SOC 150, Final Study Guide
SOC 150, Final Study Guide SOC 150
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thanh Notetaker on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 150 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Sheldon Zink in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Priciples of Sociology in Sociology at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
SOC 150 Study Guide For Last Test Format: 1. Terms and Definition: Sex: Biological maleness or femaleness Gender: Psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness Eugenics: The control of mating to ensure that “defective” genes of troublesome individuals will not be passed on to future generations. Intersexual: Individuals in whom sexual differentiation is either incomplete or ambiguous Transsexuals: People who identify with a different sex and sometimes undergo hormone treatment and surgery to change their sex A few examples of transsexuals in other culture: In Navajo culture, one could be identified as male, female , or nadle- a third sex assigned to those who sex-typed anatomical characteristics were ambiguous at birth. Nadle is simultaneously masculine and feminine. They are allowed to perform the tasks and take up the occupations of both men and women In India, hijras are born as men, but by choice they have their genitals surgically removed. For the Chuckchi of Eastern Siberia, a biological male child with feminine physical traits gradually transform into a “soft man”, he could keep his masculine name, but he is expected to live as a woman. Sexual Dichotomy: Belief that two biological sex categories, male and female, are permanent, universal, exhaustive, and mutually exclusive XX (Female gene) Ovaries Estrogen Vagina XY (Male gene) Testicles Testosterone Penis Pregnancy Ova Hips/ Breasts Impregnation Sperm Facial hair/ Deep Voice Adam Apples Patriarchy: Men have higher value in society Matriarchy: Women have higher value 2. The time line of races and ethics: (by every decade) 1) Late 1600’s – Early 1700’s: Emergence of Black Captive Literature 1650-1700’s: Slavery: 1650-1700: 500,000 | 1700-1750: 2.3 mil | 1750-1800: 3.8 mil slaves Goodluck with the test. 1767: Linnaeus taxonomy Binomial nomendature: 1. Eutopeans : White – Caucasians 2. Asiaticus : Sallow 3. Americanus: Reddish 4. Africans : Black 5. Monstrous: Human subspecies 6. Primates 1776: Blumenback “on the natural variety of mankind” DEgredation theory Science of craneology 1. Caucasian: White 2. Mongolians: Yellow 3. Malayan: Brown 4. Americans: Red 5. Etheopians: Black 1781: Thomas Jefferson 1790: First census 2) 1800-1900: Is human biological difference? Is it racial variation or different species? 1820’s-1830’s” Samuel Morton: measures brain capacity Highest Brain Capacity: 1. Europeans: 2. Chinese 3. SE Asians / Polynesians 4. American Indians 5. Africans / Australians 1831: Darwin / 1859 “Origin of species” | John Spencer “survival of the fittest” 1843: Charles Pickering Head National Academy of Science 1845: Manifest destiny – by John O’ Sullivan -> Fredrick Douglas challenges ideas of Race 1854: Chief Justice Charles Murry – California 1857: Dred Scott Decisions 1865: Civil war ends Goodluck with the test. 1883: Birth of Eugenics movement/ Francis Galton (Darwin’s cousin) =-> Heritable traits and culture crates differences 1887: Beginning of Segregation 1. Japanese 2. Chinese 3. White 4. Black 5. Mulatto ½ Black 6. Quadroon ¼ Black 7. Octoroon / Terceroon : 1/8 black 3) 1900’s Scientific community focused on measuring intelligence: Important to establish: Immigration Policy (limits and quotas) Segregation of public education Military service WW I / WW II 1903 St. Louis World’s Fair- 20 Million 1906 Naturalization Act- Whites and Blacks can be citizen 1905-1908 First Intelligence Test administered by Stanford Binet “Intelligence based on the accumulation of knowledge” – Justifies Segregation 1917 Yerkes- convinced military to administer test 2Million volunteers, 2million drafted, 350,000 Africans segregated units Result: Northern European, Southeastern Europeans, Africans 1917 Eugenics movement in U.S, part of the Cultural movement 1922 Supreme Court case challenges Goodluck with the test. Japanese are white, later Indians are white 1930 Virginia Racial Integrity Act becomes U.S standard. One drop rule: If you have one drop of black blood in you, you are Black No intermarriage between races Indians on reservations are the only Indians By 1923 Mexicans : White 1. Indians | Asians | Middle Eastern : Caucasian but not white 2. Africans | One drop rule : Negro 3. Native Indian | reserved Indian : Indians 4. Off reservation : Negro 1930’s census: No mulato classification 1. White: European 2. Negro : Any mistakes of black blood | Native Americans off the reservation 3. Mexican 4. Chinese | Asians 5. Native American 6. Native American (Mix) 1880’s – 1920’s: Predominantly Irish Catholic Immigrants and German Protestants Immigrants 1930’s- 1940’s: Public Housing subsidizes home ownership National Appraisal system =- value to loan eligibility Homes of blacks- devalued In opposites, white communists high rating / low interest 1935 Social Security system- safety net for American workers Excluded- Domestic workers/ Agricultural workers 1935 Wagner Act- unions can exclude non-whites (changed in 1950, but unions were not integrated until 1970) 1930’s-1940’s: Race was geographic/ environment heritable traits -> evolutionary scientist still ranking superior races and characteristics Races include: Irish, Italian, Polish, and African 1967: Mixed marriage laws invalidated in 38 states, 12 states remained “flexible” Goodluck with the test. 1953 watson and Crick discover DNA (a turning point) 1980’s Government creates “Hispanics” category: All people from Spanish speaking countries south of North America “African American” category 1990 First Census to “Self Identify” 1977 Redefinition of Race | Ethnicity categories 1. Race: Black (White is not a race) 2. Hispanic 3. American Indian/ Alaskan Native (Tribal ID) 4. Anglo = White 1996: Pacific Islander | Native Hawaiian added Latino and Hispanics combined 2001: Mexican (then removed because they also identified as white) 2010: “Some other race added” If you wrote Middle Eastern | Native African, counted as white 1989 First Gene identified cystic fibrosis 1994 Bell curve – Hernskin Murry published IQ : 70 % genetic, 30% culture Refuted by Steven J. Gould 2001 Human Genome Mapped Goodluck with the test.
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