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OSU / CEOS / CEO 103 / What bond is weak and easy to make?

What bond is weak and easy to make?

What bond is weak and easy to make?


School: Oregon State University
Department: CEOS
Course: Oceanography
Professor: Frederick colwell
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 25
Name: UP to Week 5 Notes
Description: These notes cover everything after the midterm to week 5.
Uploaded: 05/03/2016
31 Pages 41 Views 3 Unlocks

Ch 5-5.4

What bond is weak and easy to make?





Water Properties Shifting Crust Pato Festonics

H2O cover 67% of the world 96.5% is in the ocean

Atoms: fudamental building blocks

Neutrons, protons(+) electrons 6-) Isotope: atoms with the same #'s of

What bond transfers electrons?

different # of neutrons

protons and electrons,

#20: water


Dipolc If you want to learn more check out How long do moods last?

m ( HTH

Bonds TT! t los covalent bonds: shared electrons ionic bonds transfered electrons Hydrogen bonds : weak, easy to make

What bond shares electrons?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of apraxia?

3 states


on our planet

Temperature: measure of how fast molecules are moving

VS. Heat: measure of how much energy has to be put in

Sensible Heat: energy needed to raise

VS. Latent Heat: energy needed to change State

Changes of State


(latent) liquid Capacity)


Time change in state is always at constant temperature Major source of energy to power the Earth's weather Don't forget about the age old question of What is unavoidable art?

systems Water has the highest surface tension of all liquids

Density of Pure Water

Typically Density ↑ , as temp & BUT.

• Solid H2O is less dense than liquid H2O

Bottom temp of deep.cold lakes. 4°C Ice floats on water

Hydration cations: negatively charged anions : positively charged v beaks a part molecules : Hao bonds to it Don't forget about the age old question of What important proposition was introduced by james hutton?


Seawater is a Solution Solute: lon and cations Solvent: water the If you want to learn more check out What does elasticity of demand mean?



Units Of Salinity

.: Parts per thousand -> practical salinity units (PSU) ► no units


Measuring salinity

• Principle of constant Porportions : numbers are rationally


• Began measuring cr

•CTD: condutivity , temperature and depth

-instrument used to collect data

Freezing point is lower with more salt Surface salinity varies with heat If you want to learn more check out What is source monitoring?


fresher cevaporation

.. precipitation - sea ice formation - - sea ice melting

Increasing Salinity...

- Freezing point: v - Density: 1 - Vapor pressure : av, slower

Residence Time: average time spent by a substance in - the ocean Deeper you go more constant salinity gets


ļ then, I V

q sa

04-811 Monday Chemical and phyical structure of

o the ocean Intensity decreases rapidly w depth

Dark Ocean

Light absorption Blue and green penetrate deepest . e in water

bgives the ocean & its color

muted colors at depth Only blue and green are reflected

transmitted better in water than air sound velocity is about 1500 m/s or 4x the speed sound velocity increases with preassure and temp. SOFAR channel sound move best

- low velocity region til

sound in Sea water

Sosus.Sound Surveillance system

• listening for submarines hear sea floor erruptions



How is


the ocean filled? o Depth with waters of different densities

Deep layer


water Density SME function of temp. and salinity

Ocean Temp. Solar Heated

uneven heating of earth's surface


• Surface circulation

Release of heat as infrared radiation 1. Requires flow of heat by oceans and atmosphere Sea Surface Temp only -2° to 30°C world-wide

b Land -50° to 50°C

Due to uneven solar heating

Local Annual Heat Budgets

& Amount of solar energy captured at con the Earth varies with season

one location


Temperature - vertical profile

L seasonal changes in temp profile

Temperatures w/ Depth

no ha Thermocline: sharp temp. change w/ temp

variations between 29°C to 0°C



Salinitt in sea water The Hydro logic_cycle :


a Train




I transpiration


piratione ce evaporation

ground water

Evaporation - Precipitation y deserts

evaporation exceeds precipitation . balance is restored by rain fall → ocean


Belts : land

areas where

deserts exists.

Salinity Variations

- Surface salinity follows eva porations-precipitation

pattern b Atlantic Ocean is saltier than the Pacific Ocean.

• Why? Storms cross over the Atlantic, moves water from Atlantic over to the Pacific


Sinking of cold, dense water.

near the poles ; gets more dense because

freezing Of H20 (expells salts) Densest seawater is cold and salty


Summary Light and sound transmissions

regulates photo synthesis in the oceans Temp/ salinity Variations

y related to differences in solar heating Is related to global water cycle and contratsts in

evaporation, precipitation Contrasts in density are responsible for ocean layers

and deep ocean circulation

04-13 Wednesday


surface Circulation

2 Types Of Ocean Circulation:

b surface circulation: wind driven > Deep Circulation : Density driven

also called "Thermohline" circulation Atmos pheric Circulation

warm air rises - equator

Sinks - poles


Temperature > Pressure

' warm air carries water vapor . lighting Pressure : heated surface, air is warmed,

expands and rises

• Het pressure : air cools and sinks round trip is called a "cella

Rotating Planet, moving objects appear to be deflected Coriolis Deflection

4 Apparent force due to Earth's rotation - Gustave Gaspard Coriolis (1835) Consequences of Coriolis

· Northern Hemisphere: moving fluid turns to the right

· Southern Hemisphere: moving fluid turns to the left

Coriolis o Deflection


Wind-Driven Circulation

→ Steady winds produce waves and set the surface

water in motion . Moving water is deflected to the right (North) or

left (south)

• Starts the main "ayre" motion of the surface ocean

Main Features

5 large gyres

· Antartic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Countercurrent Velocities vary




Oceans respond by flowing and turning

4 winds get the motion in the ocean started water piles up in the center of gyres

-> Several meters high SW

Ekman Transport (1907). L A

* Moves waters 90° to the winds *Staircase affect as it goes deeper


Geostro phic Currents

To wind

and a

/ Mound

/ Water

KI Ekman Transport




Study SOUT

Coriolis deflection plus the Pressure Gradient steers

the currents around the gyre



Upwelling and Oregon's Ocean

Winter winds from the south-downwelling (water moves up) Summer winds from the north-upwelling water moves up)

>plankton blooms Antartic divergence

circum- Antarctic Current produces a surface divergence and upwelling zone around Antarctica

Equatorial divergence

4 counter current

Tracking Ocean Circulation Fixed Bo Buoys. measure current speed and direction

Drifters: Travel Wy the currents and transmit their location





. Malaisia Plane - Missing Plane

04-20 Wednesday




As density goes up ....

Temp goes down

Salinity goes up - Pressure goes up

* Density dictates ? deep water movement

Impact on seawater density

- Evaporation : makes waiter salty


• Rain : dillutes sea water

•Ice formation (subset of cooling)


Clines Hallocline : Salinity

* cline is an area Thermocline temperature of rapid change Pycnolines: density like see

Mixed Layer

Thermocline Thermocline - 100-1000m

Depth Relatively constant temp. below 1000m


Deep Ocean in Response to Surface culation

gyre move heat and salt.

• Density moves water up & down . formation of water masses"

Isopycnals = constant density

Density-Driven Water Flow

bi Thermohaline Circulation"

Thermo = temperature

· haline = salt

Water masser

La large body of water

similar temp and salinity values

Water Mass Types

· Central waters: shallow

• Intermediate waters : Deep (1000m) Deep and Bottom waters: Densest

b cold & salty

North Sat South Atlantic North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW): Norway & Greenland

· Antartic Bottom water (AABW): Antarctica

21 June AABW

• Weddell sea: Major site

• Formed as a result of ice formation Deepest layer in Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean basins _

Motos posted


· Labrador Sea : site


comprises of 507 of the Deep water to the worlds oceans

Driven by evaporation $ cooling sinks into the western Atlantic

Intermediate waters

• Mediterranean intermediate water

» lots of salt from evaporation

· Antarctic intermediate water

→ Subduction at Polar Front common water: mix of AABW NADW

Ocean Circulation: The Great Conveyor Belt

Surface of water at high latitudes form deep water

· Deep water sinks and floats flows

• Deep water upwells to replace the surface water

that sinks at poles ..takes about 1000 years

Water Flow

• After formation it is cut off from the atmosphere seems to be slowing

Lless sea ice, more rain

tipping point: Faster changes in circulation

Carbon cycle and Global Warming

• temp. of bottom water determines how much coa

dissolved in deep ocean water rate of overturn, determines the "burial rate" of c from the atmosphere

Summary Density drives deep water formation Cooling, evaporation, and ice formation lead to deep

water masses water masses have similar temp. and salinity Global__conveyer belt takes around 1K years and

Keeps + the globe inhabitable


ediatel wat

term water

North Atlantic

Deep and Bottom






Antarctic Bottom water

04-22 Friday

Waves of the


HAT-P-11b (Kepler. 36)

> planet with water vapor in it's atmosphere



Wne porameters

b flow of energy, not





Properties of ocean waves socean wave is an undulation of the sea surface

wave crest wave trough

wave height (H) 'wave length (L) -wave period (1) Wave speed (c=) or Progressive waves: move across the sea celerity surface Standing waves : oscillate around a fixed point

Wind Generation of Waves

'wind velocity (strength)

• Wind duration de Fetch : distance over which wind blows Wave sizes (T,L,H) increases as these increase

Wave types

Sea: irregular waves in the area of generation 4 Swell: more regular waves beyond area of generation La surf (breakers) :waves that reach the coast; grow in

height and break

Wave Motions

.forward movement of the wave form

Orbital motion of water particles beneath the wave 'Wave energy moves across the sea surface

Objects below wave base have no effect on wave


Deep Water Waves

Water deep relative to wavelength of wave : Waves do NOT interact with seafloor

· orbits of water molecules are circular longer waves go faster


ar wind



Swell Dispersion]

Life History Of Ocean Waves.!!!

Ly waves generate in the fetch area

Characterized by a "confused" sea state → Extensive wave interference

constructive: wave build upiroque waves

· Destructive: wave cancellation

Shallow Water Waves

Water depth is much less than the wavelength Interact with the sea floor orbits become elliptical shapede n 'Wave speed depends on depth

Shallow waves Affected by Bottom

Waves collapse forming surf (breakers) iseafloor transforms wave properties wave period remains the same

Wave Refraction

> Bending of the wave crest as waves enter shallow

water ; Due to...

• Differential speed along the crest (slower in

Shallow_water) Drag along the bottom

Shallow-Water Wave Transformation

• Waves slow down as water gets shallow

4 wavelength(L) decreases 4 Height (H) jncreases Bottom friction becomes important thi 'Wave becomes too steep and breaks ANTE

Depending on the slope of the bottom

Spilling breaker: flat bottom

• Plunging breaker: Steep bottom Surging breaker:very steep bottom


Motion of Water Particles Beneath Waves

As waves get bigger, wave orbitals averit Closed 'Water is transported in the direction of the wave Onshore wave transport determines longshore currents near the surfzone Offshore return transport occurs in rip currents

У сме > Oblique approach was








directly onshore min

a mun


more min

Rip currents tend to accur where wave is breaking


Wave Energy

carry a tremendous amount of energy 1 Kinetic: motion of water particles

Potential: Height of the wave


- Sudden shifting of the Ocean floor due to earthquakes,

volcanic eruptions, and submarine slumping

to open ocean: short height, long wave length, long periods Ishallow water: shorter length, larger height

Storm Surges 15 Extremely high water levels due to...

* Low Pressure system - big storms

Persistent onshore winds - Rise in sea level

Internal Waves. Gravity Wave

b> occur underwater and move along density Surfaces *Slower speeds than surface waves

Density difference between water layers is less than between air water

standing Waves

> seiches .! Oscillate back and forth about a node

• wind blows in one direction and causes water to pile up at one end of a basin

04-25 Monday


Aug 21, 2017

Total Eclipse

of the



Typical 30 day Tidal Record

tides are very long ocean waves by wavelength (crest to crest) is about the earth's

circumfrence Shallow water waves have wavelength(L) greater than

ocean depth (d) Forced by the moon and the sun - Important for navigation , coastal erosion/flooding, mixing

• "semi-diurnal" : twice per day when we he link to

• "diurnal" once per day with the butto

Tides are periodic : 4days at newport

52 nigh, 2 low → semi-diurnal Tides are periodic: 4 weeks at Newport

> Spring Tides Neap Tides (Moon # Sun are aligned)

Origins of the Tides

4 Gravitational Attraction

All masses are attracted to one another who "Moon exerts greater gravitational pull because it is

closer than the sun is lehet

t 4 Centrifugal Force

Earth and Moon revolving around each other .Unequal masses → center of rotation lies beneath Earth's


Tide Producing Force : Net effect of gravity and centrifugal

force ba bulges


At Newport High tides are separated by lanrs and 15 min

because the moon is rotating slightly faster

2 Daily High Tides different Heights

Moon's orbit is tilted with respect to Earth's axis by 28.50 "Tidal bulge is below the moon then above it


Leben habe

Equalibrium" Model of the Tides

Fluid covered sphere (no continents) ocean responds instantly to forcing



Dynamic Model

- Portion of water affects

Tidal buige

Pressure Gradient 4 Coriolis Effect

Kelvin Waves

DIADANI A Motion of water around the basin is a rotary wave M" 4 crests and trough move around the sides of the basin 4 Named after Lord Kevin (1824-1907) A


Key Features Of Tides

High tides: Wave Crest low tide : Wave trough . Tida! range wave height 'Tidal periods depend on location

semi-diurnal: 12hrs 25 min diurnal: 24hrs 4 min


Tidal Currents 'associated with horizontal currents

• largely depth.dependent 'Strong currents through narrow channels

Marine Biorhythms

Clinical behaviors associated with tidal wythms diurnal activity Of fiddler crass 'spawning behavior of the grunion fish

Harvest clams, muscle, barnacles

Spring Tides

Syzgy: 3. nearly aligned conjunction of the sun/moon on the same side + new moon ; opposition of the sunimoon on opposite sides + full moon

Neap Tides y quadrature sun/earth/moon at nearly 90° angle

First & Third Quarter Moon

04-27 Wednesday

Dhytoplankton & the "NPZ"

Photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy Respiration : convert biochemical energy into Con and energy


Plankton from greek word "Wanderer"

y Drift with the current

classified by size

• Picoplankton 2-3 microns le

Nanoplankton 2-20 microns

• Microplankton (net plankton) 20-200 microns d Macroplankton >200 microns

dades a dotes de N

a dal Nutrients: and one t h at do not

• Nitrogen -

it will be he Phosphate b usiness to carbon (rarely limiting)




i cell wall composed of cellulose

· armored plate-like structures or naked have no plates 'Includes autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic de

2 flagella - Strong vertical swimmers is

!! 'cause harmful algai blooms and bioluminescence

Coccolithophorids t

ot in dez cell wall embedded with calcium carbonate +plates called coccoliths


Nitrogen Fixation

y conversion of Ng gas into nitrogen (organic form) *Energetically expensive * Only few groups can do it

4 Nitrogen is limiting


> changes the color of the light that it recieved

· Photosynthetic_pigments absorb wavelengths of light (PAR) then emitts a second wavelength

y second wavelength is called fluorescence

· PAR: Photosynthetically Active Radiation

kwavelength that phytoplankton can harvest i test -Chlorophyll a: The p main pigment - Accessory pigments increase the colors of light that the

phytoplankton can capture of KLASY Primary Production

> Gross production : Total amount of carbon fixed

through photo synthesis to my ID 4 Net Production: Gross Production - respiration 10 VID

· Primary productivity is a rate untuk : Primary Production is the amount of organic material

produced and on e

moderne boxygen Plants need. Clements at the same ratio concentration)

Redfield Ratio" after Alfred Redfield

•C:N.P. 106:16:1 (mole)

A Nutrient and Light Limited world

Phytoplankton require light, nutrient, and carbon

Light at surface Nutrients are deep



Ocean Phosphorous Cycle

Nutrients at the surface : Photosynthesis accurs, organisms remove dissolved Poll out of solution and make biogenic particles that sink → PO4 depletion 'In the deep: Dense particles sink and are decomposed bent

and repired by organisms in the deep ocean → PO4 enrichment

NPZ - Nutrients Phytoplankton and zooplankton

04.29 Friday

Sue Ocean Ecosystems - Zooplankton and Fish


phyto = plant 'plankton = drifting ("Wandering")

(Photo) Auto trophs vs. Heterotrophs Critical base of marine food web Mostly single-celled protists or bacteria

Divisions of




Marine Environment

Epipelagic Mesopelagis

Bathy pelagic


- 1000m






-- 3000 m







-Oceanic -


Classification of Organisms by lifestyle

> Major groups

plankton: floaters nekton : Swimmers die benthos: bottom dwellers

e keer



Holoplankton: Lives spent as plankton 4 Meroplankton: Only part of their lives as plankton found in patches unicellular and multicellular organisms

· Short lifespans

t h some reproduce once a year, others continuosiy

· Accu meulate in thin layers, migrate vertically daily

Lyforms a Deep Scattering Layer

Common Zooplankton

• Copepods : "the cows"

Abundant and diverse L> Pelagic and benthic 21-2mm long and L>Fast moving

1990, a cholera outbreak in South America was

traced to Bangladesh

· Euphausids (krill), H AD to HD )

4 shrimp-like animals, good swimmerso cho

> major souce Of food in the ocean't puteti L> baleen whales (blue whales) eat Krill of

• Feeding

1 pray on smaller animals ; filtration is push through mucus mesh Luse mucus to attractant particles


» Amphipods

* Subphylum: crustacea

Phylum arthropoda > Ctenophores L Shell-less Pteropods

Class: Gastropoda Phylum: Mollusca

SOL E Chaetognaths

Class: sagittoidea


· Phylum Chaetognatha

• Jelly fish jelly plankton Ho

yCnidarians: sea anemones by Tentides with Stinging cells: nematocysts 4 Weak swimmers to heart beat > Can form nuisance blooms t

til y Almost neutrally buoyant - Siphonophores

W > Portuguese man-o-war we het

like jellyfish to THA L> colonial: made up of many specialized individuals Nudibranchs : sea sjugs


· Polychaetes

_ _ Salps kot


• Juvenile fish will be


· Protists-microzooplankton

b Foraminifera Ls Radiolarians Ls Ciliates


• Larval Crustaceans

Deep scatter layer in the middle of the day

Dies Vertical Migration (DVM).

vertical swimming by plankton with the sun

· Normal:up at night,down at day Cor "reverse"). -200m per hour


Nekton gifted swimmers capable of counteracting currents

-Fish, squid, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals

ON A Wilt UA Distribution of Marine Lifestyles

16.7% of the Earth animals are marine 2% inhabit pelagic environment -most of the ocean is cold and dark !

HAN .98% are benthic


"Classic" food web

· Diatoms → copepods > Small fish > large fish DAHA coastal waters (high nutrients): large phytoplankton (diatoms) open ocean (low nutrients): small phytoplankton

105.02 Monday

Soft Sediment Habitats





General Fauna et

Megafauna : Identifiable by video 'Macrofauna : > 500 microns

Meiofauna:> 63 microns i !

A Epi: Surface

LLL D Infauna: Burrowing

• Interstitial : Between the sand Grains







Sediment Environment


L stable hate at sikre Unstable

and muddy


· Low Interstitial space High interstitial space Low energy San. 'High energy


Megafomna lang

talent LL C - Identifiable by photo tubes

Echinoderms: seastars, sea cucumbers, urchins,crinoids . Mollusks: Octopods, clams . L

Cnidaria corals(non hermotypic),anemones t 'Fish : Sharks, Bony fish

Vermiform taxa worm like Crustaceans: Crabs, Lobsters


sieve size

• Segmented worms (polychaetes), clams, amphipods, small urchins

Trophic Types

Deposit Feeders' eat mudd ; specific size sand - Scavengers: eat dead sea creatures that fall onto the sea

floor . Suspension Feeders: Bat as food falls

· Algal grazers: eat phytoplankton ; filters through its body

Predators eat everything Grey whales : filters through the mudd


Bioturbation : physical mixing of sediment Bioirrigation pumping of water into the sediment

Loxidizes sediment

What controls who is where?

Physical 'Wind 'Waves

-> duration Strength Fetch

Biological Predators_ Alternate stable

Stage t

Chemical 'Oxygen i



Food -

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