Psyc 2010, Final Study Guide Ch. 11 & 12
Psyc 2010, Final Study Guide Ch. 11 & 12 Psyc 2010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Golson on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
04/28/2016 ▯ Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Structure of Personality - divided personality structure into 3 components: the id, the ego, and the superego - the id: the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle o pleasure principle- demands immediate gratification of its urges o the id engages in primary-process thinking which is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. o The id houses the raw biological urges- to eat, sleep, defecate, copulate (discharge feces, have sex) - The ego: the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle o Forceful desires for immediate satisfaction and the external of social world o The ego is guided by the reality principle which seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found o Engages in secondary-process thinking, which is relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving. o Ego strives to avoid negative consequences - The superego: the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong o The superego emerges out of the ego around ages 3 to 5 o Can become irrationally demanding in its striving for moral perfection LEVELS OF AWARENESS - Freud recognized how unconscious forces can influence behavior—he noticed that “slips of the tongue” often revealed a persons true feelings - The conscious: consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time o Example: at this moment your conscious may include the train of thought in this text and a dim awareness in the back of your mind that your eyes are getting tired and you’re hungry - The preconscious: contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved o Such as- your middle name, what you had for supper last night, or an argument you had with your friend yesterday - The unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior o Such as- a forgotten trauma from childhood, hidden feelings of hostility toward a parent, and repressed sexual desires CONFLICT AND THE TYRANNY OF SEX & AGGRESSION - Freud assumed that behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal conflicts - He asserted that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are especially likely to have far-reaching consequences - He emphasized on sex and aggression because he thought they are subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives - Also, he noted that the aggressive and sexual drives are prevented more regularly than other basic biological urges, such as if you are thirsty you get a drink but if you see an attractive person you don’t normally walk over and propose hooking up ANXIETY AND DEFENSE MECHANISMS - the effort to district off anxiety often involves the use of defense mechanisms - Repression: keeping distressed thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious - Projection: attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another - Displacement: diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target - Reaction formation: behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of ones true feelings - Regression: a reversion to immature patterns of behavior - Rationalization: creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior - Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group - Sublimation: channeling unconscious, unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable or admirable activities PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT - Freud believes that sexual urges shift in focus as children progress from one stage of development to another - Fixation: involves a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected - Oral stage: encompasses the first year of life. (0-1) o Source of stimulation is the mouth (biting, sucking, chewing) o Freud’s view- the way the child’s feeding experience is handled is crucial to subsequent development o He says fixation at the oral stage could form the basis for obsessive eating or smoking - Anal stage: encompasses the second year of life. (2-3) o Children get erotic pleasure from their bowel movements through either the expulsion or retention of feces. - Phallic stage: ages 4-5 o The genitals become the focus for the childs erotic energy, largely through self-stimulation. o Oedipal complex emerges- little boys develop an erotically tinged preference for their mother, and feel hostility toward their father o Little girls develop a special attachment to their father o Erotic focus: genitals (masturbating) and identifying with adult role models - Latency stage: ages 6-12 o This stage centers on expanding social contacts beyond family. o Sexuality becomes latent (hidden). - Genital stage: starts from puberty and so on. o Sexual urges reappear and focus on the genitals again o Sexual energy is channeled toward peers of the other sex, rather than toward oneself like the phallic stage ▯ Humanistic Perspectives - humanistic theory emerged as a backlash against the behavioral and psychodynamic theories - Freudian theory was criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive, animalistic drives. - situational influence on behavior are important to consider. People can fake desirable responses on self report measures of personality, averaging behavior across situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality Person Perception- the process of forming impressions of others - Effects of physical appearance: o Recent studies have found that good-looking people command more attention than less-attractive individuals o Research found that people have a strong tendency to view good-looking people as more competent than less-attractive people, which means good-looking people tend to secure better jobs and earn higher salaries - Stereotypes o Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group o Stereotyping is a normal cognitive process that is often automatic and that saves on the time and effort required to get a handle on people individually. - Subjectivity in Person Perception o Illusory correlation- occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen o Memory processes can contribute to confirmatory biases in person perception by people recalling facts that fit with their schemas and stereotypes- o Ex: subjects watched a video of a woman described as either a waitress or librarian, who engaged in listening to classical music, drinking beer, and watching tv. When they were asked to recall what the woman did, they remembered activities consistent with their stereotypes such as participants who thought the woman was a waitress tended to recall her drinking beer. - Evolutionary Perspective o Evolutionary theorists assert that humans are programmed by evolution to immediately classify people as members of an ingroup or outgroup. o Ingroup- a group that one belongs to and identifies with. o Outgroup- a group that one does not belong to or identify with Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior - Attributions- inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior - Internal attributions- ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings o Parents who find out their teenage son just banged up the car may blame it on his carelessness - External attributions- ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints o The parents blame it on slippery road conditions - Attributions for Success and Failure o Bernard Weiner concluded that people often focus on the stability of the causes and underlying behavior. o Weiner’s model assumes that people’s explanations for success and failure emphasize internal verses external causes and stable verses unstable causes o Unstable cause- temporary // internal+unstable=mood,effort o Stable cause- permanent // external+unstable=luck,opportunity o Imagine you are wondering why you didn’t get a job you wanted. You might attribute your setback to internal factors that are stable (lack of ability) or unstable (inadequate effort to put together an eye-catching resume). Or external factors that are stable (too much outstanding competition) or unstable (bad luck). - Bias in Attribution o Actor-observer bias- when an actor and an observer draw inferences about the causes of the actor’s behavior, they often make different attributions. o Fundamental attribution error- refers to observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior o Actor-observer difference- actors favor external attributions for their behavior, while observers are more likely to explain the same behavior with internal attributions o Self-serving bias- the tendency to attribute one’s success to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors - Culture and Attributions o Individualism- involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships o Collectivism- involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to Interpersonal Attraction: Liking and Loving - refers to positive feelings toward another person - Key Factors in Attraction: many factors influence who is attracted to whom. o Physical attractiveness- research has shown that attractive people of both sexes enjoy greater mating success than their less-attractive peers. o Matching hypothesis- proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners o Similarity- do “birds of a feather flock together” or do “opposites attract”? married and dating couples tend to be similar in age, race, religion, social class, education, intelligence, attractiveness, and attitudes. The similarity principle operates in both friendships and romantic relationships regardless of sexual orientation. o Reciprocity- involves liking those who show that they like you. o Self-enhancement effect- you help them feel good about themselves - Perspectives on Love: o Passionate love- a complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion o Companionate love- warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own o Love as attachment- Hazan and Shaver say that romantic love is an attachment process, and people’s intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments in infancy. o Secure adults- found it relatively easy to get close to others, depend on them, and describe their love relations as trusting. “I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.” o Anxious-ambivalent adults- reported a preoccupation with love accompanied by expectations of rejection, and they described their love relations as unstable and marked by jealousy. “I often worry my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me.” o Avoidant Attachment adults- found it difficult to get close to others and described their love relations as lacking intimacy and trust. “I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close.” o Culture and Close Relationships- similarities in culture and romance are seen when people look for prospective mates such as mutual attraction, kindness, and intelligence. Cultures vary on their emphasis on love, especially passionate love. o Although romantic love is routinely seen in collectivist societies, subjects from societies high in individualism tend to report that romantic love is more important for marriage than subjects from collectivist cultures do o The internet and close relationships- critics are concerned that internet relationships tend to be superficial. Research suggests that virtual relationships are just as intimate as face-to-face ones and are sometimes even closer. o Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction- physical appearance is an influential determinant of attraction because certain aspects of good looks can be indicators of sound health, good genes, and high fertility. o Facial symmetry- seems to be a key element of attractiveness in highly diverse cultures. It is thought to be valued because a variety of environmental insults and developmental abnormalities are associated with physical asymmetries, which may serve as markers of poor genes or health o Mating preferences- evidence indicates that men are more interested than women in seeking youthfulness and physical attractiveness in their mates because these traits should be associated with greater reproductive potential Attitudes: Making Social Judgments - Attitudes- positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought - Components and dimensions of attitudes- - ▯
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