LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Unit 4 Study Guide
LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Unit 4 Study Guide LIFE 103
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Lauren Caldwell LIFE 103 Unit 4 Study Guide 1. What is the difference between the double circulatory system of frogs and most reptiles and that of mammals and birds? 2. How does the respiration system of birds differ from all other creatures? How is this most important for them? 3. Oxygenation in single circulator systems occurs in ____ while it occurs in _____ in double circulatory systems. 4. How is Hemoglobin different than blood? 5. Blood carries _______, thanks to various proteins. 6. High pH, or [high/low] acidity environments, picks up O2 molecules. 7. Low pH, or [high/low] acidity environments, release O2. 8. What is the maximum amount of O2 that can bind to hemoglobin? 9. What is Hemocyanin and in what creatures can you find it? 10. Force in the heart stems from a couple of sources; the ____ collects blood from lungs and the body, and _____ force blood into the circuits. 11. What is thicker – atrias or veins? 12. [True/False]: veins have valves. 13. At the capillaries, velocity [increases/decreases] as area [increases/decreases]. 14. What happens to the pressure of blood once it leaves the heart? 15. Which end, the Atrial or the Venous end, has an increase in pressure? Why? 16. Why does hemoglobin have a higher oxygen affinity in the lungs? 17. What does Cutaneous Respiration mean? Provide an example of an animal that uses this. 18. What is a critical quality about lungs that is necessary for breathing on land? 19. O2 is less soluble in water, so the concentration of O2 in water is [higher/lower] at the same partial pressure. 20. [True/False]: Oxygen is harder to extract in a terrestrial environment than it is in an aquatic environment. 21. [True/False]: Counter current exchange in gills is an example of unidirectional ventiliation. 22. Think about it: If a fish is swimming and the water is flowing to the right through the creature, in what direction is blood flowing in the creature? 23. What is an example of Tidal respiration? 24. Think about it: Elephant seals have several special adaptations to allow them to dive as deep and for as long as they do. What compound in the body allows this species to store oxygen? (Hint: its in the muscles) 25. True/False: O2, CO2, and H20 cannot diffuse across a membrane without added assistance. 26. Complete the table below Hypertonic Solutions Isotonic Solutions Hypotonic Solutions The higher A. B. C. concentration is where? In what direction D. E. F. does the water flow? 27. Marine fish are [hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic] to sea water. 28. Sea water is [hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic] to marine fish. Lauren Caldwell 29. What term do we give sea creatures, such as marine invertebrates and some vertebrates, when they are isosmotic with the environment, but differ in the specific solutes in their tissues? 30. How is an Osmoregulator different from an Ionoregulator? 31. Which term (from #30) requires spending metabolic energy in order to lose water and avoid solute loss? 32. What three methods of water intake exist for terrestrial creatures? 33. How is water lost to terrestrial creatures? 34. Think about it: Camel humps are made of fat, not water. How does this attribute to their ability to survive in the desert? 35. Why is evaporation a cooling technique for creatures? 36. Describe the process of counter current exchange in a human. 37. There are three forms of nitrogenous waste: ammonia, urea, and uric acid. a. Which requires energy to generate? (2 answers) b. Which how the lowest level of toxicity? c. Which includes high levels of water in excrement? d. Which has excrement come out as a semisolid paste? e. Which is the least metabolically expensive to generate? f. Which is used by many fish? g. Which is used by birds? h. Which is used by humans? i. Which uses a bladder to concentrate the excrement? j. Which is not very soluble in water? k. Which has the ‘medial’ (not the least, not the most) water? l. Which is the most metabolically expensive to create? 38. What are the four steps to create and excrete waste? 39. What type of cells make up mammalian kidneys? How do their structure impact their function? 40. What artery feeds blood to mammalian kidneys? Through what does blood leave the kidneys? 41. True/False: The Proximal Tubules transport large molecules out of the filtrate. 42. What is the Loop of Henle’s special characteristic, in terms of water permeability? 43. The Distal tubule regulates two chemical compounds – what are they? 44. The ______ Duct collects water and moves it through the kidney, concentrating the urine as it prepares to leave the body. 45. There are two types of Nephrons: what are they? 46. What are the two types of Nephrons specialized for? As in, how do their different forms impact their functions? 47. Think about it: If there is a desert-dwelling Pokemon, what type of Nephron would it have an abundance of? Why? 48. True/False: Water is not lost in ascending parts of the kidney, only descending parts. 49. The outer region of the kidney is called _____, while the inner region of the kidney is called the _____. 50. What type of Nephron is physically long enough to reach the renal medulla? 51. What four types of Innate Immunity do mammal exhibit? 52. What are some forms of barrier defenses for the body? Lauren Caldwell 53. Think about it: In developed nations where bathing regularly with clean, filtered water is common, the average amount of skin oils produced by the human body on a regular basis has increased. Why might this be, and how is this the body’s way of attending to its immune system? Is this a positive or a negative form of feedback? (Hint: it has to do with the oils you are washing away on a regular basis!) 54. Phagocytosis is another term for this type of innate immunity. 55. What are some types of Adaptive Immunity? 56. How are Immunization, Inoculation, and Vaccination related processes? 57. What two types of cells are typically the first to respond to pathogens? 58. What do Dendritic cells do? 59. Histamine causes what change in blood vessels? When it this important or applicable for maintaining homeostasis? 60. What is the general definition of an Antigen? 61. What are some differences between B and T cells? 62. Of the two types of T cells, which is for killing infected host cells? Which retains information of the pathogen for the next time it enters the body? 63. What is the difference between a pathogen and an antigen? 64. Complete the table below Innate Immune System Adaptive Immune System What kinds of animals have A. B. it? Is the response Rapid or C. D. Slow? Is the response Broad or E. F. Specific? Does the response have G. H. ‘immunological memory’? 65. Osmoregulatiry of blood with [increase/decrease] when ADH enters the kidneys. a. Why? 66. Is osmoregularity of blood in the kidneys a positive or a negative feedback loop? 67. Complete the table below: Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Synaptic Neuroendocrine Signaling signaling signaling signaling signaling Is it A. B. C. D. E. STRICKTLY hormone signaling? What does it F. G. H. I. J. directly involve? (choose from cells, neurons, or the bloodstream) Lauren Caldwell Is it a Local or K. L. M. N. O. a Global impact? What is P. Q. R. S. T. impacted as a result? 68. There are two aspects to the endocrine system: Endocrine glands and Exocrine glands. a. Which secretes onto surfaces? b. Which defines ductless glands? c. Which secretes onto surfaces of body cavities? d. Which defines ducted glands? e. Which secretes into blood? 69. True/False: Target cells have hormone-specific receptors. 70. Think about it: Silverback gorillas are alpha males of groups of gorillas. The silver hairs on the back will only emerge when the male establishes his dominance over his group. How does this happen? 71. Think about it: How can a low concentration of hormones impact the body in great ways? As in, how is it amplified, and how is this possible? 72. What makes Pheromones different from Hormones? 73. [Lipid/Water] soluble hormones cannot pass through cell membranes easily. 74. True/False: Specific response to hormone binding can vary among tissue types. 75. How is Parthenogenesis different from sexual reproduction? 76. There are four types of asexual reproduction: Binary Fission, Budding, Fragmentation, and Parthenogenesis. a. Which can be exhibited in hydras? b. Which can be exhibited in flatworms? c. Which occurs when the parent divides into two equal pieces? d. Which occurs when a new individual comes from an unfertilized egg? e. Which occurs when a piece that is cut off from the original grows into a clone? f. Which is the most like sexual reproduction? 77. What are the pros and cons associated with asexual reproduction? 78. Is asexual or sexual reproduction the primary form of reproduction in plants and animals? 79. Define and describe the Red Queen Hypothesis. 80. Why are female creatures typically more selective when it comes to choosing a mate than a male creature? 81. With is different about synchronous external fertilization and asynchronous? What is similar? 82. Think about it: Ironman fish have a greater reproductive success when they are large males. Captain America fish have greater reproductive success when they are large females. Which will be protogynous? 83. What is the difference between action potential and membrane potential? 84. Think about it: Bats have different ear shapes. How does that impact their abilities to hunt and eat? (Hint: it has to do with frequencies) 85. Compare and contrast Protandrous and Protogynous organisms. 86. List the four steps to a sensory pathway: _______ -> _______ -> _______ -> _______ 87. Think about it: Why might Synethesia be a difficult situation to live with? Lauren Caldwell 88. What is the difference between electromagnetic receptors and thermoreceptors? 89. What is the difference between mechanoreceptors and pain receptors? 90. Where can you find chemoreceptors? 91. How do thermoreceptors play a critical role in homeostasis? 92. What type of receptor is a lateral line system in fish? 93. True/False: Cones detect color while Rods are sensitive to light. 94. Think about it: If a poodlepony hunts in the dark and is nocturnal, would it have more rods or cones than a poodlepony variant that functions during the day? 95. Tinbergen has four questions related to behavior and social structure of creatures: What stimulus elicits the behavior and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response How does the animals experience during growth and development influence the response How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction What is the behavior's evolutionary history a. Which two are Ultimate? b. Which two are Proximate? c. Which includes circadian rhythms? d. Which includes fixed action patterns? e. Which includes operant conditioning? f. Which includes parental investment? g. Which compares altruism to selfish behavior? h. Which includes learned behaviors? i. Which is influenced by certainty of paternity? j. Which includes classical conditioning? 96. Is a species is monogamous by nature, it has a _:_ ratio of males to females. 97. What is the difference between polygyny and polyandry? 98. What is altruism and how is it important to creatures that live in social groups? 99. What is reciprocal altruism? 100. Why would electromagnetic receptors be better for aquatic environments than terrestrial environments?
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