Neuro exam FINAL
Neuro exam FINAL NSC 3361
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Popular in Neuroscience
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yesenia Notetaker on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NSC 3361 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Van S Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Neuroscience at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Behavioral Neuroscience Test 1 Study online quizlet.com/_1z5lx4 1.Absence seizure?: Shows generalized rhythmic activity, happens 16.Doespotassium move into our out ofthe cell?: Out of the briefly but multiple times throughout the day.There is no cell, There is a high concentration of potassium in the cell and a abnormal muscle activity here.Entire brain. low extracellular concentration. 2.Absolute refractory period vsRelative refractory period: In 17.Doessize matter when it comesto axonal transport? Ifso, the case of absolute, nomore action potentials can be fired NO do smaller or larger neuronstransport signalsfaster? Why?: MATTER WHAT.In relative, a very strong depolarization can Yes.Larger neurons transport signals faster.Larger neurons lead toan action potential.The main difference is the fact that tend tohave more complex inputs and outputs, they cover during the absolute RPsodium channels are INACTIVATED greater distances and convey information more rapidly.The while they are CLOSED in Relative RP. more myelin the better. 3.Afferent vsEfferent: Afferent carries impulses toward the region 18.Doessodium move into or out ofthe cell?: Intothe cell, there of interest.For instance, any input coming intothe brain is is a high extracellular sodium concentration and a low considered tobe afferent.(sensory) intracellular concentration Efferent carries impulses away from the region of interest.For 19.Dorsal?: toward the back instance, any output from the brain will be efferent (motor) 20.EndogenousvsExogenousligands: Endo- is made in the body 4.Anterior?: head end and consist of neurotransmitters and hormones 5.Are children with autism able to show empathy?: Nothey are Exo- are not made by the body and consist of drugs and toxins. unable toshow empathy.Empathy is thought tobe controlled 21.EPSP vsIPSP: EPSPis a depolarization (Na+ entering the cell). by mirror neurons found in the frontal cortex of the brain.The IPSPis a hyperpolarization (Cl- entering the cell) fact that they don't show empathy leads tothe belief that 22.Fetal alcohol syndrome symptomsinclude?: Microcephaly, autism may have something todowith mirror neurons (They low nasal bridge, thin upper lip, flat midface (These are only a don't know this for sure, it is just a belief) few, the rest are found in the lecture 3 slides, he mentioned 6.Biochemical analysisofCSF showslow tyrosine hydroxylase microcephaly during class soi think that should be important.) activity. Dopamine infusionstemporarily improved 23.Generalized convulsions?: abnormal activity throughout the symptoms. Why isthissignificant?: Tyrosine hydroxylase is brain, tonic and clonic contractions.Entire brain. responsible for the conversion of Tyrosine intoL-Dopa.L-Dopa 24.Golgi apparatus?: Stacks of flat membrane compartments that is then converted intoDopamine. package products for shipment. (It is important tonote that Tyrosine is the precursor of 25.How can aneurotransmitter decrease the release ofmore Dopamine, and is found in almost all foods). neurotransmitter?: By binding toautoreceptors on the 7.Can you store gasneurotransmitters?: Nope.They diffuse presynaptic end right out soit would be nearly impossible tostore gas 26.How do barbiturateswork?: They block sodium channels and neurotransmitters.They are produced instantly and diffuse increase the influx of chloride ions. instantly. 27.How do electrical synapseswork?: Ions flow DIRECTLY into 8.ChemoattractantsvsChemorepellants: Attractants attract certain growth cones while repellents repel certain growth adjacent neurons, with almost notime delay.Very fast and allow neurons tosynchronize in order tosave energy. cones. 28.How doesahorizontal view split the brain?: Top tobottom 9.Complex partial seizure?: Happens on one side brain (not entire brain) and hence there is a deviation tothe other side of 29.How doesalcohol differ at high or low concentrations?: At the body.Awareness is impaired low doses it acts as a stimulant, turns off cortical inhibition, and reduces social constraints and anxiety.At high doses, it has a 10.Contralateral?: opposite side sedative effect. 11.Could you fire an action potential ifyou were 1mV away from threshold?: No,axons are all are none, meaning they 30.How doesan action potential change with increased stimulusstrength?: By increasing the frequency.(If this either get tothreshold or they don't fire there is noin between. question comes up on the exam, there will be an answer choice 12.Diffusion vsElectrostatic pressure: Diffusion works with saying increase amplitude that is NOT the right answer. concentration gradients (high tolow) while electrostatic pressure works with electrical gradients (moves toan area with 31.How doesan MRI work?: Strong magnets line up protons in the brain, a pulse of radiowaves then knocks the protons over. opposite charge). The protons then reconfigure, emitting radiowaves that differ 13.Distal ?: toward periphery in tissue density.It measures the water content of the brain. 14.DoesGlutamate act on only ionotropic receptorsor can it 32.How doesasagittal view split the brain? also act on metabotropic receptors?: Glutamate can act on (AKA midsagittal): slices the brain down the midline. both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.Glutamate can act on mGluRs which are slower metabotropic receptors. 15.Doespotassium move into our out ofthe cell?: Both, an electrical gradient moves potassium intothe cell while a concentration gradient moves potassium out. 33.How doescaffeine work?: It blocks adenosine which is a 54.Physical vsPhysiological dependence: Physical has todowith neuromodulator that usually inhibits catecholamine release via withdrawal symptoms (take drugs toavoid them). presynpatic autoreceptors. Physiological has todowith compulsive and repetitive use Moral of the story:Caffeine stimulates the release of (craving) Catecholamines, which leads toarousal. 55.Posterior?: tail end 34.How doescoronal split the brain?: Front toback.Looks like a 56.Preganglionic vsPostganglionic neurons: Pre- goes from CNS butterfly. toautonomic ganglia. 35.How do SSRIswork? and what are some examples?: These Post- goes from the autonomic ganglia totarget) cause the accumulation of serotonin ONLY and have FEWER These are both found in the autonomic nervous system. side effects than tricyclics.Sothis is the better class. 57.Proximal?: near center 36.How do Tricyclicswork?: They increase norepinephrine and 58.Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?: contains ribosomes serotonin by blocking their reuptake. and it is the site of protein synthesis. 37.How isthe RMP established?: Sodium-potassium pump as well 59.Santiago Ramon y Cajal VS Camillo Golgi: Golgi came up with as potassium leak channels are responsible for maintaining the a staining method known as 'Golgi staining' that essentially resting membrane potential at -60 mV.The membrane is also allowed SantiagoRamon y Cajal tounderstand how neurons slightly permeable tosodium allows some toslowly leak in. worked.Golgi misunderstood the neuron and believed that 38.How many layersdoesthe cortex have?: 6 layers neurons communicated via electrical conduction.Cajal believed 39.In how many directionsto action potentialstravel and that there was a gap (synapse) along the neuron which meant why?: action potentials travel in only one direction.The sodium that there must be some type of chemical transmission going on. channels behind the action potential are in their absolute 60.Sensitive period ofdevelopment?: This is the period of time refractory period (Inactivated) when experience makes permanent alterations.This is at a 40.In termsofmovement, what isthe cortex responsible for?: young age Cognitive control of movement 61.Sensory neuronsvsmotor neurons: Sensory neurons essentially respond tothe environment (it's all about perception 41.In the case ofSheila, or other Tetanuscases, what exactly happens?: Tetanospasmin binds irreversibly tomembrane at - touch, odor, light) synapse, blocking release of glycine from axon terminals, Motor neurons are in contact with muscles and glands (don't forget about the glands!!!) causing generalized rigidity 62.Sequence oftransmission at chemical synpases?: Action 42.In what part ofthe neuron isNitric oxide produced ? And how isit transmitted?: It is produced in the dendrites.Nitric potential travels down the axon towards terminal -> depolarizes oxide serves as a retrograde transmitter by diffusing back into terminal, caused voltage gated calcium channels toopen up -> Influx of calcium causes the synaptic vesicles tofuse with the the presynaptic neuron. 43.Ipsilateral?: same side membrane leading tothe released of neurotransmitter via 44.Isaneuron directional?: Yes they are very directional. exocytosis -> Neurotransmitter then travels across the synapse and binds toligand gated ion channels on the post synaptic 45.IsLSD addictive? Why or Why not?: It is not addictive due to membrane -> depending upon the neurotransmitter this then the fact that it does not act on the VTA. leads toan EPSPor IPSP. 46.Isthere lossofconsciousnessin absence seizure?: Yes there 63.Sheilawasgardening and cut her leg, she developed a is headache and she had ahard time opening her mouth. 24 47.Isthe speed ofconduction in myelinated or unmyelinated hourslater she developed jaw stiffnessand severe back and axonsfaster?: Myelinated is a lot faster than unmyelinated due limb spasms. What waswrong with Sheila?: Sheila must have tosaltatory conduction or 'jumping' from node tonode. cut her leg on a metal object.These are the symptoms of 48.Lateral?: towards the side Tetanus. 49.Medial?: Towards the middle 64.Simple partial seizure?: Has normal awareness (Not entire 50.Mesolimbocortical pathway vsMesostriatal pathway?: - brain) He showed a videoof a boy with lip twitching on one side Limbocortical goes from the VTA totargets 65.Since GABA isinhibitory what ion flowsinto the cell when - Striatal goes from Substantia nigra totargets GABA binds?: Chloride (hyperpolarization) 51.Myoclonic seizure?: These are rapid contractions that usually 66.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?: regulates cytoplasm happen at the same time on both sides of the body.It is and is responsible for lipid synthesis (this might be out of the important tonote that these contractions are rhythmic. scope of this course but know just in case) 52.Nucleus?: DNA in chromosomes, mRNA transcribed from DNA, 67.Sympathetic vsParasympathetic: Sympathetic is responsible gene expression for the 4 Fs (Fight, flight, fear and sex), gets your body ready for 53.Ofthe 6 stagesofnervoussystem development, which one action.(running away from a bear) isalifelong process?: Step 6, Synapse rearrangement.This Parasympathetic is responsible for 'Rest and Digest' (when happens throughout your lifetime as you live and learn. you're sitting down watching netflix instead of studying behavioral neuroscience this is the system that is activated) 68.There are 2 major divisionsofMonoamines, what are they?: 85. What are interneurons? Where are they mainly found?: Catecholamines and Indolamines They're the middle man/woman.Receive input from one 69.Tolerance vsSensitization: Tolerance has todowith neuron and send it toanother.MOST NEURONS IN THE CNS decreased sensitivity toa drug as a result of taking it. ARE INTERNEURONS. Sensitization has todowith increased sensitivity toa drug as a 86. What are ion channels?: These are transmembrane proteins result of taking it. that allow ions topass in and out of the cell 70.Under what circumstancesdo Glial cellsdo usharm?: In the 87. What are ligands?: they fit ontoa receptor in order toactivate case where an individual has AIDs, viral activated microglia them or block them.These work on ligand gated ion channels. release neurotoxins glutamate and Nitric oxide which lead to 88. What are microfilaments?: Associated with cell membrane, brain damage. they are dynamic structures.double helix of actin 71.Ventral?: toward the belly 89. What are microglia?: It's easiest tothink of these as the 'clean 72.Viawhat structure doesCSF exit the brain and go into the up crew' of the nervous system.They clean up debris from blood stream?: Arachnoid villi dying cells (neurons and glia) through phagocytosis 73.What are antidepressantsand how do they work?: They are 90. What are microtubules?: tracks for movement within the Monoamine oxidase inhibitors which essentially prevent the neuron.Spirals of tubulin breakdown of monoamines in the synapse which allow the 91. What are neurofilaments?: Static support structures. accumulation of monoamines. 92. What are Oligodendrocytes?: They wrap the axon with myelin 74.What are antipsychotic/ neuroleptic drugs? What are sheath.These are only found in the CNS and myelinate multiple typical antipsychotic drugs?: Class of drugs that are used to axons. treat schizophrenia and aggressive behavior.They are mainly 93. What are other namesfor absence seizuresand generalized Dopamine antagonists tonic clonic seizuresrespectively?: Petit-mal and grand-mal 75.What are anxiolytic and what do they do?: They are 94. What are some examplesofCatecholamines?: Dopamine, tranquilizers and reduce nervous system activity. Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine 76.What are astrocytes?: They are the MOST NUMEROUS GLIAL 95. What are some examplesofSoluble gasneurotransmitters?: CELL, they fill spaces between neurons for support, and Nitric oxide and Carbon monoxide regulate the composition of the extracellular space.It is 96. What are some featuresofautism?: Communication and important tonote that Astrocytes form a connection between language problems (Delayed language and Echolalia), Lack of neurons and capillaries.Astrocytes are ONLY found in the social interaction (Impaired nonverbal behavior, Failure to brain. share, Poor eye contact), Repetitive behavior (Self-injurious 77.What are bipolar neuronsand where are they usually behavior), Odd movement (Repeated gestures), Predictability found?: These neurons have one axon and one dendrite.They (Have trouble changing routine), Intellectual functioning (can are usually sensory. range from gifted toretarded, most have mental retardation) The most common place tofind bipolar neurons is in the retina. 97. What are the 3 different ionotropic receptorsthat (visual system) glutamate can act on?: AMPA, NMDA, and Kainate. 78.What are characteristicsofaddiction?: Preoccupation with 98. What are the 3 germ layers?: Endoderm, Mesoderm, and obtaining drug. Ectoderm Compulsive use despite consequences. High chance of relapse after quitting. 99. What are the 3 kindsofEndogenousopiates?: Enkephalins, Endorphins, and Dynorphins 79.What are endocannabinoids?: They are retrograde signaling 100. What are the 3 partsofthe brain?: Forebrain, hindbrain and molecules released toactivate cannabinoid receptors on nearby midbrain neurons.They are lipophilic which means they cannot be stored and are synthesized on demand. 101. What are the 4 typesofglial cells?: Astrocytes, 80.What are endogenousopiates?: They are peptides that bind oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia. 102. What are the 6 stagesofDevelopment ofour Nervous toopioid receptors and relieve pain.These are Addictive system?: Neurogenesis, Cell migration, Differentiation, 81.What are ependymal cells?: Line ventricles and secrete/absorb CSF.(cerebral spinal fluid).Ependymal cells help Synaptogenesis, Neuronal cell death, and Synapse rearrangement. your brain develop. 103. What are the characteristicsofaCT scan?: X-ray absorption 82.What are examplesofIntrinsic proteinsand what do they shows tissue density.The denser the tissue the whiter the do?: Receptors and ion channels.They give neurons the necessary properties for signaling. image.(White is bone, black is CSF.Bone is more dense and hence white.Blood appears as white too) 83.What are gated channels?: they open and close in response to 104. What are the different classesofneurotransmitters?: Amino changes in voltage, mechanical stimulation, or chemicals. acids, Monamines, Soluble gases, Acetylcholine and 84.What are growth cones?: They are sensory motile organelles found at the tip of growing axons and dendrites. Neuropeptide. 105.What are the different stagesduring spinal cord 125. What do dendritic spinesdo? What;sso special about development?: Neural plate (18 days) -> Neural groove (20 these spines?: They increase surface area. days)-> Neural tube (22 days)-> Spinal cord They show neural plasticity and are important when it comes to 106.What are the Dopamine pathwaysresponsible for?: learning and memory. Reward, reinforcement, learning, and schizophrenia.It is also 126. What do Endogenousopiatesdo?: They produce analgesia responsible for motor control. and a feeling of well being 107.What are the major characteristicsofMuscarinic 127. What doesan agonist do?: initiates normal effects of the receptors?: They are metabotropic, Excitatory and Inhibitory, receptor.These usually mimic the natural ligand.Drugs are and found in the CNS. considered tobe partial agonists. 108.What are the major characteristicsofNicotinic receptors?: 128. What doesan EEG measure?: Brain potentials They are ionotropic, Excitatory, and Peripheral 129. What doesaPET scan measure?: It measures brain activity.It 109.What are the Norepinephrine pathwaysofthe brain uses radioactive chemicals tofigure out which brain regions responsible for?: Mood, arousal, and sexual behavior. contribute tospecific functions. 110.What are the Parietal and Occipital lobesnamed according 130. What doesChronic alcohol do to the adult brain?: It to?: They are named according tothe bone that overlies them. damages neurons in the cerebellum and frontal lobe.(It is 111.What are the Serotonin pathwaysofthe brain responsible important tonote that neurons CAN recover) for?: Sleep, mood, sexual, behavior, and anxiety. 131. What doesLSD resemble?: It resembles serotonin.It acts as a 112.What are the stepsofan action potential?: Initial serotonin agonist on receptors in visual cortex. depolarization leads tothe opening of the voltage gated sodium 132. What doesmorphine bind to?: Bind toopioid receptors in channels -> More voltage gated sodium channels open up till the brainstem, especially locus coeruleus and the the membrane potential gets to+40mV.-> Voltage gated sodium periaqueductal gray channels get INACTIVATED-> The inside of the cell is now 133. What doesopium contain?: It contains morphine, which is a positive this causes the opening of the potassium channels-> potent analgesic. potassium begins tomove out reestablishing the RMP. 134. What doesPCP do?: depersonalization and detachment from 113.What are the symptomsofOxycontin overdose?: Comatose reality. and very small pupils 135. What doestetrodotoxin do? And where doesit come 114.What are the two typesofacetylcholine receptors?: from?: It blocks nerve action by blocking voltage gated sodium Nicotinic and Muscarinic channels.Nonerve action means nomotor movement. 115.What are the two typesofAxoplasmic transport?: Tetrodotoxin comes mainly from Fugu (puffer fish) Anterograde and Retrograde 136. What doesthe chemoaffinity hypothesisstate?: Each cell 116.What are the two typesofreceptors?: Ionotropic and has a genetic chemical identity that guides its development Metabotropic receptors 137. What doesthe Ponscontain?: Contains motor and sensory 117.What are the two typesoftissue in the brain?: Neurons and nuclei toface glial cells 138. What do Neuromodulatorsdo?: They indirectly affect 118.What are two main classesofAntidepressants?: Tricyclics transmitter release or receptor response. and SSRIs 139. What do neuronscompete for?: They compete for chemicals 119.What can GABA agonistsbe used for and what are some that are made by target cells, alsoknown as neurotrophic examples?: These can be used as tranquilizers.Examples factors.and synaptic connections. include Valium and barbiturates. 140. What do ventriclesdo?: They make CSF which essentially 120.What can opiatesdo?: They can depress breathing, change surrounds and cushions the brain. the limbic system and block pain messages. 141. What happensto any excessneurotransmitter?: It is 121.What cell servesasaguide for cellsto migrate along?: inactivated by reuptake or degradation. Radial 'glial' cells 142. What happenswhen astrocytesaren't doing their job?: 122.What did the Neuron Doctrine state?: It stated that the Potassium concentration outside the neuron is high leading to brain is composed of independent cells and that neuronal migraines.Hangovers are alsocaused by a dysfunctional signals are transmitted from cell tocell across synapses. astrocyte. 123.What do Benzodiazepine agonistsact on and what do they 143. What happenswhen the reticular formation isdamaged?: do?: Agonists act on GABAa receptors and enhance inhibitory Coma effects of GABA via Cl- influx. 144. What isagood way to treat oxycontin overdose and why?: 124.What do brainscannabinoid receptorsbind to?: Naloxone.It acts as an opiate anatagonist. Anandamide and 2-AG (endocannabinoid) 145.What isaHematoma?: It is the accumulation of blood due to 161. What isdegradation? and what isan example?: It is the head trauma that severs a blood vessel.This accumulation breakdown of transmitter by an enzyme.The breakdown of causes the brain tocompress which leads tothe build up of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase (breaks down pressure in the brain.Not sure if you should know this but just acetylcholine intoacetyl and choline, choline is taken back up at in case, There are 2 types of hematomas, epidural and subdural the presynaptic terminal) hematomas.Epidural hematomas are generally a lot worse than 162. What isdifferentiation and what problemscan arise from subdural due tothe fact that you sever an artery in epidural dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: This is the step where cells which leads toa rapid accumulation of blood and a much become specific neurons/glial cells.Problems here can lead to quicker death.Subdural is a severed vein usually and takes things like an astrocytoma. time for blood toaccumulate.Both are bad. 163. What isdoesan fMRI do?: It detects changes in brain 146.What isamblyopia?: This is the misalignment of the eyes that metabolism (oxygen use for instance).Shows how networks of sticks with the child due tothe fact that it was not corrected brain structures work together. during the sensitive period.Fancy way of saying lazy eye. 164. What isdown regulation and what doesit cause?: it is a 147.What isaMeningioma?: Tumor of the Meninges decrease in the number of receptors and it causes tolerance. 148.What isametabotropic receptor? Direct or Indirect?: 165. What isepilepsy caused by and how are they treated?: These receptors recognize the transmitter/ligand but instead of Epilepsy is caused by overexcitation (toomuch depolarization). opening up an ion channel they activate a G protein and hence This is caused by overactive sodium channels.Most drugs that can be referred toas G protein coupled receptors.Indirect. treat epilepsy work by preventing sodium channels from 149.What isamultipolar neurons?: This type of neuron has one staying open for toolong. axon and multiple dendrites.This is the neuron you visualize 166. What isexcitotoxicity and what can it be caused by?: This when you dream about the nervous system occurs when you have an excess release of glutamate, which is 150.What isan antagonist?: prevents a receptor from being excitatory in nature.It is caused by neural injury such as stroke activated by other ligands.Drugs can be competitive antagonist or head trauma. (compete for the binding site with the natural ligand) or 167. What ishydrocephaluscaused by?: CSF circulation failure Noncompetitive antagonist (These bind toa site other than the 168. What isLissencephaly caused by?: Unstable microtubules fall binding site, and inhibit the receptor) apart, preventing the transport of proteins (Kinesin and 151.What isan example ofan endogenousbenzodiazepine?: Dynein) tothe proper location.This is known as smooth brain. Allopregnanolone. 169. What isMELAS?: This occurs when the mitochondria does not 152.What isan example ofaNeuropeptide?: Endorphins work properly and hence is unable toproduce sufficient 153.What isan ionotropic receptor? What'sanother way of energy.This eventually leads tothe death of brain cells. naming them? Direct or Indirect?: These open when bound 170. What isMS?: It is characterized by an autoimmune attack that by a ligand.These are alsoknown as ligand gated channels. leads tooligodendrocyte injury.Damage tooligodendrocytes Direct. prevents the formation of myelin which leads toproblems with 154.What isanode ofRanvier?: It is a section of an axon that has conduction.This is a progressive disorder that gets worse with nomyelin sheath.There is a high concentration of sodium time. channels at these nodes which allow for fast conduction across 171. What isneural plasticity?: number and structure are rapidly the axon.This type of conduction is known as saltatory altered by experience. conduction. 172. What isneurogenesisand problemsthat can arise from 155.What isapoptosis?: It is a fancy way of saying programmed dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: This is the growth of neurons. cell death.It starts with calcium influx that causes the release of This can lead tomicrocephaly.He mentioned Zika virus in class Diablowhich binds toIAPs, allowing caspases todegrade the and how it causes microcephaly as well sonote that, he may ask cell. about it. 156.What is(are) example(s) ofIndolamines?: Serotonin 173. What isneuronal cell death and what problemscan arise 157.What isaSchwann cell?: They wrap the axon with myelin from dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: This is the selective sheath.These are found in the PNS and only myelinate one death of certain nerve cells.(apoptosis) Problems here can lead axon at a time. toFragile X syndrome. 158.What isasynapse?: It is a chemical gap 174. What isnicotine and what doesit cause?: It is the primary 159.What isaunipolar neuron?: It is a single extension that psychoactive and addictive drug (acts on VTA) in tobacco.In PNS it causes twicthing, in CNS it causes alertness. branches out in twodirections.It has a receptive pole and an output zone. 175. What ispachygyriacharacterized by?: 3 cortical layers 160.What iscell migration and what problemscan arise from 176. What isperiodic paralysiscaused by?: Genetic defect in dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: Cells moving totheir sodium channels in the muscle. destination.This can lead toa double band cortex. 177.What isphrenology?: It essentially assigned different 194.What isthe major reward system?: Mesolimbocortical functions tocortical areas.Scientists whostudied phrenology dopamine pathway believed that "bumps" on the skull signified an enlarged cortical 195.What isthe medullaand what isit responsible for?: It is the area. transition between brain and spinal cord.It is responsible for 178.What issynapse rearrangement and what problemscan regulating heart rate and breathing. arise from dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: is the loss or 196.What isthe most common excitatory neurotransmitter of growth of synapses, fine-tuning of the nervous systems. the brain?: Glutamate Problems here can lead toAutism and Epilepsy. 197.What isthe most common inhibitory neurotransmitter of 179.What issynaptogensisand what problemscan arise from the brain?: GABA dysfunctionsduring thisstep?: This is the establishment of 198.What isthe most common type ofneuron in the human synaptic connections.Problems here can lead todisorders such nervoussystem?: multipolar neurons as Autism 199.What isthe Neuron membrane?: It is a lipid bilayer that 180.What isthe active ligand ofMarijuana?: THC surrounds the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid acting as a 181.What isthe autonomic nervoussystem and what isit charge separator. divided into?: It is responsible for involuntary movements, 200.What isthe oldest classofantidepressants?: Tricyclics things that you cannot consciously control. 201.What isthe output zone?: This is where the neuron It is divided intothe sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous communicates with other neurons.This is the axon terminals. system. 202.What isthe pathway ofCSF circulation?: Produced by 182.What isthe basal gangliaresponsible for? Where isit ependymal cells->Flows through cerebral aqueduct -> Exits located in the brain?: Movement control.The basal ganglia is brain at medulla -> Absorbed intoblood system the innermost portion of the brain and can be considered tobe 203.What isthe primary cause ofpreventable death?: Smoking the oldest part. 204.What isthe prognosisofAlexander'sdisease?: astrocytes 183.What isthe basisofaddiction?: Reward.Reward is the positive effect any agent has on the user. begin tofill up with GFAPwhich eventually lead totheir failure. This happens due tothe fact that they can not metabolize GFAP 184.What isthe cerebellum responsible for?: Motor coordination properly. and learning 205.What isthe Resting membrane potential? (RMP): It is the 185.What isthe conduction zone?: This is where the information potential difference across the membrane at rest.It is usually travels down the axon.Axon acts like a wire. around -60 mV. 186.What isthe difference between cocashrub leavesand 206.What isthe somatic system responsible for?: Voluntary purified extract (cocaine)?: Coca shrub is not addictive, it movements.Things you can consciously control. alleviates hunger and enhances sense of well being.The purified extact enters brain much more rapidly and hence is a 207.What isthe term used to describe agenetic abnormality of an ion channel? And what are probemscaused by this?: lot more addictive. Channelopathy.Epilepsy, migraine and weakness. 187.What isthe difference between the tonic and clonic phases ofatonic-clonic seizure?: Tonic refers tothe rigid phase while 208.What isthe term used to describe atumor ofan astrocyte?: Astrocytoma.(Astro- for astrocyte and -oma for mass/tumor) A clonic is referring tothe violent muscle convulsions. previous test question was, What isatumor ofaSchwann 188.What isthe important structure in the Midbrain and what Cell? Answer isSchwannomaMoral of the story:be familiar isit'sfunction?: Reticular formation.It regulates sleep and with this medical terminology. arousal, as well as temperature and motor control.Reticular 209.What isthe thalamusresponsible for?: It acts as the sensory formation is alsoreferred toas the Reticular activating system relay where all sensory information synapses.It is considered to (RAS). be the geometric center of the brain. 189.What isthe input zone?: This is essentially the receiving dock of the neuron.This is where all the information comes in.This is 210.What isupregulation and what doesit cause?: It is the increase in the number of receptors and it causes sensitization the dendrites. 211.What kind oftransport isoccuring when material is 190.What isthe integration zone?: This is where all the inhibitory and excitatory signals are processed and the neuron decides if moved from the terminalsto the soma?: Retrograde transport.Uses dynein it should fire an action potential or not.This happens in the 212.What kind oftransport isoccurring when material is soma moving from the somato the terminals? And what isthe 191.What isthe limbic system responsible for?: Your pain and suffering, this is where all emotions are regulated and where protein used.: Anterograde transport.Uses Kinesin your emotional memories are located. 213.What makesup the CNS?: The brain and spinal cord 214.What makesup the Diencephalon?: Thalamus, 192.What isthe main function ofglial cells?: Support the brain. (cheerleaders, sort of) Hypothalamus and Mammillary bodies.It is important tonote 193.What isthe major inhibitory neurotransmitter ofthe that this is our first brain in human evolution, and it is responsible for the reflexive control of our behavior. SPINAL CORD?: Glycine 215.What percentage ofthe brain'senergy isutilized by the 235. Where and why are endorphinsproduced: They are Sodium potassium pump?: 40% produced in the pituitary and hypothalamus during exercise, 216.What protein isreleased by the notochord? What is excitement, pain, eating spicy food, love and orgasm. induction?: Sonic hedgehog, it directs cells in spinal cord to 236. Where are IPSPsand EPSPsintegrated?: At the axon hillock. become motorneuron.Influence of one set of cells on the fate of "dendrite vote, axons decide" nearby cells. 237. Where are multipolar neuronsmostly found?: In the brain 217.What'san example ofwhere the motor neuronsstimulate 238. Where are NGF and BDNF produced and what do they do?: agland?: The release of adrenaline (epinephrine) from the They are produced by targets and keep incoming neurons adrenal medulla by the sympathetic nervous system alive. 218.What'sMDMA? and how doesit work?: It is an Amphetamine 239. Where are the blood vesselslocated in the brain. (What analog that has primary effects in the brain on neurons that layer ofthe meninges): Subarachnoid space. use serotonin.It blocks the serotonin reuptake transporter. 240. Where do Cholinergic pathwaysoriginate in the brain?: 219.What specific brain disorder can be caused by problems Basal forebrain with migration?: Pachygyria 241. Where doesan action potential start?: At the axon hillock 220.What'sso special about unipolar neurons?: Unipolar 242. Where doesthe Mesolimbocortical pathway go to?: It goes neurons are the fastest of the neurons, they are used in cases from the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) tothe Nuceleus that require fast responses such as reflexes. Accumbens. 221.Whatsthe main difference between the unipolar and 243. Where do Graded potentialsoccur and what are they?: bipolar neuron?: In the case of a unipolar neuron the These occur in dendrites.These usually lead toa small information does not have toflow through the cell body (soma) depolarization that diminish as they spread, if you have enough 222.What structuresmake up the brain stem? (Hint: 3 graded potentials toreach threshold then you can fire an action structures): Midbrain, pons, and medulla potential. 223.What two drugsblock the reuptake ofneurotransmitter?: 244. Where isDopamine produced?: It is mainly produced in the MDMA and Cocaine. Substantia nigra and Ventral tegmental area. 224.What two systemsisthe PNS divided into?: The autonomic 245. Where isNorepinephrine produced?: Locus Coeruleus and the somatic system 246. Where isSerotonin made in the brain?: Raphe nuclei 225.What type ofpermeability doesaneuron show towards 247. Where isthe subarachnoid space located?: Below the Potassium and sodium?: Selective permeability. arachnoid would be the most obvious choice, but alsobe aware It is important tonote that Potassium can enter and leave the that the answer choice on the exam could be between the cell freely. arachnoid membrane and Pia mater.This is where blood 226.What waswrong with Alex?: Alex had Lowe syndrome which vessels and CSF are found. is a disorder of the Golgi due tothe fact that the proteins are not 248. Where isthe subdural space?: Between the Dura mater and being transported towhere they need togo, impairing the Arachnoid membrane.(If you didn't know the answer to development. this just know that sub- means below sosubdural would mean 227.When doesthe brain stop growing?: At age 20 below dura.This could help you eliminate some choices on the 228.When looking at abrain what isthe terminology used to exam.) describe aridge and asulcus?: Gyrus and sulcus respectively. 249. Which layer ofthe brain isthe receiving portion 229.When looking at both Calcium and Chloride, isthere a (afferent)?: Layer 4 larger concentration inside or outside ofthe cell?: Outside 250. Which layer ofthe meningesissoft and innermost?: Pia the cell.There is a low intracellular concentration of chloride and mater calcium. 251. Which layer(s) ofthe brain isinformation leaving 230.When looking at neuronal cell death what isthe function (efferent)?: Layer 5 and 6 ofacaspase?: They are proteases that cut up (degrade) 252. Which neurotransmitter classisthe target ofmost drugs proteins as well as DNA. that treat depression?: Monoamines 231.When looking at the componentsofcytoskeleton, which 253. Which oflayer ofthe meningesisthe hardest and isthe largest and which isthe smallest?: Microtubule is the outermost?: Dura Mater largest and microfilament is the smallest. 254. White matter vsGray matter: White matter is composed of 232.When looking at the pathway ofCSF circulation, where is axon bundles.It's easy toremember this because the myelin CSF produced?: Ependymal cell sheath that covers the axons is made up of white fatty tissue. 233.When Neuroscience first appeared in Sumeriawhat wasit Gray matter is essentially where all the cell bodies (soma) are used to understand?: Euphoria located.This has a dark gray appearance. 234.When wasthe first appearance ofmarijuana?: 5000 B.C. 255. Who'sgoing to Ace thistest?!: YOU ARE!!! Indian medical practice used it totreat appetite loss. 256. Why are alcoholseffectsconsidered to by biphasic?: It has an initial stimulant phase followed by depressant phase. 257.Why doesrehab fail?: Delta fosB builds up on neurons with drug exposure and stays there for years.It causes structural changes on the nucleus accumbens which perpetuate craving. 258.Why doesthe brain pulse?: This is due tothe fact that the heart is pumping blood intothe brain. 259.Why isthe inside ofthe cell negative?: You have large negative proteins on the inside of the cell that cannot diffuse out which gives you a negative charge on the inside. Behavioral Neuroscience Test 3 Study online quizlet.com/_2629p2 1.All antidepressantsappear to work via_______, _______, 21.How doesdendritic branching differ in an enriched _______.?: Inhibiting reuptake of serotoni.Binding to environment?: Rats in the enriched environment had more presynaptic 5-HT or NE autoreceptors, which enhances dendritic branching when compared tostandard and neurotransmitter release.Inhibiting MAO. impoverished environments. 2.antagonist musclesvssynergist: Antagonists contract when 22.How doeslight information go from the eye to the SCN?: other muscle extend.Synergists act together. Retinohypothalamic path. 3.Anterograde amnesia?: inability toform new memories after the 23.How doessleep enhance memory processing?: It does this by onset of a disorder (this could alsobe due toan accident/injury) inducing information transfer between hippocampus and 4.Are pleasant or unpleasant eventsremembered better?: medial prefrontal cortex. Pleasant ones 24.How doesthe cerebellum guide movement?: Through 5.Around what age doesyour brain peak?: 20 years old. inhibition. 6.At autopsy, the brain ofan elderly woman with AD has?: 25.How do we fall asleep?: the VLPO (ventrolateral preoptic) nucleus turns off the brainstem Hippocampus and temporal lobe atrophy 7.Clinical depression?: Mood here is described as black, they 26.How do you wake up?: RAS (reticular activating system) turns have many symptoms, tends tohave a long duration, and on the brain significant impairment in functioning. 27.How isinfant sleep characterized?: Shorter sleep cycles and more REM sleep. 8.Continuousuncontrollable writhing is?: Chorea 28.How issleep apneatreated?: CPAPwhich prevents the 9.Declarative vsNondeclaritive.: Declarative are things that you know that you can tell others.Nondeclarative are things you collapse of airways. know that you can show others by doing. 29.How long are circadian rhythms?: About 24 hours 10.A disorder ofthe neuromuscular junction is?: Myasthenia 30.How long do sleep cycleslast?: About 90-110 minutes.It's Gravis important tonote that cycles early in the night have more stage 11.Diurnal vsNocturnal: Active during the light, and active 3 and 4 SWS, while later cycles have more REM sleep. during the dark respectively. 31.In monozygotic twins, ifone ofthem develops 12.Do late enriched experienceshelp?: Yes.Living in an active schizophrenia, what isthe likelihood that the other one developsit aswell?: 50% environment where one is involved in congnitive activities reduces cognitive decline with aging. 32.In order to store memory what happensat the synapse?: 13.Do memoriesofdifferent durationsuse different Anatomical changes occur at presynaptic and/or the neurochemicals?: Yes.They have independent sequential postsynaptic terminal.This leads toincreased neurotransmitter neurochemical processes. release or the effectiveness of receptors. 14.Do we dream in REMor non REMsleep?: Both 33.In Panic disorder....? 15.Dr. Miller showed avideo ofababy jerking it'shandswhile A. DRN activatesthe amygdala B. MRN activatesemotional aspect ofpain.: B. sleeping, what isthe diagnosis?: Sleep Myoclonus 34.In the case where an organism hasthere cerebellum severed 16.Dr. Miller showed avideo ofaman in classthat had trouble what would happen to sleep?: Nothing, this individual will creating memories. Thisman wasahomelessalcoholic. What ishe suffering from?: Korsakoff Syndrome. sleep normally. 17.The End. Thank you for agreat semester, I really hope these 35.In the case where the SCN islesioned, what happensto sleep?: Circadian rhythms are disrupted.This means that flashcardshelped y'all master the conceptsfor exams. Good luck with finalsand your coming semesters, it'salong and individuals with SCN lesions will sleep a normal amount but it winding road but you will get through it! Asalwaysfeel free will be off schedule due tothe loss of the circadian rhythms. 36.IsLTP specific asto when it occurs?: Yes.It is timing specific to email me with questions. - Kevin: ... and synapse specific. 18.Fast-twitch fibers?: Contract rapidly but fatigue easily.Sothe 37.Know the LTP cascade, it'stoo much to put here but the last tobe recruited. slidesare very thorough. Startsat slide 64.: ... 19.The Hierarchy ofmotor control systems.: Skeletal system as 38.LTP increasesthe effectivenessofsynapsesby?: Increasing well as muscles power movement, Spinal cord controls skeletal postsynaptic receptors and increasing transmitter release. muscles, Brainstem integrates motor commands, Primary motor 39.Neuronsthat fire after amovement beginsare in?: The cortex initiates commands for action.Nonprimary motor cortex cerebellum initiates cortical processing, Cerebellum and basal ganglia tweak 40.Normal depression?: This is a normal reaction tolife events these systems. (Death of a loved one), Mood is described as blue here, they 20.How can you improve depression?: Treat the patient with a have a few other symptoms, this depressions has a short MAO inhibitor which essentially raises the level of monoamines duration, there is little if any impairment in functioning. at the synapse and improves depression. 41.Obsession vs. compulsion: Obsession is a recurring thought; 63.What activity isincreased in individualssuffering from Compulsion is the case where the individual is compelled todo Tourette's: Dopamine activity is increased in the basal ganglia. repetitive behavior. 64.What are acts?: These are action patterns.They are complex 42.On average what isthe time frame between diagnosisand sequential movements. death for AD?: 8 years.The range is between 2 and 20 years. 65.What are ballistic movements?: They are rapid and are 43.Open- loop control vsClosed-loop control: Open loop completed nomatter what sensory feedback is received. maximizes speed, it has noguiding external feedback and is 66.What are effectsofsleep deprivation?: Increased irritability, responsible for Ballistic movements. Difficulty in concentrating, episodes of disorientation, Effects Closed-loop maximizes accuracy.It is responsible for Ramp vary with age movements. 67.What are movements?: Simple reflexes with brief muscle 44.Other than the inherited cause for Parkinson'swhat is activation (Examples include:blinking, hiccup) another cause for it?: Degeneration of dopamine cells in the 68.What are neurofibrillary tangles?: Intracellular accumulation substantia nigra, which project tothe basal ganglia. of Tau 45.The raphe nuclei in the brainstem contribute especially to?: 69.What are plaques?: Extracellular accumulation of beta- A4- Panic amyloid 46.REMsleep?: this is rapid eye movement sleep.EEG shows Beta 70.What are ramp movements?: These are slower, sustained waves (It's important tonote that an EEG of an individual in an motions that are guided by feedback. awake state shows Beta waves as well).Your BR and HR are 71.What are some Anxiety disorders?: Panic disorder, increased and muscles are relaxed (suppressed) Generalized anxiety disorder, and OCD 47.Retrograde amnesia?: loss of memories before the onset of 72.What are some brain activity patternsseen in Depression?: amnesia (this onset could be due toan accident/injury or a Increased blood flow toorbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. disorder) Decreased blood flow toareas involving attention and language 48.Schizophrenicshave adeficiency in ________ particularly in 73.What are some brain findingsin individualssuffering from hippocampusand prefrontal areas. Fill in the blank and Panic disorder?: They have small lesions in white matter and define the term in the blank.: Reelin.Reelin is a "stop" signal dilation of the lateral ventricles.People with panic disorder also for migrating cells. show increased activity of the parahippocampal gyrus and 49.SIDS?: this is sleep apnea from immature respiratory decreased activity of the anterior temporal cortex and pacemaker systems or arousal mechanisms. amygdala (especially on the right) 50.Slow ApoE (apolipoprotein) leadsto what?: Higher rates of 74.What are some characteristicsofSleep apnea?: Breathing AD.(ApoE is responsible for breaking down amyloid.If ApoE is stops, Chest/diaphragm muscles relax toomuch, defective this leads toa build up of amyloid) snoring/gasping and daytime sleepiness. 51.Slow-twitch fibers?: Contract slowly but resist fatigue.First to 75.What are some other thingsthat orexin isinvolved in?: be recruited. Appetite, somatomotor activation, vigilance, tachycardia and 52.Strength vstone: Strength is largely a pyramidal function. hypertension. Tone is largely an extrapyramidal function. 76.What are some problem(s) ofthe serotonin hypothesisof 53.Testing apatient'sblood who claimsto have depression
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