 Let me know if you have any questions
Ronald D. Taylor
Study Guide
developmental, Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2301 at Temple University taught by Ronald D. Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 1  Parenting styles o The characteristic strategies that parents use to manage children’s behavior  Baumrind o Warmth or nurturance o Clarity and consistency of rules o Level of expectation (maturity demands) o Communication between parents and children  Warmth and nurturance o Children with nurturing and warm parents are more securely attached in the first 2 years of life o High self-esteem o More empathetic o More altruistic (selflessness) o More responsive to others’ in pain or destress o Have higher IQ o More compliant in preschool and elementary school o Do better in school o Less likely to show delinquent behaviors in adolescence or criminal behavior in adulthood  Children and teens grown up in poor, tough neighborhoods how that parental warmth is associated with social and academic competence  Maturity demands and control o Parents have high expectation o High demands o Fare better o Children have high self-esteem o Show more generosity o Altruism towards others  Open and regular communication between parents and children had been linked to positive outcomes  Listening to children is as important as talking to them  Children of such parents who say to their children whatever you say is worth listening are found to be more emotionally and socially mature  Authoritarian type S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 2 o Parents who respond to a child’s refusal to go to bed by asserting physical, social and emotional control over the child is exhibiting this style o Children grown in these family  Do well in school  Have lower self-esteem  Are typically less skilled then their peers  Some kids appear to be subdued  Some show high aggression  Others indications of being out of control  These behaviors can be found in preschool-age children and high-school children  Authoritative type o Parents respond to undesirable behavior such as a child’s refusal to go to bed by firmly sticking to their demands without resorting to asserting their power over the child o Most consistently positive outcome is associated with this parenting style o Parents are high in both control and acceptance o They set clear rules but also respond to their child’s needs (individually) o Children grown in these family  Show higher self-esteem  More independent  More likely to comply with parents request  May show altruism behavior  Self-confident  Achievement-oriented in school  Get better grades  Permissive type o Parents responds to child’s refusal to go to bed by allowing the child to go to bed whenever the child wants o Children show some negative behaviors o Children do slightly wore in school during adolescence S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 3 o They are likely to be aggressive and immature in their behaviors with peers and in school o They are less likely to take responsibilities o They are less independent  Uninvolved type o Parents do not bother to set bedtimes for children nor do they tell their children when to go to bed o They appear to be totally indifferent to children’s behavior and to responsibilities to parenting o Most consistently negative outcome are associated o Mother may be depressed or may be overwhelmed with some problem o Children show disturbances in their social relationships o In adolescence, youngsters are more impulsive and antisocial o Less competent with their peers o Much less achievement oriented in school  Inductive discipline o Discipline strategy in which parents explain to children why a punished behavior is wrong o This helps most preschoolers gain control of their behavior and learn to look at situations from perspective other than their own o Poor self-control  Power assertive discipline o Some parents show social and physical power o They physically punish their children  Love withdrawal discipline o If kids make mistakes parents show less love and affection than normal to make them understand their mistakes  Ethnicity and socioeconomic status and parenting styles o Authoritative is common in White families o Authoritative is least common in Asian Americans o Teenagers from authoritative families showed  More self-reliance  Less delinquent o There is strong links between authoritative parenting style o Positive outcomes only for Whites and Hispanic S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 4 o Asian Americans and African Americans have stronger connection between authoritative parenting style and variables such as school performance and social competence o Asian Americans parents display a more authoritative parenting style o Asian Americans children score higher than White counterparts on almost all measures of cognitive competence o Authoritative parenting style is the best o Authoritative parenting style may help children achieve two important goals  Help their children succeed economically  Enable them to maintain a sense of ethnic identity  Divorce and children’s behavior o In the first few years of divorce, children tend to show decline in their school performances o They show more aggression, defiant, negative or depressed behavior o Children of divorced parents are more likely than their peers to engage in criminal behaviors o Children living in step-parents families also have high rates of delinquent behaviors  More behavioral problems in school  Lower grades compared to intact families o Boys face more negative effects than girls o Age difference in the severity of the reaction  Family structure o In 1970, 95% of children lived in two-parents families o In 2007, 70% of children lived in two-parents families o Single-parent families are increasing in the USA o Children grown up in single-families are about twice as likely to drop out of high school o Twice as likely to have child before age 20 o Less likely to have a steady job in their late teens or early 20s S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 5  Theories of gender role development: Freud, Kohlberg, gender schema theory  Gender identity o The ability to correctly label oneself and others as male or female  Gender stability o The understanding that gender is a stable, lifelong characteristic  Gender consistency, constancy o The understanding that gender is a component of the self that is not altered by external appearance  Cross-gender behavior o Behavior that is atypical foe one’s own sex but typical for the opposite sex o This behavior is far more common among girls than boys o Example: tomboyish  Significant areas of physical development in middle childhood o Physical development in middle childhood is characterized by considerable variations in growth patterns o These variations may be due to gender, ethnic origin, genetics, hormones, nutrition, environment, or disease o While children of this age group follow the same basic developmental patterns, they do not necessarily mature at the same rate o Most girls experience a preadolescent growth spurt around age 9 or 10, while most boys experience the same growth spurt around age 11 or 12 o Children who do not receive adequate nutrition or medical attention may be at risk for stunted or delayed growth development.  Growth spurts in brain growth in middle childhood o Between ages 6-12, children grow 2-3 inches and add 6 pounds S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 6 o Large muscle coordination continue to improve o Children become increasingly adept at skills such as bike riding o Strength and speed also increases o Hand-eye coordination improves o School-aged children perform more skillfully in activities requiring coordination of vision with body movements such as basketball or playing an instrument o Fine motor coordination is an area of focus (writing, playing most musical instruments, drawing, cutting) o By 12, girls have attained 94% of their adult height o While boys have reached out only 84% of their adult height  Attention span and brain growth in middle childhood and Association areas of the brain o Two major growth spurts happen in the brain during middle childhood  In most healthy children, the first takes place b/w ages 6- 8 and the second b/w 10-12  Both spurts involve development of new synapse  Increase in the thickness of the cerebral cortex o Primary site of brain growth during the first spurt are the sensory and motor areas  Which leads to the striking improvement in fine motor skills  Eye-hand coordination occurs b/w 6-8 years o During the second spurt of the brain growth  Frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex become the focus of development processes  Which is involved in logic and planning  Health risks in middle childhood o Asthma  Chronic lung disease, characterized by sudden, potentially fatal attacks of breathing difficulties o Traumatic brain injury (TBI) S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 7  Injury to the head that results in diminished brain function such as loss of consciousness, confusion or drowsiness o Excessive weight gain  Pattern in which children gain more weight in a year than is appropriate for their age and height, age and sex o BMI-for-age  Comparison of an individual child’s BMI against established norms for his or her age group and sex o More than half of children with obesity have one or more risk factors such as  Elevated levels of cholesterol  Elevated levels of blood pressure  Both lead to heart diseases later in life  Accidents o Bicycle accidents  BMI-for-age and notable percentiles o Obese  Child whose BMI-for-age is at or above the 95 percentile o Severe obese  Child whose BMI-for-age is at or above the 99 percentile o Overweight  Child whose BMI-for-age is b/w the 85 and 95 percentile  Vocabulary development in middle childhood o By age 5 or 6, virtually all children have mastered the basic st grammar and pronunciation of their 1 language o They still have a fair distance to go before reaching adult levels of fluency o By the age of 9 years, most children are fully capable of engaging in fluent conversation with speakers of any age o Their speech rates approach those of adults  Derived words rd th o Largest gain b/w 3 and 5 grades occurs in knowledge of the type of words S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 8 o Words that have a basic root to which some prefix or suffix is added  Happily or unwanted  Concrete operations o Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development during which children construct schemes that enable them to think logically about objects and events in the real world  Reversibility o The understanding that both physical actions and mental operations can be reserved  Decentration o Thinking that takes multiple variables into account  Metacognition o Knowing about knowing or thinking about thinking o This is part of large group of skills called executive processes  Information processing skills that involve devising and carrying out strategies for remembering and solving problems  Inductive logic o Type of reasoning in which general principles are inferred from specific experiences  Deductive logic o Type of reasoning based on hypothetical premises that requires predicting a specific outcome from a general principle  Focus of schooling in middle childhood o Formal education is one of the most important influences on the cognitive development of  Social-cognition theory o The theoretical perspective that asserts that social and personality development in early childhood is related to improvements in the cognitive domain  Person perception S o c i a l , P e r s o n a l i t y , P h y s i c a l a n d C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t i n M i d d l e C h i l d h o o d | 9 o The ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender and race o Children who are securely attached to parents experience fewer behavioral problems o Those who are insecurely attached display more anger and aggression towards both peers and adults  Social skill o A set of behaviors that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or friend by peers  Aggression o Behavior that is intended to injure another person or damage an object o When 2 or 2 years old children are upset or frustrated, they throw things or hit each other  Instrumental aggression o Aggression used to gain or damage an object  Hostile aggression o Aggression used to hurt another person or gain an advantage


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