Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH 102
Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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Exam 3 Studyguide ANTH 102 50 questions from Weeks 1216, 25 from Weeks 110 Important terms are underlined Part 1: Weeks 1216 Complexity without the State: Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ● General Information: ○ Called Easter Island because it was found on Easter Sunday ○ 1 s settled in 7001200 CE by Polynesians from Gambier Islands ○ Chiefdom – no state bureaucracy, centralized state authority, or police force ○ Very remote location in Pacific ○ 1st European contact on April 5, 1722 – only a couple thousand people living there by this point (drastic previous decrease population) ○ Used in slave trade and resources were exploited – led to population decrease ● Ecology: ○ Many land birds primary large game; unique species; extinct from humans ○ Mixed terrains ○ Deforestation of heavy forests after human arrival (unique palm tree species) ■ Coincidental minor environment shifts also contributed to less forests ○ Sheep farming harmed the fragile volcanic soil ● Moai Heads (11001650 CE): ○ Line prehistoric/ceremonial roads; face sea ○ Meant to be noticed and watch over people ○ Related to ancestor worship/ancestor cults mana) establish lineage/authority ○ Done by separate groups throughout Rapa Nui ○ People 1 s thought they used logs as rollers (deforestation) not supported ○ Moved by tying ropes around the top; leverage system of pulling to move it back and forth and make it “walk” forward ○ Construction elaborately planned took 56 men a full year to complete 1 Moai ○ Intense rivalry/competition at the end of the 17 century (the end of Moai) = toppled/damaged/defaced ○ Most are partly and deliberately buried fullbodies but only heads above ground ● Rano Raraku: ○ A mountain formed by volcanic eruptions ○ Used as a quarry for 500 years ■ Moai heads almost entirely built from Rano Raraku and moved to different places on island ■ The largest Moai remain at the quarry ● Ahu Vinapu Site: ○ Ceremonial center ○ Moai placed on Ahu stone stands ● Bird Man Cult: ○ Contest to collect the 1 Sooty Tern egg of the season (difficult/dangerous) ○ Based on ritual activity and migratory patterns of birds ○ Replaced Moai construction ○ Give egg to their patron – patron becomes leader (Bird Man) for the year ○ Eventually suppressed by Christian missionaries – culture changed ● Rongorongo Writing System: ○ People don’t know how to translate it no other language correlates ○ We know it’s mostly about calendars and lineages ○ Only used by the elite depopulation: the people who knew how to read it died off ○ Only 2030 pieces left in private collections Mesopotamia ● One of the 1 s statelevel societies/cradle of civilization ● In modernday Iraq desert ● Environment: ○ Fertile Crescent between Tigris and Euphrates rivers – fertile after the Neolithic ○ Building materials available were mudbrick and reeds; needed to import stone and wood had to trade a lot ○ Wet and muddy ○ Close to the rivers was swampy and far from the rivers was very arid ○ Alluvial Valley: ■ Flooding deposited nutrientrich silt and created fertile land ■ Canals used to extend fertile land ○ Movement of rivers not static sites often far away from modern rivers ● Early Chronology Review (Prior to Mesopotamia): ○ Natufian (110009000 BCE): ■ Preagricultural ■ Small, settled villages ■ Site: ‘Ain Mallaha ○ Early (PrePottery) Neolithic: ■ Large towns, larger populations ■ Cities built on tells st ■ 1 domesticated plants and animals ■ Ritual structures and objects ■ Sites: Jericho and Abu Hureyra ○ Late (Pottery) Neolithic: ■ Widespread collapse and dispersal ■ End of earlier ritual systems ■ Appearance of pottery ■ Large communities in central/Western Turkey ■ Site: Çatalhöyük ● Temples: ○ Economic and religious roles ○ Received, stored, and redistributed surpluses and tributes ○ Center of craft production ○ Used for surplus storage and later for irrigation ○ Possibly used by city rulers ○ Visually powerful ○ Often had walls so that there is restricted access (elites only) ○ Ziggurats: ■ Stepped pyramid with building at the top ■ A large base for the temple ■ Very tall – taller than the city (a landmark) ■ Isolates temples ■ Based partially on the design of a mountain ● ‘Ubaid Period: ○ 1s signs of Mesopotamian statelevel societies ○ Urban populations living on flood plains ○ Large systems of irrigationbased agriculture ○ Institution of kingship and temple use ○ Sites: Ur, Uruk, and Eridu ○ Standardized pottery system ■ Used potter’s wheel ■ Standardized style/features ■ Ensured cultural continuity ○ 1s Period (50004000 BCE): ■ Shift southward ■ Temple use ■ Canal irrigation ● Harder than dry farming – more work and labor ● Produces more food – more surpluses ● Not everyone has to be farmers anymore ■ Craft specialists now appear make elaborate ceramics for the elites ■ 3 Elite structures: ● 1. Sacred Group (priests) ● 2. Monarchy (kings/rulers) ● 3. Bureaucracy (administrators) ■ Eridu S ite (50003000 BCE): ● Early Sumerian temple of mudbrick ● One of the oldestknown permanent settlements in the area ● Stacked building phases ● Temple associated with emerging elite and only used as a redistribution center ● No elaborate burials (not too much stratification) ● Social class evident in living differences ● Predates irrigation agriculture ○ 2 n and 3 Period(40003200 BCE) (32002350 BCE): ■ Citystates ● More conflict/warfare between them for control over regions and resources ● Small, but what they controlled was important ● Shared culture ● Mesopotamia not one unified whole ■ Uruk S ite: ● Very large – up to 40000 people ● Settled in 1 Period but not important until/3d ● Anu Ziggurat: ○ White temple on top of 40ft. tall ziggurat (very large) ○ Very large ○ Elaborate exterior ○ Central chamber with smaller rooms branching off (common design) ■ Ur S ite: Walled temple precinct ■ Craft Specialization: ● Elaborate art goods, usually for the elite ● Mass production (potter’s wheel) ● Ceramics = utilitarian ○ Beveledrim bowls ○ Bowls all the same size = food rationed for laborers ■ Trade over a greater distance, more diverse resources (wood and metal) ■ Metalworking: Bronze ● Before now, mainly copper ● Now more bronze – stronger metal ● Used for wheeled vehicles – plows, warfare chariots, transport ● Better for weapons ■ Writing: Cuneiform ● Appeared by 3400 BCE in Uruk ● Very recognizable ● One of the earliest writing systems ● Mostly used for economic matters/records ■ Clay Tokens: ● Used for economic transactions ● Used as receipts for trade – like an invoice ● Eventually abandoned in favor of written clay tablets ● Used imprints ■ Politics: ● Temples, palaces, city council buildings ● Dependent on villages ● Competition increased in 3 Period for land ● Administration/bureaucracy and independent rulers ● Independent citystates ■ Ur in the 3rd Period: ● One of Uruk’s rivals ● Royal cemetery ○ Political stratification in burial goods ○ Sacrifices ○ Skilled craftsmanship in goods ■ Bull’s Head Lyre – elite distinction ○ Puabi’s Tomb ■ Female queen or high official ■ Huge tomb ■ Lots of grave goods and sacrificed attendants/guards ■ Called the “Death Pit” ■ Remains of chariot and full team of oxen rd ■ End of 3 Period ● Increase in everything ● Conquered by ruler/state from the North in 2350 BCE ○ Sargon (Akkadian Empire) ○ Empire collapsed shortly after ○ Summary ■ Sumer is not one large empire, but many independent citystates ■ Temples increasingly important ● Surplus storage/redistribution ● Later canal irrigation ● Craft specialization Egypt ● Longrunning civilization – able to study their own history ● Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb ● Environment: unique ecosystem of Desert/Valley/Delta ● Nile River: ○ Societies centered along Nile River – extremely long (400 mi) ○ Annual, predictable flooding deposits silt = fertile land for agriculture st ○ Cataracts (rapids) – 1 one at Aswan ○ Upper = South and Lower = North ○ Used as a highway for trade, people, and goods ○ Canals built to branch off river ○ So important that the hieroglyphs for movement depict boats ○ Irrigation: System of smaller canals ■ Shaduf : lever pole with bucket at the end to manually transport water between fields ○ Aswan Dam ■ Built in 1960s/70s ■ Built to control flooding of river and how far it extends ■ Extremely large ■ Destroyed massive areas of ancient remains/complexes ● Monuments moved outside of flood zone, and some to other countries ● Chronology st ○ Neolithic»Predynastic»Early Dynastic»Old Kingdom»1 Intermediate»Middle nd rd Kingdom»2 Intermediate»New Kingdom»3 Intermediate»Late Period ● Neolithic: ○ Neolithic = before 5000 BCE (mixed domesticates and wild plants/animals) ○ Shift to agriculture along Nile ○ Climate shift = people forced to move closer to river ○ Lower Egypt: Nile Delta ■ Fayum Depression: Evidence for earliest farmers (5200 BCE) ○ Earliest Farmers (44004000 BCE) ■ Mobile – live in tents/hunts ■ Storage pits lined with basketry; emmer wheat, barley, cattle, goats, and sheep; grinding stones ● Predynastic (50003100 BCE): ○ Isolated farming villages ○ Agriculturebased society ○ Social stratification appears ○ Local leaders controlled surplus and irrigation ○ Increase in power and ideology ○ Naqada Site: ■ Agricultural community of ~7601520 people ■ Dikes and drainage canals ■ Walled town with cemeteries, houses; rectangular, mudbrick, elite residences ■ Long distance trade ○ Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) Site (3800 BCE): ■ Small farming village (a few hundred people) ■ 3500 BCE = population increase ■ Social differentiation apparent in mud brick/plaster houses vs. larger houses for the wealthy; separate cemetery for elite ○ Predynastic Politics: ■ 3500 BCE: 3 main powers were Naqada, Abydos, and Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) ● Early tombs ● Beginning of national concepts of Egypt as location, kinship, and religion ● Appearance of stratification, planned streets (infrastructure), and protohieroglyphs ■ Mastabas : burial structures for elites ● Single story underground tomb; basis for later pyramids ● Early Dynastic (31002575 BCE): ○ Unified state ■ Unification as a metaphor; symbol of unity ■ Preserve ma’at ■ Narmer Palette (3100 BCE) (Balance of Forces) ○ Pharaoh as divine king ○ Basic sociopolitical structure ○ Capital: Memphis ○ Prime minister, governments of districts (hereditary and based on merit) ○ Scribes are important ○ Rosetta Stone: Same passage written in hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek; used for translating ○ Hieroglyphs : ■ Began in Predynastic (3200 BCE) ■ Images faster than script ■ Functional and artistic ■ Few were literate ■ Used for religion (hieratic), business, legal, poetry, myths ■ Logograms : signs of whole word ■ Phonograms : sounds ■ Determinatives : signs of exact meanings ● Old Kingdom (25752134 BCE): ○ Capital: Memphis th ○ 4 Dynasties – 4 Dynasty Pyramid Age ○ Despotic Pharaohs: powerful, semidivine kings ○ Social structure: heavily stratified, rulers (sun god’s representative on Earth), priesthood important, common people as laborers ○ International trade ○ Rulership: ■ Pharaoh controlled rain, people, gods, Nile flood; personification of ma’at ■ Hereditary bureaucracy ○ Djoser : 1 king of 3 Dynasty ■ King as part of sun symbolism ■ Step Pyramid at Saqqara (tomb) ● Djoser Complex : designed by Imhotep, several mastabas, part of large complex, function of pyramid (?) ○ Snefru – attempted to build “true” pyramid 3 times ○ Giza Pyramids: ■ 4 t Dynasty Pharaohs (26132494 BCE) ■ Khufu (Cheops), Khafre, and Menkaure ■ Khufu’s pyramid : 1 pyramid built; largest; originally encased in polished limestone; hidden burial chamber nd ■ Khafre's pyramid: 2 built; similar in size to Khufu’s; originally encased in polished limestone; sphinx is part of it rd ■ Menkaure’s pyramid: 3 built; smallest; partly encased in polished granite ○ Typical Pyramid Complex: ■ Main and satellite ■ Connected by causeway bridges ■ Valley Temple – mummification ○ Pyramid Construction: ■ Bureaucratic organization ● Artisans/laborers compensated with supplies/housing/food ■ Village for workers ● Labor used as a form of tax, and they only worked for a short time ● Food came from state surpluses ● Only the highly skilled stayed permanently ■ People linked to king – lots of common people a part of construction ■ Institutionalized the state: foodlabor; depended on rations part of year ○ Eventually lost stability ● 1s Intermediate (21342040 BCE): ○ Powerful rulers felled by drought, famines, anarchy, disunity, decentralization th th ○ 7 11 Dynasties ● Middle Kingdom (20401782 BCE): ○ Reunification, prosperity, peace, stability ○ International relations – other kingdoms growing ○ Less divine kingly power – connected to deities, but not entirely a deity ○ Leadership important – Pharaohs as bureaucrats ○ People had less automatic loyalty assassinations ○ Capital: Thebes ○ Smaller pyramids but better goods ■ Khufu (Great Pyramid) ■ Others a lot smaller ■ Money goes more to infrastructure (roads, canals, etc.) ■ Tomb construction still elaborate ● More portable art (jewelry) and wall inscriptions ● Nicest = elites (princesses) ■ More thieves ● Anticipated with complex burial shafts, fake entrances, dummy rooms/tombs ● Related to pharaoh as less divine ○ Summary: ■ Fullyformed state ■ Larger cities ■ Strong bureaucracies ■ Larger territory ■ Heavy defenses on state borders, but not enough defense ● 2 n Intermediate Perio (17821570 BCE): ○ Conquered by foreigners – “Hyksos” rulers in Lower Egypt ○ Egyptians at Thebes – Upper Egypt ○ New ideas: more sophisticated bronze, horsedrawn war chariots, new military weapons ○ Eventually overthrown ● New Kingdom (15701069 BCE): ○ Reunification and expansion; more centralization ○ Capital: Memphis ○ Pharaoh as military leader kings only quasidivine ○ King Tutankhamen ○ “Golden Age”: stable, wealthy; achievements in art, architecture, literature ○ The time that most people think of when referring to Ancient Egypt ○ Thebes and Cult of Amun: ■ Religious site ■ Karnak temple complex (huge!): all pharaohs of New Kingdom added to it ■ Burial structures shift more in/near Thebes (religious center) ■ Valley of Kings: ● Near Thebes ● Hidden, rockcut tombs; guarded (caverns of underworld) ● Different theology and economics – use less people to build ● Elites also followed burial trends ■ “ Quest for Eternit”: ● Transcend death – eternal life ● 1. Preserve body: At first, mummification happened naturally because of the arid environment ○ Maintain remains – organs in jars, dummy limbs for missing parts ● 2. Build houses – tombs ● 3. Provide for afterlife – burial goods ○ Even provided with food to eat in afterlife (could starve and die again) ● Mummification very expensive ○ Famous New Kingdom Egyptians: ■ King Akhenaten ■ King Tut ■ Queen Hatshepsut ■ Queen Nefertiti ○ Late New Kingdom: ■ Expansion attempts Battle of Kadesh failure ■ Weakening pharaohs ■ Strong foreign states ■ Economic problems state shrinks ● Egypt after New Kingdom ○ 3r Intermediate Period(1069656 BCE): ■ Decentralized and foreign intervention ■ Unbroken 3000year succession of pharaohs ended when Alexander the Great appointed one of his generals as ruler ■ Political weakness ■ Control by foreign rulers – Nubia and Libya ○ Late Period (656332 BCE): ■ “Last Gasp” of Pharaonic rule ■ Invaded by Assyrians, then Persians, then regained independence ■ Invaded again by Persians, then Alexander the Great (332 BCE) ■ Incorporated into Greek Empire (30 BCE) Greeks adopted Egyptian gods and words ● Daily Life ○ Life expectancy = 30 (commoner) or 60 (elite) ○ Nuclear family – lineage through mom and dad ○ Marriage for social, property, alliances (divorce possible) ○ Children valued equally ○ Equal rights for women (marital, legal, economic) ○ Indoor = meetings, sleeping ○ Outdoor = cooking, activities ● Egypt not isolated Maya – (Hieroglyphics Video) ● Europeans’ Impact: ○ Tried to destroy Mayan writing system and convert Mayans – their writing was deemed demonic and devilworship ○ Mayans tortured for their “devilworship” ○ Scribes were forced to learn European script ○ Centuries before Mayan could be read again ● Modern Mayans still make offerings to their ancient gods ○ They were cut off from the written words of their ancestors for centuries – this is now changing ● Mayan Empire ○ Extended from South Mexico to Central America ○ Dense jungle ○ 200 CE = built great cities like Tikal and Palenque ○ Warrior athletes ○ Intricate and complex art ○ Height of glory during Europe’s Dark Ages ○ 9 t century CE = they abandoned many of their cities (mystery!) ● 1000 years after abandonment, Europeans discovered Palenque ○ They thought that other known civilizations built the city ● Modern Era Discoveries ○ 1810 = Rediscover Mayan books that survived Spanish conquest – used to decipher hieroglyphics ○ 1880s = able to take pictures of glyphs and art for the time ○ Discovered Mayan calendar – used for astronomy (eclipses, movement of Venus) ■ Marked when Mayans thought the universe was created ○ Eric Thompson claimed Mayans were primarily focused on gods ■ He dominated Mayan archaeological studies ○ Tatiana Proskouriakoff made detailed reconstruction drawings ■ She figured out that the stelae placed in front of temples marked kings’ lives and important dates (life stories) ○ Yuri Knorozov discovered that hieroglyphics consisted of some word signs, but mostly phonetic signs ■ Thompson discredited this entire method ○ “Lord Shield” was an important Mayan ruler that appeared in many glyphs ○ David Stuart = glyphs that Thompson thought were telling dates were actually telling stories ○ Maya became an extremely violent society (sacrifice, bloodletting, etc.) and that appeared in changing hieroglyphics Mesoamerica/Olmec ● Mesoamerican States: ○ Olmec ○ Teotihuacan ○ Maya ○ Moche ○ Inca ○ Aztec ● Decline/European Contact: ○ Hernan Cortes found Tenochtitlán (Aztec capital) in 1519 CE ■ Organized neighboring societies to fight against/end the Aztec Empire ■ Mexico City lies on top of the ruins of the ancient Aztec city ● Shared Traits of Mesoamerican States: ○ 1. Food Staples: maize, beans, squash, chili peppers ○ 2. Hieroglyphic Writing: inscriptions on walls and stelae ■ Codex = book on animal skins or bark paper ○ 3. Calendar and Astronomy ○ 4. Base 10 Systems ○ 5. Ballgames: Mayan ball at Chichen Itza; Aztec ball game depicted in Borgia Codex ■ Ball could weigh up to 9 lbs. and cause injuries ■ Players used hips, elbows, and heads to hit ball ■ Ball games were a form of meditation ■ El Tajin, Veracruz = losers sacrificed ○ 6. Market Economies ○ 7. Warfare and Blood Sacrifice: human sacrifice and selfsacrifice through bloodletting ○ 8. Pantheon of Deities ■ Quetzalcoatl (Tlaloc), Xiuhtecuhtli (Huitzilopochtli), Xipe Totec ○ 9. Lack of Old World Advances: wheeled transport, beasts of burden (oxen or horses), and metal tools ● Environmental Setting: ○ Mexican highlands – Sierra Madre, Basin of Mexico ○ Lowlands – Gulf Coast; Yucatan Lowlands; Peten Lowlands ○ Regional Differences: ■ Mayans cover the Yucatan Peninsula ■ 1 s domesticates appeared in interior highlands in the Archaic period, but earliest complex societies appeared in the coastal lowlands ○ Lowlands = slashandburn agriculture ○ Highland agriculture = Chinampas (“Floating Gardens”) ■ Small stationary wetland farm plots made by draining swamps or creating landfills on the margins of lakes ● Mesoamerican Chronology: ○ Preclassic or Formative Period (2000 BCE – 300 CE) ○ Classic Period (300 – 900 CE) ○ Postclassic Period (900 1519 CE) (Spanish conquest) ● Olmec Horizon: ○ Called a horizon because not quite a state ○ Horizon: a common artifact style shared broadly across a region ○ Formative Period (1150 – 400 BCE) – flourished ○ Culture contained seeds of later hallmarks of Mesoamerican civilization ■ Ball game, calendar, and hieroglyphic writing ○ Colossal carved stone heads ○ Altars and stelae – large stone blocks with depictions on them ○ Greenstone and jade carvings – carved celt ○ Material Symbolism: WereJaguars ■ Mix of human and animal traits ■ Some werejaguars depicted as infants (creation myth, ruler with genetic defects, future victory?) ○ Not centralized under one power, but shared characteristics ○ Widespread trade network of elite goods ○ San Lorenzo Site (1150900 BCE): ■ Famous for large stone heads – intentionally defaced, destroyed, and buried ■ 100s of monuments, mounds, and Lagunas (held water, typically for bathing) ■ Early ball court ○ La Venta Site (900400 BCE) ■ Built on an island, in a swamp ■ Lots of earthen pyramids ■ Several colossal heads, altars ○ We know mostly about religious centers and that elites were present ○ Olmec Firsts: ■ Hieroglyphics (carved): 600400 BCE at La Venta ■ Ballgame: El Manati, Veracruz (1600 BCE) – rubber ball South America/The Inca Empire ● Geography: Andes Mountains ○ Incans were not the 1 empire/society in this area – Incans built upon them ○ Environmental zones = desert coast (lots of marine resources but very arid); valleys (near rivers and upslope); grassland plateapuna; in between mountains); eastern slopes montañas; lots of rain) ○ Lake Titicaca ○ Domesticates: ■ Camelids (llamas and alpacas) ● Beasts of burden (transport) ● Wool and leather (secondary materials) ● Food ■ Beans, squash ○ Andean Chronology: ■ Late Horizon (14761534 CE) – Inca ■ Late Intermediate Period (10001476 CE) – Wari; Chimú ■ Middle Horizon (6001000 CE) – Wari; Tiwanaku ■ Early Intermediate Period (200600 CE) – Moche; Nazca: Tiwanaku ■ Early Horizon (900 BCE200 CE) – Chavín; Paracas ■ Initial Period (1800/1500900 BCE) ■ Preceramic Period (before 1800/1500 BCE) *Andeans never one unified culture (horizons) ● Chavín Horizon: ○ Chavín de Huántar Site: ■ Used for religious pilgrimage – people didn’t live there permanently ■ El Castillo Platform: large platform structures ○ Emergent social inequality – seen in diet, location/size of houses, burial goods ○ Shared style/ideology: Art = feline faces and staff god images ● Early Intermediate Period (200600 CE)– Nazca: ○ Nazca Confederacy : ■ Nazca and Ica River drainages ■ Independent, allied cities – shared stylistic trends, some competition ○ Pottery: ■ Polychrome (many colors) and extremely ornate ■ Occupational specialization – organized bureaucratically? ○ Nazca Lines: ■ Geoglyphs (kind of like crop circles) ■ Shapes = geometric, simple, plants, animals (monkey images proof of longdistance travel/trade) ■ Made by removing dark parts of desert pavement (topsoil) – fairly easy ■ Visible at groundlevel from a distance or from foot hills – not just from the sky ■ Used as a ritual path for pilgrimage (walked along lines?) ● Early Intermediate (300600 CE) – Moche: ○ Overlap with Nazca ○ Coastal Peru ○ Peak 300400 CE ○ Cerro Blanco (Moche) Site: Powerful center – more centralized than others ■ Controlled religious iconography ● Huacas: things imbued with life force (mountains, temples) ● Temples built with mud bricks ○ Put 100s of stamps on bricks (maker’s marks?) ○ Early form of labor tax? ○ Pottery: Distinctive ceramics; sacrifice scenes ○ Influence: ■ Moche pottery replaced other local styles ■ Moche craft – metalwork (mostly precious metals) and ceramics ○ Sipán S ite: ■ At edges of territory ■ Very impressive tombs ● Social stratification: Precious materials; buried with attendants ● Warrior/Sacrifice ceremony ○ Decline (600 BCE): ■ Drought, weather patterns (El Niño) ■ Cerro Blanco abandoned ■ Looselyconnected citystates – less important, smaller ● Simultaneous Wari (Huari) Empire and Tiwanaku Empire: ○ Tiwanaku ( 4001000 CE): ■ Tiwanaku City at Lake Titicaca (increasingly important as center of civilization) ■ Foreshadows Inca Empire ● Economic colonies – trade goods ● Roads and llama caravans ■ Inca claimed descent from Tiwanaku ● Iconography, architecture – continued 100s of years after decline ● Did this to legitimize their authority/empire * Continuity between these groups is very important! Inca Empire ● 1450 – 1532 CE ● Also called “Tawantinsuyu”: land of the 4 quarters (4 corners of the world) ● Fairly short, but accomplished a lot ● Largest empire in the Americas – stretched from Peru to Colombia ● Built upon foundations of previous civilizations: ○ Terrace agriculture; Moche labor tax; Tiwanaku administration, ideology; Chimú inheritance, royal lineage; road and trade networks ● Capital: Cuzco ○ Created in the 1400s? ○ Its founding based on legend vs. archaeology ○ Manco Capac: the 1st ruler ○ Claimed Cuzco created from nothing – not really true; it was previously a small village ■ Occupied since 1000 CE ○ No Incan writing, other cultures wrote about them ○ High elevation ● Rise of Inca: ○ Pachacuti: son of ruler but not the heir ■ Had the vision to rise and conquer – responsible for expansion ■ Conquered neighbors despite the odds against them – gained respect and legitimacy ■ Legend that the surrounding peoples were savage – not true ■ Name means “he who remakes the world” ● Archaeology shows that there was fragmentation then unification after Tiwanaku’s collapse ● Empire: ○ Many groups/cultures (covered a huge area of land) ○ 12 million people ○ Built through warfare/conquest and diplomacy (force): ■ Had a large standing army ■ Career soldiers: their only job was to be soldiers ■ Used only intimidation if possible beneficial to use intimidation over actual warfare ■ Fortresses ○ Road system: ■ Wellbuilt/maintained ■ Advanced (paved) road systems through the Andes (rough terrain) ■ Way stations (tampus) served as fortresses for troops and rest stops ■ Troops could move faster ■ Official messengers ran along them (like relay races) ○ Quipu : not written text, but kept records by tying knots into strings ■ Recorded numerical data ■ Debate over how read/displayed ■ There may have been different systems for different professions ○ Machu Picchu: Inca royal estate; fairly isolated ● Empire Maintenance: Loyalty ○ Political control ○ Movement of people: ■ Disobedient ethnic groups broken up and moved to stable regions ■ Obedient groups moved to new land – maintain old land and ties ○ Ideology (religion): ■ Build shrine to Incan deity (sun god) in conquered lands ■ Took local deities to Cuzco (hostage) to ensure obedience ● Empire Maintenance: Administration ○ Put elites at edges of empire to maintain order/rule ■ Elite given additional land along borders ○ Road network ○ Taxes ○ Occupational specialists ○ Surpluses – used to make things; redistributed at state festivals/holidays ● Inheritance: ○ Elites had plit inherita: e ■ You take all your stuff into your afterlife ■ Child only inherits position and must build own wealth ○ Used by monarchy ○ Panaqa: Royal kin group represented their dead ancestors ■ Ancestor worship ■ Deceased kings mummified ■ Dead retained wealth, authority ■ Panaqa maintained estate ■ Mummies not “dead” – brought out for special occasions ● Religion: ○ Inti sun god; ancestor of royal lineage ○ Insert Inca pantheon (gods) into local ideology ■ Keep local gods but put Incan above ○ Huaca capture – deities held hostage in Cuzco ● Ended by Francisco Pizarro ● State Comparison: Andes vs. Mesoamerica ○ 1. No core region in Andes (e.g. Basin of Mexico) ○ 2. Power shifts between coast and rugged uplands ○ 3. Power shifts from North to South parts of Andes ○ 4. Andean centers occupied for shorter time ○ 5. Animal domestication more important – land transport less costly ○ 6. Built extensive road systems ○ 7. No writing system – quipu ○ 8. Amazing preservation in coastal and high altitude regions China ● Early Chinese Chronology: ○ Neolithic ○ Xia Dynasty (22051766 BCE) ○ Shang Dynasty ○ Zhou Dynasty (1046256 BCE) ■ Western Zhou (1045771 BCE) ■ Eastern Zhou (770221 BCE) ■ Spring and Autumn Period (770481 BCE) ■ Warring States Period (481221 BCE) ○ Qin Dynasty (221206 BCE) ○ Han Dynasty (206 BCE220 CE) ● Modern China: ○ Geography: ■ Environmentally diverse – temperate North vs. tropical South ■ Major rivers = Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow) ■ Coastline densely populated – other groups more present west of coast ■ Mountains, deserts, forests, rain forests, plains ○ Archaeology and Nationalism: ■ Turfan, Xinjiang (far western China): Food shows mixture of different cultures ● Very arid = great preservation ● China: long history; still expanding? ● Neolithic China: ○ Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow) River valleys ○ Crops: rice by 10,000 BCE and millet by 8,000 BCE ○ Animals: pigs by 8,300 BCE; chickens by 6,000 BCE; dogs by 5,000 BCE; silkworms by 3000 BCE ○ Peiligang (Cishan) Culture (65005000 BCE): ■ Farming, foraging ■ Millet, cabbage; pig, dog, chicken ■ Jiahu Site (70005500 BCE): ● Early pottery ● Writing symbols anticipate early Han Chinese script ● 800 people at end of habitation ○ Yangshao Culture (50003000 BCE): ■ Later Neolithic ■ Large, agricultural villages ■ Banpo S ite: ● Moat, pottery, burials; some early symbols ● Fairly complex settlement – a village ○ Longshan Culture (30002000 BCE): ■ Changes in settlement: ● Larger, more permanent (cities) ● Defensive walls ● Large cemeteries; beginning social stratification ■ Elite goods – black eggshell pottery ■ Copper/bronze metallurgy ■ Jade Cóng: cylinder/disk (use?) ■ Scapulimancy : magic divination; carved symbols into bovine scapula or turtle shells and burned them ■ Taosi Site 23001900 BCE): ● Rammed earth wall – packed earth 710m thick ● Cemetery: ○ Most graves contained little to no grave goods ○ Some were quite rich (jade rings, axes, wooden drums) ○ 3 status tiers ○ Increased violence – people killed by weapons ○ San Dai: 3 Dynasties ■ Xia – thought to be mythical for a long time, but archaeological evidence of some centralization ■ Shang (17661122 BCE) ■ Zhou (1122300 BCE) ○ Shi Ji: written record ■ “Records of the Grand Historian” ■ Written by Sima Qian (14586 BCE) ■ 1st major historical record of China ■ Documented Xia and Shang dynasties ■ Used as a model – dynasties stressed the importance of chronology ● Xia Dynasty: ○ Mythical? ○ Proof of centralization, but nothing yet linked to the word “Xia” ○ Believed to rule Yellow River Basin ○ Erlitou Site (20001500 BCE): ■ Later Longshan Period ■ 2 palaces; grid system of roads ■ Craft specialization: workshops, bronze goods ■ Elite tombs: painted coffins, bronze weapons ● Shang Dynasty: ○ Est. 1675 BCE ○ Oracle bones contain writings about Shang ○ Symbols of status in elite burials (huge tombs) ○ Eventually became corrupt and overthrown ○ Zhengzhou ( est. 1500 BCE): Early capital rich burials ○ Anyang : Last capital ■ Millet agriculture; crafts; elite burials; human sacrifices ■ Large ■ Feasting is more important related to ancestor worship ■ Yinxu: Palace complex ● Many temples ● Shangdi (Di) was the major deity ● Ancestor worship ● Religion highly bureaucratized ● Chariot Pits: ○ Important because chariots weren’t invented in China – came from far West ● Tomb of Lady Fu Hao (1250 BCE): ○ Queen and general ○ One of Yinxu’s richest tombs ○ Never looted (rare) ● Zhou Dynasty (1046256 BCE): ○ Beginning of Imperial China ○ Consolidation of power ○ 2 Periods: Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou ○ Height of bronze ○ Not as big as later Chinese states ○ Similar to Feudal Europe, but no religious practice/structure or strong clergy ○ Philosophy: ■ Taoism : Philosophy of living in harmony with Tao ● Tao = “the path/way” ● Based on the Tao Te Ching (text) ● Emphasizes harmony with natural world ● Foundations in very ancient folk religions grounded in nature ● Based on teachings of a man who may or may not have existed (Lao Tzu ● Compassion, Moderation, Humility ● Leadership through example, being moral and just ■ Confucianism: Doctrine of ethics ● Humans are teachable and improvable – optimistic views ● Virtues: altruism, righteousness, loyalty, filial piety ● Society should reflect family structure/values ● Based on Confucius’teachings ● Dynasties either highly respected it or hated/banned it ● Elites didn’t like that loyalty was mainly given to family and not to the ruler ■ Legalism : Political doctrine ● Humans are inherently evil need laws to prevent chaos ● Very bureaucratic ● 3 Laws: ○ 1. Fa (law/principle): rule of law; laws should be written clearly and made public; actions have clear consequences ○ 2. Shu (method/tactic): ruler’s motivations must be secret; no one can try to gain favor of ruler ○ 3. Shi(legitimacy): the position of ruler holds the power, not the individual ruler ○ Defeat of Shang recorded in writings in thLi Gui bronze vessel ■ Commemorative vessel of a nobleman’s part in the war tells a story ■ Ancestor worship ○ Innovations in military technology: ■ Chariots on battlefield ■ How troops standardized, organized, equipped ■ More bronze weapon use ○ Western Zhou (1045771 BCE): ■ Capital: hongzhou ■ Innovative warfare: new types of armor; cast bronze swords ■ Flourishing of literature and music ■ Bronze prized by the elite ■ Mass production techniques = better quality ■ Bronze: ● Large foundries; mass production/standardization; sign of status ■ Decentralized system of rule (Fengjian): ● Shang officials retained some power ● Land divided up among ruler’s family (elites) ○ Comparison to Feudalism: ■ Development of elaborate nobility system – ranked hierarchy ■ Nobles owned all land, allowed people to work on it ■ However, no powerful clergy ○ Eastern Zhou ■ External pressures and war led to Zhou court moving the capital to Chengzhou in 771 BCE – beginning of Eastern Zhou period ■ Mandate of Heaven: ● King has divine right to rule ● Based on appropriate conduct of just rule ● Heaven will bless a just ruler ● What is “just” is based on Confucianism, not based on ancestry ● Shift from Shang Dynasty focus on ancestor worship ● Overthrowing based on ruling justly and Mandate important for the rest of Dynastic China ■ Spring and Autumn Period (770481 BCE): Success then decline ■ Warring States Period (481221 BCE): ● Multiple districts: ○ Imperial government broken into 5 seats of power ○ Conflict arose as regional leaders gained more power ○ Nearperpetual war ○ Political decentralization led to imperial breakdown ● Several states break away, become autonomous ● Last Zhou ruler killed by Qin Shi Huang in 256 BCE ● Qin Dynasty (221206 BCE): ○ Very short ○ Expand rule; unification of China’s “7 warring states” ○ Emperor: Q in Shihuang – best known Chinese emperor ○ Great Wall construction – connected preexisting walls; becomes larger later as every dynasty adds to it ○ Many legal reforms: Legalism; standardization of roads, canals, coins, etc. ○ Return to Imperial China ○ Totalitarian, legalistic (dictatorship?) ○ Extremely powerful military – crossbows important ○ Qin Shihuang: 1st emperor of Unified China ■ Destroyed Feudal structure: Stripped nobility of their power so there’d be less criticism of court – no traces of old/bad dynasty ■ Implemented legalism philosophy; codification of law; burned books on Confucianism ■ Didn’t want people to be literate – the less they know the less they can criticize/rebel ■ Standardized weights and measures, currency, chariot wheels and axles ■ Built roads and canals ○ Tomb of Qin Shihuang: ■ Completed 209210 BCE ■ Massive ■ Terracotta warriors – only 3 pits excavated ■ Conspicuous Consumption (showing off): ● Material wealth equated with social status, political power ● Han Dynasty (206BC220 BCE): ○ Golden Age of Dynastic China: ■ Majority of Chinese selfidentify as Han ■ Chinese script referred to as Han characters ○ Bureaucratic state: ■ Large administrative apparatus highly compartmentalized ■ Government headed by Chancellor, Imperial Counselor, and Commander of Military ○ Agricultural production expanded: ■ Lands, housing provided to farmers settled in borderlands ■ Tax remissions and medical facilities for settlers ■ Expansion of irrigation systems; water power harnessed for grain milling ■ Manual of field techniques compiled Indus and Mongols ● Indus Valley: ○ Mehrgarh Site (70002600 BCE): ■ Earliest use of agriculture in region ■ Precursor to Harappan civilization ■ Neolithic culture ○ Harappa S ite (~26001900/1500 BCE): ■ Located in modernday Pakistan ■ Large (2324,000 people) ■ Longdistance trade connections ● Gridded roadways made trade easier ● Detailed system of weights/measures made trade more efficient (standardization) ■ Wellplanned sewer systems ■ Specialized craft goods shellworking was important ○ MohenjoDaro Site (26001500 BCE): ■ In modernday Pakistan ■ Gridded road system; use of Harappan script ■ Short inscriptions found on seals (undeciphered) ○ Were there elites/royalty? ■ There was no monumental architecture (elite indicator) ■ House structures were fairly equal ■ Some differences in personal adornment ○ Decline and Abandonment (~19001500 BCE): ■ Unsure as to why ■ Maybe trade partners disunified = trade falls apart ■ Maybe climate change (less rain) = less surplus ■ Maybe foreigners invaded ● Mongol Empire: ○ Largest contiguous (not broken up by water) empire in history ○ 40 million people killed through expansion/conquest ○ Important for connecting East and West ○ Modern Mongolia: ■ Different, much smaller group; descended from Mongol Empire ■ Mostly grasslands ■ Seminomadic; agriculturebased society ○ Mongolian Prehistory: ■ Xiongnu group precursors ■ Modu Chanyu (209174 BCE) greatest ruler of period: ● Created a confederation of nomadic tribes which he loosely ruled ■ Silk road ○ Genghis Khan (~11621227 CE): ■ As a boy, his father was killed by the Tatars (conflict between the tribes) ■ His family was kicked out of their tribe, he gained followers, reconquered the tribe, and later defeated the Tatars ■ United Mongol tribes into one confederation by 1190 CE ■ He didn’t stick to Mongol traditions, but incorporated other ideas ● Conquered people were more loyal than resentful ■ Capital atKarakorum ■ Lots of legends about his death ■ Buried in an unmarked grave so that it wouldn’t be desecrated ■ Split empire between 4 sonYuan dynasty Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate ○ Government and Politics: ■ Generally left indigenous political systems in place, but put Mongolian rules above ■ Demanded tribute ■ EstablishedPax Mongolica (established peace after conquests) ■ Developed a strict legal coYassa wasn’t well known ○ Military: ■ Utilized the decimal system of organization ● Interlocking groups of 10; 1 army = 10,000 people, and there were many armies ■ Highly disciplined; swift and efficient; standardized ■ Horsebased combat (highlyskilled) ○ Society: ■ Religious diversity tolerated ■ Women more equal than other empires, but not as much as Ancient Egypt ■ Exempted poor and clergy from taxes ■ Increased knowledge of East and West ○ Great Khanate Yuan Dynast: ■ After defeat of the Song Dynasty became the Yuan Dynasty ■ Established by Genghis Khan’s grandsoublai Khan ■ Kept ethnic groups separated ○ Ro
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