SOC FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
SOC FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE soc 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Christopher Huggins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Soc 101- Final Exam Guide Politics Types of authority - Charismatic o Power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers - Traditional o Legitimate power is conferred by custom and accepted practice - Coercive o Power that is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, and/or use of punishment or threat - rational-legal o authority is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy, and bureaucracy Democracy - political system in which the power comes from the people The state - A state is characterized by a political apparatus, including civil service officials, ruling over a territory o Sovereignty o Citizenship o Nationalism o Monopoly of violence Who rules? - Pluralist o Many competing groups within the community have access to government officials, so that no single group is dominant. - power elite o power rests in the hands of a few, both inside and outside government - political economy models o no real difference between political and economic interests Economy - Work & occupation o Primary/secondary labor market Primary is where we get things like good pay, benefits, and personal fulfillment Secondary is not where you want to be. Education and skills separates the two - Division of labor o Work divided into specialized tasks - Taylorism o Timed and organized operations - Fordism o Mass production - Alienation o Feelings of indifference or hostility to work and capitalist industrial production - Capitalism o Economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits - Socialism o Means of production and distribution in a society are collectively rather than privately owned - communism o economic system in which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce - Career vs. calling vs. occupation o Occupation A job or profession o Career An occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress o Calling A strong urge toward a particular way or life or career; a vocation Family Kinship - State of being related to others Types of families: - Nuclear o Married couple and unmarried children living together - Blended o A family where one parent has children, from a previous relationship, that are not genetically related to the other parent. Either one or both parents may have children from a previous relationship - Extended o A family in which relatives- grandparents, aunts, or uncles- live in the same home as parents and their children - Functions of the family o Reproduction o Protection and care o Regulation of sexual behavior o Affection and companionship o Socialization o Providing social status - Monogamy o One man and one woman are married only to each other - Polygamy o Allows an individual to have several husbands or wives - Polygyny o Husband may have several wives at the same time o The wives are often sisters - Polyandry o Woman has several husbands at the same time. Residence - Matrilocal o Of or denoting a custom in marriage whereby the husband lives with the wife’s community - Patrilocal o Of or relating to a pattern of marriage in which the couple settles in the husband’s home or community - Bilocal o When married couples live with or near either the husband’s parents or the wives parents Descent - Patrilineal o Favors the father’s relatives in terms of property, inheritance, and emotional ties - Matrilineal o Favors the mother’s relatives - Bilateral o Both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important Power - Patriarchy o When society expects men to dominate in family decision making - Matriarchy o Women dominate in family decision making Religion Sociology & Religion - Universal but varies - Religion: symbol, feelings of reverence, rituals Role of religion - Allows us to “do something” about the calamities we face Theories of religion - Marx o Thought that religion impeded social change by encouraging oppressed people to focus on otherworldly concerns rather than on their immediate poverty or exploitation - Durkheim o Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things o Among its manifest function, religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine o Provides an explanation for events that seem hard to understand, such as what lies beyond the grave o Creates togetherness Weber and Protestantism and Capitalism - In European nations with protestant and catholic citizens, an overwhelming number of business leaders, owners of capital, and skilled workers were Protestant - Weber pointed out that followers of John Calvin emphasized a disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life that he termed the Protestant ethic Education Formal education - Process of learning in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner Mass education - Greatly instrumental for promotion of equality in social life as it generates a kind of consciousness in the masses spelling out their duties, obligations, responsibilities both in relation to work and society. - Role of government is very significant for the success of mass education programs as it has both the resources and ability to take up the work on a huge scale Mandatory education - Laws that require all children to attend school until a specified age School funding - In the US, unequal school spending results from reliance on local property as well as state and federal funds Tracking - Refers to placing students in groups based on their ability levels - Begins in primary school - Correlates directly with the child’s background and ethnic group, language skills, and other socioeconomic variables. Manifest and latent functions of schooling - Latent: o Keeps children off the streets o Provide young people with a place to congregate o Foster a “youth culture” o Mate selection market o Weakens parental control over youths o Moves youth toward independence o Subtle socialization - Manifest: o Skill acquisition o Socialization o Cultural lifeline that links the generations o Schooling helps integrate culturally diverse people by teaching a common language Self-fulfilling prophecies - Robert K. Merton created this term in 1948 to describe a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior, which makes the originally false conception come true. In other words, the prediction we make at the start of something affects our behavior in such a way that we make the prediction happen. Hidden curriculum - Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools Theories of education (func, conf, SI) - Conflict o View education as an instrument of elite domination o Point to the sharp inequalities that exist in the educational opportunities available to different racial and ethnic groups o Educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful - Functionalist o Schools teach students how to read, speak foreign languages, and repair automobiles. o Schools perform latent functions as well: Transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, maintaining social control, and serving as an agent of change. o Interactionist If we treat people in a certain way, they may fulfill our expectations Social change and social movements Industrialization - Period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one Modernity - Social factors resulting from industrialization o Decline of traditional communities o Increase of choice o Increase of social diversity o Orientation toward the future Post-modernity - Arguments of postmodernists o Modernity has failed o Progress a myth o Science untrustworthy o Culture become divisive Consumer society - Material culture most important - Material goods create self - Social class becomes the central social division - All industries, services, and social institutions are organized around the consumer model Causes of social change - Invention - Discovery - Diffusion - Tension and conflict - Ideas - demographics Thinkers (Tonnies, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Ritzer) on social change - Tonnies o Gemeinschaft, community vs Gesellschaft, society - Marx o Modern society = capitalism o Social change = mode of production - Weber o Traditional vs rational o Social change has led to disenchantment McDonaldization - Society becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant Successful social movement theories: - relative deprivation o social movements are especially likely to arise when rising expectations are frustrated - resource mobilization o The success of social movements depends on which resources are available and how effectively they are used - mass society o social movements Stages of social movements - stage 1 (emergence) o creation - stage 2 (coalescence) o growth - stage 3 (bureaucratization) o achieve successes or failures - stage 4 (decline) o dissolve and cease to exist Globalization - Economic structural changes global societal changes - Causes? o Better information flow o Politicastchanges nd 1 world (capitalist democracy) vs 2 world (Soviet Union) vs. 3 world (countries who haven’t made their choice yet) Exam will be 63 multiple choice questions covering the material since the last exam (Chapters 9, 8, and 11) and the supplementary readings from Blackboard. Also, there will be several questions that are cumulative, covering material from earlier in the semester.
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