Cultural Anthropoogy ANTH-18210-49
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Study Guide Chapters 8-12 Chapter 8 Political Systems -Substantial variation in power, authority, and legal systems Power- ability to exercise one’s will over others Authority- is formal, socially approved use of power Sociopolitical Organization: discussing regulation or management of interrelations among groups and their representatives Elman Service: Four types, or levels of political organization Band: small kin-based group among foragers Tribe- economy based on no intensive food production Chiefdom- intermediate form between tribe and state Differential Access: favored access to resources by superordinate or subordinates State- formal governmental structure and socioeconomic stratification Foraging Bands- Modern foragers live in nation- states and interlined world - All trade with food producers - Most contemporary hunter or gatherer rely on government or missionaries San Susan Kent- tendency to stereotype foragers, stresses variation among foragers Inuit- Good example of conflict resolution in stateless societies Foragers- lack formal law -methods of social control to dispute a settlement Live in Artic- hunting/fishing – men -primary subsistence activities -most disputes over women -wronged man=options -murder=retaliation -Song battle- but wife may not return Tribal Cultivators Tribes- Typically have horticulture or pastoral economy and organized by village life and or descent group membership -lack socioeconomic stratification and formal government -Regulatory officials- village heads “big men” descent –group leaders, village councils and pan tribal associations Horticulture Villages- small, with low population density and open access to strategic resources -age, gender, and personal traits-determine respect Egalitarianism- goes down as the village size and population density goes up Yanomami- believe village head is achieved- very limited authority -lead by example -mediator in disputes -lead in generosity The “Big Man”- like a village head, except his authority is regional and may have influence over multiple villages -common to south pacific -must be generous -Serves as temporary regional regular who can mobilize supporters Kapauku- Tonowi- only political figure: achieved through hard work and amassing wealth in form of pigs and native niche Distinguished – generosity, eloquence, bravery, physical fitness, and super natural powers -decisions accepted as binding Pan tribal sodalities: groups that extend across whole tribes: spans several villages Ex: Central Plains of North America and tropical Africa Plains: leadership needed to raid enemy camps and manage summer bison hunt Secret Societies are sodalities -create non-kin linkages between people based on age, gender, and ritual -found in areas where two or more different cultures come into regular contact -draw members from several villages and can mobilize large numbers of men for raids Masai of Kenya and Tanzania -men: born during 4 yr. period, circumcised together, belong to same named group, age set, throughout their lives -sets moved through age grades: warrior grade= most important Nomadic Politics: nomads must interact with a variety of groups, unlike most sedentary societies Powerful chiefs most commonly in large populations Ex) Basseri and Qashqai Basseri- similar population -chief, khan, similar to village head -Position achieved- allegiances with person Larger Qashqai- multiple levels of authority and more powerful chiefs Authority- more coercive allegiances with office Chiefdoms- Transitional form of sociopolitical organization between tribes and states Robert Carneiero- state is an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within is territory, having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for work or war, and decree and enforce laws Political and Economic Systems- Social relations based on kinships, marriage, descent, age, generation and gender Chiefdoms- and states are permanent Office: permanent position- refilled when it is vacated by death or retirement -offices outlast the individual-ensure sociopolitical organization endures across generations -play important role in production, distribution, and consumption of resources -collect foodstuffs as tribute-redistribute at feast Status- seniority of descent Chiefdom- believed to come from common ancestors -demonstrate seniority of descent -lack of sharp gaps between elites and commoners Differential access to resources -allocation of rights and duties -states characterized by much clearer class divisions than chiefdoms Stratification -differential access-social class/strat -key feature Max Weber -3 dimensions- Social Stratification Economic Status and Wealth- all of a person’s material assets-basis of economic status Power- the ability to control others-basis of political status Prestige- esteem, respect, or approval- basis of social status Archaic states had contracts in wealth. Power and prestige Superordinates: upper, elite group in stratified society, privileged access to wealth, power, and valued resources Subordinate: lower, underprivileged group: limited State Specializations -pop control -judiciary -law enforcement -fiscal systems Pop Control: administrative subdivision: provinces, districts, states, counties, sub countries, and parishes Aim: foster geographic mobility and resettlement Different rights=different status distinctions Judiciary: laws based on precedent and legislative proclamations -courts/judges - govern family affairs -curb internal conflicts -laws have Not reduced violence Enforcement: agents of state mete out punishment and collect fines -impose hardships/ offer advantages -protect-external threats -preserve internal order Fiscal System: pertains to finances/taxation – states redistribute (taxes) -generosity/sharing- played down -No additional freedoms/leisure -Elites in-archaic states- consumption of sumptuary goods Social Control: beliefs, practices, and institutions that are most actively involved in the maintenance of any norms/regulations of any conflict Norms: tell between appropriate and inappropriate behavior -Political systems- informal, social, and subtle aspects – formal government and public dimensions Hegemony: subordinates comply by internalizing ruler’s values and accepting the “naturalness” of domination -make subordinates believe they will gain power -separate/isolate people while supervising closely -Resist-mostly when allowed to assemble -oppressed accept domination -question in private Public Transcript: open interaction with superordinates/subordinates hidden transcript: critique of power that goes on offstage -power holders cants see discontent- shown in public rituals and language -mostly expressed only when people can assemble Hidden transcripts: expressed publicly at certain times in specific places Shame and Gossip: “informal” control through stigma, shame, fear in small scale societies Makua: 3 sanctions- social control Cadeia (jail) - last phase of extended political/legal process Entretthe (sorcery attack) - small attack would kill the thief/ make very ill Ehaya (shame) extended disgrace Informal process of social control efficiency – how clearly envisioned that antisocial might trigger Shame- cheaper than jail- more effective Ch. 9 Gender Women and Men differ genetically: Sexual dimorphism: marked differences in male and female biology besides the primary and secondary sexual features Sex differences are biological –gender encompasses traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females Gender roles: tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes Gender stereotypes: oversimplified, strongly held ideas of characteristics of men and women Gender Stratification: unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting different positions in a social hierarchy Llongots- Philippines Take a head Subsistence contributions of men and women are roughly equal- cross – culture -domestic activities-female labor dominates -women tend to work more hours -women- primary caregiver- men play a role Reproductive Strategies Women can only have so many babies Males- mate within/ out marriage- more than women Males- less restricted than women Restrictions = ½ societies studied Peggy Sanday: gender stratification decreased when men and women made roughly equal contributions to substitute Domestic- Public dichotomy: strong differentiation between home and the outside world, or private- public contrast -gender stratification is less developed among foragers Greater size, greater strength, and mobility of med led to exclusive services in roles of hunters and warriors -Pregnancy and lactation- prevention in foraging societies -Agta- full range of daily activities – including hunting Thomas Headland- fooled by python Cross- cultural variation in gender status related to rules of descent and post marital residence Matrilineal descent: people join mothers group at birth Women tend to have high status in matrilineal matrilocal societies Sanday: Minangkabau a matriarchy because women are the center origin, and founder of the social order -despite special position of women, matriarchy is not equivalent of females rule -Property is passed mother – daughter Patrilineal-patrilocal complex: male Supremacy is based on patrilineality, patrolocality and warfare Patrilineal descent: traced through men -many societies in highland Papua, New Guinea Patriarchy: political system riled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights -Societies- full-fledged replete with warfare and inter village raiding – gender stratification- typically reduced in societies in which women have prominent roles in the economy and social life Domestic Public Dichotomy influence gender stratification in industrial societies -Gender roles change rapidly in North America- “traditional” idea – women’s place is in the home- middle and upper class Americans – Industrialism Spread after 1900 Maxine Margoils: gendered work, attitudes and beliefs have varied in response to U.S. economic needs Changes in economy led to changes in attitudes toward and about women 1970-2010 Female- workforce- 38%-47% - gender roles changed -Rise in representation of women and their children among American’s poorest people -Rise in single parent household- usually female Globally- women head of house – poorer than a man- improve- encourage women to organize 13 countries –greatest female labor – 10 ranked among world’s happiest Contemporary U.S. includes individuals who self-identify using such labels as transgender, intersex, third gender, and transsexual Transgender: social category that includes individuals who may/may not contrast biologically with ordinary make and female Intersex: conditions involving discrepancy between external and internal genitals Klinefelter’s syndrome- male- XXY- add X chromosome Turner syndrome- females- portion of X chromosome – missing Identities in Society: with biological conditions- viewed as male and female -self-identified transgender -counterdicts biological sex at birth and gender identity given at infancy Fear and ignorance to diversity in gender- fuels discrimination to diversity in gender Sexual Orientation: refers to person’s habitual sexual attraction to, sexual activities with persons of the opposite sex- heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuality - Each hold different meanings/ different groups and individuals U.S. see it as fixed and biologically based sexual norms vary culture to culture -sex acts involving people of the same sex were absent, rare, secret in only 37 of 76 societies In others- various forms of same- sex sexual activity considered normal- acceptable Sudanese Azande Etoro of Papua New Guinea Flexibility in sexual expression seems to be an aspect of our primate heritage Ch. 10 Families, Kinship, and Descent Families: - Understanding a society’s kinship system is essential part of anthropology - Descent group: group based on belief in a shared ancestry Nuclear Family : mother, father and biological children - Family of orientation : family in which one is born and grows up - Family of procreation: formed when on marries and has children Most society’s nuclear families take precedence over other kin Nuclear family- widespread, but not universal - Most societies- extended families are the primary unit of social Organization - Muslims of Western Bosnia: Zadruga - Nayars of Masabar- Coast of India Joint Families: - Nalukettu- 4 blocks and central courtyard - Bangalore- 3 generations Industrialism and Family Organization -family of procreation living neolocally must prevalent residence pattern in North America - Neolocality: married couples may live hundreds of miles from their parents Extended family households - includes 3 or more generations - Stratified nations- value systems and kinship vary from class to class North American Kinship - Nuclear Families 21% - U.S. 2010 - Representation of women working is attributed to the rise in marriage age 21 – 1970 26.5- 2011 1970-2010 divorce rate rose from 4.3 million to 23.7 million Single-parent families- outstripped population growth 51%- women – no spouse in 2005 35% - women – no spouse in 1950 49% - women – no spouse in 2000 Growing isolation from Kin contrasts significantly with Brazil Foragers - Nuclear Family and band Two basic units of social organization Nuclear families- more stable Societies lack year- round band organization Shoshoni Descent - Matrilineal descent- Individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born - Patrilineal descent- Individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born - Unilineal descent- descent rule uses one line - Lineage- unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent - Clan - descent group that claims common descent from a apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent) Descent Groups: - Permanent- enduring units- must keep some members at home- to endure - Establish rules about who belongs to the group and where they should live after they marry Ambilineal descent : people choose the descent group to which they belong - Membership achieved - Fluid - People can change descent group or belong to two or more groups at a time Patrilocality: married couples live with husband’s family- associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matriocality Matrisocality: married couples live with wife’s family- Matrilineal descent - Many societies- both families and descent groups - Obligations- one may conflict with another Matrilineal Societies- higher divorce rates and higher female promiscuity Kinship Calculation: how people in a society reckon their kin relationships - EGO: position one views an egocentric genealogy - Figure 10.6 – Kinship Symbols Genealogy kin type- symbols used- kinship chart- EGO- YOU Genealogical kin types - relates to actual genealogical relationship (father’s brother- not uncle (kin term) Kin term - reflects social construction of kinship in a given culture Bilateral Kinship - people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal Kinship Terminology - classification system - Anthropology – limited patterns in classification of kin - Functional Explanation- can relate particular customs to other features of a society Native Taxonomy: - Developed over generations by people who live in a particular society Linear kinship terminology four parental kin terms (M, F, FB-MB and MZ-FZ) - Lineal relative: Egos direct descendent - Collateral relatives : relatives outside ego’s direct line EX) B, Z, FB, MZ - Affinals: relatives by marriage - Bifurcate merging kinship terminology: - -split mother’s side from father’s side, but also merges same- sex siblings of each parent Associated with unilineal descent of unilocal residence Generational kinship terminology: - Same terms parents/ siblings - Lumping is more complete - M=MZ=FZ and F=FB=M - No distinguishing between mother and father side - Typical of ambilineal societies - Characters certain foraging bands Bifurcate collateral terminology: - Separate terms – each of the 6 kin types of the parental generation M, F, MB, MZ, FB, FZ Not as common as other types Many societies- North America and Middle East First cousin- mother’s brother’s son Chapter 11 Marriage What is marriage? - No definition is broad enough to apply easily to all societies or situations - Establishes legal percentage of children - Gives spouses rights - Genitor- biological father of child - Pater- socially recognized father Incest and Exogamy - Marriage is one primary way of converting strangers into friends, of creating and maintaining personal and political alliances and creating relationships of affinity - Exogamy: practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group Pink triangle: - Nazi concentration camps - Homosexual prisoners Sex is contested - until the 21 century sodomy (anal or oral sex with opposite sex, or having sex with the same sex) was deemed illegal - homosexual and hetero sexual - Texas and America Elsewhere - Islam- high sodomy - Homosexual activity is high - Abuse of young male-students- sodomizing Malaysia- Anwar Ibrahim- sentenced to 5 years in prison in 1999- he was ordered to be released in 2004- corruption verdict – never lifted- no political posts till 2008 Incest: forbidden sexual relations with a close relative - Varies widely country to country Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or two sisters Cross-cousins: children of a bother and a sister Lakher of Southeast Asia- strictly patrilineal Bilateral cross-cousin marriage: The Yanomamo follow a bilateral cross-cousin marriage system Lineage Exogamy: members of the same localized lineage are forbidden from marriage Exogamy and incest prohibitions among agnates (patrilineal relatives) mark the patrilineages as a significant units in the mutual exchange of marriage partners and in the consequent formation of alliances Yanomami: - Bilateral cross-cousin marriage - Partners are doubly related - Matrilineal and patrilateral cross- cousins – consequence of similar marriage among their parents Moieties- a half- intermarrying- co-reside- village settlements Lakhers: guy and girl courting- share work in the field- suitor sleeps in the girl’s house – gradually advance with consent of girl- anyone who accuses them of intimate relations is fined even if it’s true or not- brides selected by parents- marriage generally outside of family- maternal uncle’s daughter considered a favorable match Incest and its avoidance - Human behavior with respect to mating with close relatives may express generalized primate tendency with urges and avoidances - Cross- cultural findings show incest and its avoidance shaped by kinship structures - Father/daughter incest least likely when there was substantial paternal parenting of daughters Why do societies discourage incest? - Following rules of exogamy - Specific kip types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than biological basis - Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration Endogamy: marriage of people from the same group – U.S. – classes and ethnic groups are – quasi- endogamous groups Homogamy: to marry someone similar – one factor in sharpening contracts in household income between richest and poorest quintiles Caste: - India’s caste system is extreme exogamy - 5 major categories of Varna - Occupational specialization often sets off one caste from another - Although Indian castes are endogamous groups, many of them are internally subdivided into exogamous lineage Royal endogamy: similar to caste endogamy Inca Peru, ancient Egypt, and traditional Hawaii allowed royal brother-sister marriage Manifest function: reason given for a custom by its natives Latent function: effects custom has that are not explicitly recognized by the natives Ancient Hawaii- brother/ sister marriage was part of what cultures beliefs about mana and sacredness European Loyalty: the practice of endogamy was based on cousin marriage Royal Endogamy: also had latent economic functions - Political repercussions - Economic functions Marital Rights and Same- sex marriage Edmund Leach- argued that the rights allocated by marriage included: - Established legal mother/ father - Giving a monopoly in sexuality of the other - Giving rights to the labor of the other - Giving rights over the other’s property - Establishing a joint fund of property - Establishing a socially significant “relationship of affinity” Could Same-sex marriage- establish legal parentage of children born to one or both partners after partnership is formed? - Same-sex- legal – social constitution of kinship easily makes both partners parents - Cam give each spouse rights to the other spouses labor and its products Outside industrial societies, marriage often relationship between groups than one between individuals - Diffusion of Western ideas about importance of love for marriage affects marital decisions in other cultures - People assume obligation to a group of in-laws when they marry Gifts at marriage - Lobola( bride price/ bride wealth)- substantial marital gifts from husband and his kin to the wife and her kin - Dowry: marital exchange in which wife’s group provides substantial gifts to husbands family - Price-Bride- Lobola- Africa- price paid in cows/ money by the groom to the parents of the bride- Uganda- violates constitution of Uganda Moroccan- Berber- Marriage / Wedding Practice -parents have considerable influence over the choice of children’s spouse - Bride-price - Dowry - Woman- virgin - Wedding- during summer months – usually 2-3 days depending on money Islam- Muslim women= Muslim man Muslim man= non- Muslim woman Normally only husband can initiate divorce- except if he has an erectile dysfunction- children remain with the father Most industrial food- producing societies unlike most foraging societies and industrial nations, allow plural marriages Plural Marriage: being married to more than two spouses simultaneously (polygamy) Polygyny: a man has more than one wife- most common Polyandry: a woman has more than one husband- rare Durable alliances: Group- alliance nature of marriage seen in practice of constitution of marital alliances when one spouse dies Sororate: husband may marry the wife’s sister if the wife dies Levirate: right to marry husband’s brother if the husband dies Divorce: more common in matrilineal than in patrilineal societies - Cross- culturally, high divorce rates correlated with a secure female economic position - Political and economic factors complicate the divorce process U.S. - one of the world’s highest divorce rate -large percentage of gainfully employed women Americans value independence Polygamy - Even when encouraged most men remain monogamous - Equal sex ratios - Custom- men marry later than women- promotes polygamy - Some agreement among existing spouses when another is added - NO SINGLE EXPLANATION 4 wives and one husband- Polygamy in Iran Intimate portrait- polygamist family- bitter rivals/ conspirators/ against abusive husband Polyandry: - Quite rare and practice under specific conditions - Most live in South Asia - Ensures there will be at least one man at home to accomplish male activities within a gender- based division of labor Fraternal- Polyandry: - Brothers share wife to secure family land - Why? Tradition/ economics- difficult terrain Chapter 12 Religion What is religion? Anthony Wallace: belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings and powers and forces Emile Durkheim: religious effervescence Reese: bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship Victor Turner: communities: intense feelings of social solidarity Religion is a cultural universal Expressions of Religion: Spiritual Beings: Sir Edward Burnett Tylor - Religion evolved around/ through stages - Animism: spiritual beings - Polytheism: multiple gods - Monotheism: belief in a single, all- powerful deity - Tylor: religion declines as science offers better explanations for things Powers and Forces - Mana: sacred impersonal force existing in the universe - Melanesian mana- similar to good luck - Mana- power or influence- can be in anything invoked by charms o Particular purpose- stone- making yams grow bigger Cannibalism: certain districts - Mark of extremist vengeance - Absorb mana- man/ tribe - Religious practice- ceremonially Melanesian- similar to good luck - Magic and Magicians - Enchantments, spells, sacrifices, set-free the mana required - Results- wizard gets credit and money - Fail- stronger spirit opposed- wizard loses no credit Tapu- forbidding certain actions under penalty of curse, or putting things under protection of some spirit who will avenge any breach of the tapu- doubted or braved- the unbeliever or bravo breaks ”Tapu” – risks consequences – mark – or stake claim on something Kiribati (Micronesia) - An extended Kiribati- family sought aid from ancestral spirits at a sacred spot known as (te bangota)- This practice is still carried out today when the family is faced with unusual stress and seeks support from their ancestors Mana: sacred impersonal force existing in the universe Polynesian- Mana- attached to political offices- because high chiefs have so much mana their bodies and possessions were taboo sacred and forbidden; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions – tapu is radically different Mana- tribe, chief, land - Chief owns mana in others- “extends” into the land and people - Chief’s – great mana- another person touches the chiefs shadow- only way to correct the error was death to the subject - Magic- became an important part of society- ward off vengeance or wrath of mana- specialists in magic- rituals to protect people Magic: supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims - May be imitative (voodoo dolls) or contagious ( through contact) - Magic (exists) in cultures with diverse religious beliefs Uncertainty, Anxiety, Solace - Religion and magic don’t explain things and help people accomplish goals - They serve emotional and cognitive needs Bronislaw Malinowski: magic is used to establish control, but religion “is born out of …the real tragedies of human life” Rituals - Formal, stylized, repetitive, stereotyped behavior based on a liturgical order (sequences of words and actions) - Performed in special (sacred) places and at set times - Rituals convey information about participants and their cultures - Rituals are social acts Rites of Passage - Customs associated with transition from one stage of life to another - Contemporary rites of passage include confirmations, baptisms, bar and bat mitzvahs, initiations, weddings, and applying to social security and Medicare Liminality: in- between phases of passage rite Liminality: basic to rites of passage involves a temporary suspension and reversal of social distinctions - Such phenomena as humility, poverty, equality, obedience, and sexual abstinence, silence may be required from the sect or cult members Communitas: intense community spirit a feeling of great social solidarity, equality and togetherness, characteristic of people experiencing liminality together Totemism - Totem: animal, plant, or geographic features associated with specific social group to which that totem is sacred or symbolically important - Members of each totemic group believed themselves to be descendants of their totem - Uses nature as models for society Cosmology: system often religious, for imagining and understanding the universe - Totemic principles continue to demarcate groups Religion and Cultural Ecology Sacred Cattle in India Ahimsa: Hindu doctrine of nonviolence forbids killing animals - Western planners lament that Hindus are bound by culture and tradition and refuse to develop rationally - Assumptions are both ethnocentric and wrong - Cattle play an important adaptive role in Indian ecosystem Social Control - The power of religion affects actions - Leaders have used religion to promote and justify their views and politics o Persuasion o Witchcraft accusations o Often directed at socially marginal or anomalous individuals Witch hunts plan an important role in limiting social deviancy Leveling mechanism: custom that brings standouts back in line with community norms Many religions also maintain social control by stressing the fleeting nature of life Kinds of Religion - Religion is a cultural universal - But cultural differences show up systematically in religious beliefs and practices - All societies have religious figures - Shamans: part-time magic- religious practitioner Totemic ceremonies of Native Australians – temporarily brought together foragers - Productive economies can support full-time religious specialists Anthony Wallace: describes religions of such stratified societies as “ecclesiastical” (pertaining to an established church and its hierarchy of officials) In Monotheism, all super natural phenomena believed to be manifestations of or under control of a single eternal omnipresent, omnipotent and omnipresent being Protestant Values and Capitalism Max Weber linked spread of capitalism to values central to the Protestant faith: - Ascetic - Entrepreneurial - Future oriented - Capitalism required that traditional attitudes of Catholic peasants be replaced by values befitting an industrial economy World Religions World’s Largest Religions: - Christianity - Islam - Hinduism - Chinese Confucianism - Buddhism - More than one billion people claim no official religion Hinduism - Bath-cleanse bodies and spirits and giver offerings - Statue/ picture- god/ goddesses Confucianism: - Humanism- neither denies nor slights heaven - Ritual, educate, kind Taoism - Cultivation of health through the transformation of the body, mind, and spirit - Achieved- through rituals, ceremonies, meditations, chanting, community service and similar training Religion helps retain social order – religious leaders may seek to alter or revitalize their society Revitalization movements: social movements that occur in times of change o Colonial-era Iroquois reformation led by Handsome Lake Syncretisms: Cargo cults: postcolonial, acculturative religions movements in Melanesia - Religious response to expansion of the world capitalist economy Syncretisms: cultural, especially religious, mixes emerging from acculturation- voodoo, sateria and candomble Haiti: - Voodoo or vodou- serving the spirits - African based, Catholic influenced - Loosely organized: ritual variations - Rural vs. Urban practices - Chofe and possession - Groups- Yoruba, Fon, Kongo Africa - Concept: frangine - Roman Catholic Influence - French Catholic Salve holders Santeria “La Regla Lucumm” “One who spirit” Nigeria- Yoruba Syncretic religion of Caribbean- origin, Christia, African and Native American Cuba- World Priests/ Priestesses function as diviners- Trance states, animal sacrifices Candomble - African originated- West – Yoruba language, or Afro- Brazilian - Brazil- Salvador - Neighboring countries - Possession by orishas, animal sacrifice - Christian elements- Catholic saints- Islamic links - Native Americans- gods - Polytheistic- priests and priestesses Antimodernism: rejecting modern in favor of what is perceived as earlier, purer and better way of life Fundamentalism: advocating strict fidelity to a religious presumed founding principles o Asserts an identity separate from that of the larger religious group o Seeks to rescue religion from absorption into the modern New Age - No religion preference - 7%-16% 1990-2007 - Canada- 12%-7% - Sociological research suggests that levels of U.S. religiosity have not changed much in the past century U.S. - Official recognition of a religion entitles it to a modicum of respect - Exemption from taxation - Not all religions receive official recognition Secular Rituals - Formal, invariant, stereotyped, earnest, repetitive, behavior and rites of passage that take place in non- religious settings How Far would you go for your Faith? - Holy Ghost People - Pentecostal Christian - Prayer, tongues, healing, poisonous snakes Ch. 13 Arts, Media and Spirits Arts: include music, theater arts, visual arts, story-telling and literature Expressive culture: manifestations of human creativity Many cultures lack terms that can be translated easily as “arts” or “the arts” Art: an object, event, or other expressive form that evokes an aesthetic reaction Aesthetics: an appreciation of the qualities perceived in art George Mills: in many cultures, role of art lover lacks definition, because art is not viewed as separate activity Jacques Maquet: artwork is something that stimulates and sustains contemplation - Much art is done in association with religion - Art may be created/ performed, displayed – outside/ inside special setting - Produced for its aesthetic value as well as religious purposes Locating Art- - Tribal societies typically lack museums, but some maintain special areas where artistic expression takes place - State societies rely on critics, judges, and experts to define what’s art and not - Need to avoid applying our own standards about what is art to other cultures - Kalabari- Nigeria Art and Individuality - - Some anthropologists argue study of non-western art ignores individual and focuses on the group - More collective effort - Paul Bohannan: pay less attention to artists and more attention to art critics and products - Arto Haapala: artists and works are inseparable - A thing of beauty may be a joy forever even if we can’t credit its creator Work of Art- - For the artist, art is work - In non-state societies,, artists cannot work on art all the time - In states, artiest are full-time specialists - Some familiar genres- panting, music - Standards to judge if the artwork is complete or fully realized Art, Society, and Culture- - Around 100,000 years ago some of the world’s first artists occupied Blombos Cave - Christopher Hinshelwood: sharp instruments show symbolic thinking - Europe- art goes back more than 30,000 years- Upper Paleolithic - Art- usually more public than cave paintings Cave Painting Lascaux - Near Montignac, France a collection of prehistoric cave paintings are discovered by 4 teenagers- followed dog - 15,000-17,000 year-old paintings - Animal representations- Upper Paleolithic period - Sept. 12 1940 Ethnomusicology- - Comparative study of music of the world as an aspect of culture and society - Music: a cultural universal, and musical abilities seem to run in families - Music arose early - All cultures have lullabies - Music is inherently cultural and social - Folk art, music, and lore refer to expressive culture and ordinary people - Basongye of Democratic Republic of the Congo: 3 features- Music and sound o Music waves involve humans o Musical sounds must be organized o Music must continue - Folk: of the people: arts, music, and love of ordinary people - Planinica, Servia Representations of Art and Culture- - Art can stand for tradition, even when traditional art is removed from its original context Grim Shaw: many ethnographic films start off with music- drumbeats Assumption- that arts of nonindustrial societies usually have a link with religion Art and Communication- - Functions in society as form of communication between artist and community or audience - Tension and resolution of drama can lead to Catharsis- intense emotional release - meant to commemorate and to carry on enduring message Art and Politics- - can express or challenge community sentiment and standards - Much art valued today- received with revulsion in its own time - U.S. no museum director can mount exhibit without considering politically organized segments of society Cultural Transmission of the Arts- - Part of culture appreciation for arts depends on cultural background - Appreciation for art is learned - Navajo music: individualism: conservatism proper form - Many societies o Myths, legends, tales and art of storytelling play important roles in transmission of culture and preservation of tradition The Artistic Career- - Nonindustrial societies, artists tend to be part-time specialists - Many non-Western societies offer career tracks into the arts - Children born into certain lineages are destined to particular artistic careers - Artists need support - Arts- nether practical nor ordinary Continuity and Change- - The art go on changing although certain art forms have survived for thousands of years o Balinese: dance o Navajo: sand paintings, jewelry, weaving o French: cuisine o Greeks: drama Media and Culture- - Mass culture features cultural forms that appear and spread rapidly because of major changes in material conditions - Provides framework of common expectations, experiences, and behavior that overrides differences Using the Media- - Text: anything that can be processed, interpreted, and assigned meaning by anyone exposed to it - John Fiske: individuals use of popular culture is a creative act Media Consumers actively select, evaluate, and interpret media in ways that make sense to them - Media offer rich wed and external connections - Media provide social cement Kottak: family -planning is one area TV has influenced behavior - Current viewing level, and number of years of TV presence in the home predictors of (smaller) family size - Limited number of players in each telenovela Sports and Culture- - Football - Popularity directly depends on mass media - W. Arens: popular because it symbolizes certain key aspects of life- hard work/ teamwork - Montague and Morals: presents miniaturized and simplified version of modern organizations International Sport Success- - Cultural values, social forces and media - Media can heighten interest - Brazilian media strikingly intolerant of users - U.S. - Hard work and personal improvement as important as winning - U.S. - Americans identity emerges as a result of what he or she does Chapter 14 The World System and Colonialism The world system and relations among countries within it have been shaped by capitalist world economy Capitalist world economy: world system committed to production for sale exchange with the object of maximizing profits Capital: wealth invested with the intent of producing profit th Emergence of the World System: By the 15 Century, Europeans profited from transoceanic trade oriented economy - People worldwide had entered Europe’s extracted silver and gold, conquered natives, and colonized their lands - Previously, rural people produced mainly for their own needs World System Theory: discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, extends beyond countries Immanuel Wallerstein: Countries within modern world system occupy 3 positions: Core: dominant position, nations with an advanced system of production Semi periphery: industrialized nations that fill and intermediate position between core and periphery Periphery: the world’s least privileged and powerful nations Industrial Revolution: historic transformation (in Europe, after 1750) of traditional into modern societies through industrialization of their economies - European industrialization developed from a domestic system of manufacture Causes of the Industrial Revolution: - Began with cotton products, iron, and pottery - Widely used goods whose manufacture could be broken down into simply routines - Began in England, Not France - France did not have to transform its manufacturing systems to increase production, because it had a larger labor force - Britain’s population began to increase dramatically with industrialization - Demographic explosion fueled consumption and fostered innovation - Drew on advantages in natural resources - Nation’s cultural values and religion contributed to its industrialization o Initially, industrialization in England raised overall standard of living o Factory owners soon began to recruit cheap labor from among poorest populations o Social ills worsened with growth of factory towns and industrial cities Industrial Stratification - Karl Marx and Max Weber- focused on stratification systems associated with industrialization - Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp division between two opposed classes - Bourgeoisie: owned the means of production - Working class (proletariat: people who had to sell their labor to survive) - Proletarianization: the separation of workers from the means of production Marx: Class consciousness: recognition of collective interests and a personal identification with one’s economic group - Viewed classes as powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence history - Lenski: argued that social equality tends to increase in advanced industrial societies - Proliferation of middle –class occupations creates opportunities for social mobility Differences in income and wealth set off richest from poorest Americas is widening - Great Recession of December 2007- June 2009 increased inequality - Weber: faulted Karl Marx for an overly simple and exclusively economic view – wealth, power, and prestige are separate components of social ranking and tend to be correlated. - Social identities based on ethnicity, religion, race, and nationality and other attributes can take priority over class Colonialism: Imperialism: policy of extending rule of one nation or empire over others Colonialism: political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time European Colonialism- 2 Phases - The age of discovery- 1492-1850 - 1850 to just after the end of world war II - Dominated by Britain and France British Colonialism - British Empire covered one-fifth of the world’s land surface and ruled one-fourth of its population - First-phase- concentrated in the New World- Western Africa- India - Closed with American Revolution - Justified colonial efforts by what Kipling called the “white man’s burden” - Began to fall after WW II French Colonialism - Driven by state, church, and armed forces rather than by business interests - First phase (early 1600’s) – Canada, Louisiana Territory,, the Caribbean and parts of India - Second phase (1870- WW II) North Africa and Indochina - Ideological legitimization for French colonialism was mission civils trice - Spread French culture, language, and religion throughout colonies - Two-forms- colonial rule Indirect rule: practice of governing through native political structures and leaders Direct rule: practice of imposing new government upon native populations Colonialism and Identity: - Whole countries, along with social groups and divisions within them, were colonial inventions - 100’s of ethnic groups and “tribes” in Africa and Colonial Constructions Post-Colonial Justices: - Study of interactions between European nations of colonized societies - Farmer colonies- divided - Settler countries: large numbers of colonists and sparser native populations Non-settler post-colonies: large native populations and a small number of Europeans - Mixed post colonies: sizable native and European populations Development: - Intervention philosophy ideological justification for outsider’s to guide local peoples is specific directions - Economic development plans also have intervention philosophies - Intervention philosophy may pit assumed wisdom of first world planner against purported conservatism, ignorance or “obsolescence” of “inferior” local people Neoliberalism: governments should not regulate private enterprise, free market forces should rule Adam Smith: free trade is best way for a nation’s economy to develop - No restrictions should be placed on manufacturing, no barrios to commerce, and no tariffs - Prevailed in U.S. till President Roosevelt’s 1930 deal - Fall of Communism (1989-1991) saw a revival of economic liberalism - In exchange for leans , post socialist and developing government must accept neoliberal premise that deregulation leads to economic growth “Second World”: - Refers to former Warsaw pact nations - Includes former Soviet Union nations and the socialist and one- socialist, countries of Eastern Europe and Asia Communism: - Small c: social system in which property is owned by community and in which people work for a common good - Large c: political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow Capitalism and establish form of communism such as that which prevailed in the Soviet Union 1917-1991 - Today- 5 o China o Cuba o Laos o North Korea o Vietnam - 1985- 23 - Many communist states were totalitarian and demanded total submission of individual to the state - Communist party monopolized power - Relations with party were highly concentrated and strictly disciplined - State owned means of production - Cultivated a sense of belonging to an international movement - States- once had “planned economies” were now following a neoliberal agenda Democratization Marketization Post socialist Traditions: - Neoliberal economists- assumed dismantling Soviet Unions planned economy would raise GDP and living standards - Gains in productivity – did not happen - Corruption ensued Industrialization: continues today - New jobs - Mass production - Use of fossil fuels Ch. 15 Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World Globalization as fact: spread and connectedness of production, distribution, consumption, communication and technologies across the world Globalization is contested ideology and policy Globalization: is the globalization of risk - Concerns about risks often more developed in groups that are less endangered objectively - Risks no longer are just local or regional Global Climate Change: - Scientific measurements confirm global warming not due to increased solar radiation - Most scientists agree that human activities play a major role Anthropogenic: caused by humans and their activities Greenhouse effect: warming from trapped atmospheric gases Climate change: beyond rising temperatures, there are changes in sea levels, rainfall patterns, storms and ecosystem effects - Artic landscape and ecosystems are changing in sea levels, rainfall patterns, storms and ecosystem effects - Artic landscapes and ecosystems are changing rapidly and perceptibly - Coastal communities anticipate increased flooding and severe storms - Growing global demand for energy is single greatest obstacle to slowing climate change Worldwide energy use: - The U.S. uses about 80% of all energy derived from fossil fuels - Alternatives include: o Nuclear Power o Renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, and biomass generators Environmental Anthropology: Ecological anthropology: study of cultural adaptations to environments Ethno ecology: society’s set of environmental practices and perceptions - Indigenous ethno ecologies are being increasingly challenged by migration, media, and commerce Global Assaults on Local Autonomy - A clash of cultures may occur when development threatens indigenous people and their environments - Spread of environmentalism may expose different notions about the “rights” and value of plants and animals versus humans - Effective conservation strategies pay attention to needs and wishes of local people Deforestation: - Forest loss can increase greenhouse gas production of loss of global biodiversity - Deforestation often demographically driven - Commercial logging, road building, cash cropping, and clearing and burning associated with livestock and grazing are other causes Reasons to change behavior must make sense to local people Interethnic Contact - Since at least 1920, anthropologists investigated changes that arise from contacts between industrial and nonindustrial societies Acculturation: changes in cultural patterns or either or both groups Westernization: accumulative influence of Western expansion on indigenous people and their cultures - Different degrees of destruction, domination, resistance, survival, adaptation, and modification of native cultures ma follow interethnic contact - John Bodley: “shock phase” often follows an initial encounter - Outsiders often attempt to remake native landscapes and cultures in their own image - May include civil repression Cultural Imperialism: spread of advance of one culture at the expense of others - Some see modern technology as erasing cultural differences - Others see modern technology as providing an opportunity for social groups (local cultures) to express themselves - Brazil: local practices, celebrations, and performances changed in context of outside forces Making and Remaking Culture: - People constantly make and remake culture in context of globalization - Assign their own meanings to information, images, and products Indigenizing Popular Culture: - When forces from world centers enter new societies, the societies become indigenized: modified to fit the local culture - Native Australians- Rambo- Representative of Third World battling a white officer class A Global System of Images - The mass media present a rich, ever changing store of possible lives - Culturally alien programming won’t do very well if a quality local choice is available - The mass media play a role in maintaining people’s ethnic and national identities among people who lead transnational lives Global Culture of Consumption - Finance is key transnational force - Multinational corporations and other business interests look beyond national boundaries - U.S. Economy increasingly influenced by foreign investment from Britain, Canada, Germany, Netherlands and Japan American economy also increased its dependence on foreign labor through immigration and export of jobs People in Motion - Appadurai: views today’s world as “trans local” “interactive system” that is “strikingly new” - Scale of human movement expanded dramatically - Most migrants maintain ties with native land - Diaspora: offspring of an area who have spread to many lands Postmodernity: describes our time and situation, with today’s world in flux Postmodern: period of a blurring and breakdown of established canons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries Postmodernism: style of movement in architecture that succeeded modernism – beginning in the 1970’s Postmodernity- traditional standards, contrasts, groups, boundaries, and identities - Open up, reach out and break down- political and ethnic groups emerged with globalization Indigenous People’s - United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) - Formed in 1982 - Social indigenous people movements adopted the term indigenous people as a self- identifying political label - Legitimizing search for social cultural and political rights Social Scientists and Politicians in Latin America prefer indigena over Indio when referring to native inhabitants - Emphasis shifted- biological and cultural assimilation- mestizaje- to identifies that value differences - Establish self-determination, Latin America’s Indigenous peoples emphasize the following o Cultural distinctiveness o Political reforms involving restructuring the state o Territorial rights and access to natural resources o Reforms of military and police powers Ceuppens and Geschiere: explore the upsurge of autochthony (being native to a place) with an implicit call for excluding strangers in different areas - Autochthony- claimed by majority groups in Europe Identity in Indigenous Politics - Essentialism: process of viewing identity as established, real, and frozen - Identity is fluid and multiple - Identities are seen as o Potentially plural o Emerging through a specific process o Ways of being someone in particular times and places The Continuance of Diversity - Anthropology has crucial role in promoting more humanistic vison of social change - Respects value of cultural diversity
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