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Psychology 1000 Study Guide Final Exam

by: Elyssa Tuininga

Psychology 1000 Study Guide Final Exam Psych 1000

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychlogy > Psych 1000 > Psychology 1000 Study Guide Final Exam
Elyssa Tuininga

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These notes are for Chapters 12, 13, and 14 that we covered in class. They contain definitions and notes taken from lectures.
Introduction to Psychology
Kelly Rudolph
Study Guide
Psych1000, Studyguide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elyssa Tuininga on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Kelly Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
Final Exam Class Notes: Chapters 12, 13, and 14. Chapter 12: psychodynamic theories: Theories that view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud developed Psychoanalysis, and coined the term “hysteria” He explored mental and physical symptoms caused by purely psychological factors. psychoanalysis: (1) Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. (2) Freud’s therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders. Freud believed that the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences— and the therapist’s interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. unconscious: according to Freud’s theory, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. But according to contemporary psychologists, the unconscious is information processing of which we are unaware. free association: A method in psychoanalysis of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Personality Structure. Freud came up with the idea of the “mind iceberg”, made up of the Ego, Superego, and Id. According to Freud, the Id is mostly in charge when you are a baby, the ego is associated with childhood, and the superego is associated with maturity and adulthood. He believed that personality was fully developed by age 5. id: According to Freud, a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. ego: the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. superego: the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Personality Development: psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.  Oral stage: (0-18 months) the child puts everything in their mouths, everything is discovered orally.  Anal stage: (18-36 months) the child is encouraged to use the bathroom and pleasure is focused on bowel control.  Phallic stage: (3-6 years) the genitals become the pleasure zone.  Latency: (6 years-Puberty) sexual feelings become dormant  Puberty: sexual maturation occurs. Oedipus complex: according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Happens during the ‘Phallic stage”, when boys seek genital stimulation. identification: the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. fixation: according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. defense mechanisms: in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. Freud believed that repression enables other defense mechanisms, such as:  Regression: going back to an infantile state,  Reaction formation: Switching unacceptable impulses to their opposites  Projection: Disguising one’s own impulses by attributing them to others  Rationalization: Making excuses for one’s behavior in place of the more dangerous real motives.  Displacement: Taking out your anger or frustration on other people.  Denial: Refusing to believe even obvious evidence of uncomfortable realities. Carl Jung: A previous student of Freud who then disagreed with him. He placed less emphasis on social factors and agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence. But to Jung, the unconscious contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelings. He believed we also have a collective unconscious. collective unconscious: Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history. Alfred Adler and Karen Horney were important psychologists who agreed with Freud on certain things, but dissented with him on others. projective test: a personality test, that provides random, ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. However, there is no way to accurately test these things, and the results don’t usually link well to personality traits. Rorschach inkblot test: the most widely used projective test that seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. There were many issues with Freud’s scientific method, including that it was biased, unrepresented, and unfalsifiable. Human development is lifelong, not merely set in stone by childhood, as Freud believed. Dreams have many possible origins, but are not necessarily unconscious struggles or conflict. And traumatic memories are usually remembered vividly, not repressed. However, Freud’s work was important, in that it gave us ideas about childhood, sexuality, anxiety, ego, projection, regression, and similar things. humanistic theories: view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth Meyers and Briggs: studied individual behaviors and how they differed. They came up with the “Myers- Briggs type indicator.” self-actualization: according to Abraham Maslow, self-actualization is one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential. unconditional positive regard: a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude. Carl Rogers believed that this sort of attitude would help clients be self-aware and self-accepting. self-concept: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” trait: An enduring quality that makes a person tend to act in a certain way. Trait theory of personality: We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, that differ from person to person. Extraverts: tend to have less brain activity, are less self-controlled, and seek outer stimulation. personality inventory: a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. The Big Five Personality Factors (CANOE) If a test specifies where you are on the five dimensions (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion), it has said much of what there is to say about your personality.  Conscientiousness- self-discipline  Agreeableness- helpfulness, trustfulness  Neuroticism- emotional instability  Openness- imaginative, independent.  Extraversion- fun-loving, affectionate. One’s distinctive mix of traits doesn’t change much, but in adulthood, everyone becomes more conscientious and agreeable, and less neurotic and extraverted. For many traits, genes account for 50% of variations. empirically derived test: a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. Alfred Bandura was a psychologist who wondered if social context influenced a person’s personality. social-cognitive perspective: views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context. reciprocal determinism: the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment self: in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. spotlight effect: overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders; thinking you’re the center of attention, when nobody is really noticing you. self-esteem: one’s feelings of high or low self-worth self-efficacy: one’s sense of competence and effectiveness. self-serving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably, or above-average. narcissism: excessive self-love and self-absorption, inflated but fragile self-worth. A sense of being special, but could be aggressive when threatened. individualism: giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. collectivism: giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. Chapter 13: Social psychology social psychology: the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. attribution theory: the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. fundamental attribution error: the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (Ex: when someone cuts you off in traffic, you tend to think that he/she is a moron, instead of thinking that they might be heading to the hospital for an emergency). attitude: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. peripheral route persuasion: occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness. More emotional and tied to feelings. central route persuasion: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. More logical and rational thinking. foot-in-the-door phenomenon: the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Used by door-to-door salesman all the time. role: a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. The Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of role playing, and how people will adopt the characteristics and attitudes of roles in certain situations, even when normally they wouldn’t act that way. cognitive dissonance theory: the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. culture: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. norm: an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior. conformity: adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. If everyone around you is wearing a certain brand of clothing, then you’ll want to wear it as well to fit in and ‘be cool’ Chameleon Effect: Unconsciously mirroring the body position and mood of others around us. Empathetic shifts: Shifting our mood to reflect others around us. Normative social influence: influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval, to belong. Informational social influence: influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. Going along with their opinions because it makes sense to your or evidence changes your mind. Stanley Milgram: A social psychologist who studied influences of direct commands on behavior. He wondered what conditions would make people more likely to obey commands. He discovered that people will likely follow commands if a person is:  A strong authority figure  Associated with prestigious institutions  Standing close by  Or when no one else disobeys. It’s quite frightening how when under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary people will do things that they said they would never do. bystander effect: the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. social exchange theory: the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. social-responsibility norm: an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. reciprocity norm: an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. Social facilitation: improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others social loafing: the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. deindividuation: the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Dangerous in mobs or rallies. group polarization: the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. conflict: a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. social trap: a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. mirror-image perceptions: mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. superordinate goals: shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation groupthink: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. GRIT: Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. Mere Exposure Effect: People tend to find others more attractive if they see them more often. Physical/Emotional Attractiveness: People rated as more attractive tend to be also seen as healthier/happier, but that isn’t necessarily true. passionate love: an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. companionate love: the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. equity: a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. self-disclosure: revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. Altruism: An unselfish regard for people around you, with no heed for personal gain, because “it’s the right thing to do.” People are more likely to help someone when:  The person Appears to be in need  The person Is a woman or is similar to them  They are in a small town or rural area.  They feel guilty about it  They are not in a hurry/preoccupied/on the phone.  Are in a good mood. prejudice: an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. stereotype: a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. discrimination: (1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. (2) in social psychology, unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. just-world phenomenon: the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Availability Heuristic: Forming generalized stereotypes based on vivid cases. (Ex: People have formed negative opinions of all Middle Eastern people, or of all Muslims because they remember the events of 9/11) Confirmation bias: Looking for information that will confirm our opinion. Hindsight Bias: “They should have known better.” ingroup: “Us”—people with whom we share a common identity. outgroup: “Them”—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup ingroup bias: the tendency to favor our own group. scapegoat theory: the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. other–race effect: the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias. aggression: any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. Aggression could stem from several biological factors, including genes, brain activity, or biochemistry. Males are more prone to aggression, because they have higher testosterone levels. Testosterone levels are correlated with irritability, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration. Alcohol can make a person more aggressive. Exposure to violent media, especially video games and pornography, can increase aggressive impulses. frustration-aggression principle: the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression. social script: culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations. Chapter 14: Psychological disorders. psychological disorder: a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. (Ex: ADHD, OCD, Personality disorders, schizophrenia, PTSD, Anxiety, Depression.) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Philippe Pinel was one of the first to propose that mental disorders were not in fact caused by demonic possession, but by stress, and inhumane conditions. He said that people needed to be treated with gentleness, social interaction, and be nurtured. medical model: the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital. Culture-bound syndromes: disorders only seen in certain cultures. (Ex: Bulimia is usually only seen in the U.S.) Psychopathology: the study of psychological disorders and of the mind. Certain disorders seem to be culture-bound, and only seen in certain parts of the world. DSM-5: the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Many people think that a diagnostic label means being seen as tainted, weak, and weird, and so they don’t want to go get tested for a psychological disorder. Often these negative views come from social media, not the DSM. anxiety disorders: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. They often have trembling, sweating, and sleep disruption. panic disorder: an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. They often think they are dying. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack. phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation. (snakes, needles, heights, small spaces, etc.) Agoraphobia: Being scared of having a panic attack in public, so being terrified to leave your home. Social Phobia: Fear of other people’s judgment. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts or images that pop up in the brain (obsessions), a strong need to carry out an action (compulsions), or both. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. mood disorders: psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder. major depressive disorder: a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. Symptoms of depression include decrease in eating, insomnia, or sleeping too much during the day, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, difficulty concentrating, indecision, and suicidal thoughts. Being depressed is more than just feeling sad or “down”. bipolar disorder: a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.) More than just “mood swings”. When the person is Depressive, they have exaggerated pessimism, social withdrawal, and intense depression. When the person is manic, they feel euphoric, happy, productive, overly optimistic, impulsive, and they tend to talk very quickly. mania: a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common. Over 1 million people commit suicide in the U.S. per year. Self-harm: People will self-harm to distract them from other pain, to get attention, or to try to feel pain. schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia (the indication of non-healthy behaviors) include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thoughts and nonsensical speech, (word salad) bizarre behaviors. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia (absence of behaviors, no emotions, ‘flat affect’) include reduced social interaction, no feeling of enjoyment, speaking less, no motivation, catatonia. Schizophrenia is more common in men than women, and 1 in 100 people could develop it. There has been a link found that those who smoke marihuana are more likely to develop schizophrenia. A person with acute schizophrenia could possibly recover, but a person with chronic schizophrenia is much harder to treat. psychosis: a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions. delusions: false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders dissociative disorders: disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. dissociative identity disorder (DID): a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. (Formerly called multiple personality disorder.) anorexia nervosa: an eating disorder in which a person maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight. bulimia nervosa: an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting. binge-eating disorder: significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa. personality disorders: psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. antisocial personality disorder: a personality disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. They may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.


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