Final Studyguide for CC 205
Final Studyguide for CC 205 CC 205 1
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CC 205 1
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CC 205 1 at Ball State University taught by King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Study Guide for CC 205 Final Exam Death Egyptian Dat and Osiris Death is a passing not a final destination Cycles - the sun rises and sets The Nile floods and recedes Dat is where the sun goes when it is under the earth or dark side of the moon Egyptians are not sure where it is Located between the world of the dead and the world of the living Darkness and terrifying beings Ra is the sun god who accompanies the souls Field of Reeds Crops grow to enormous heights Cleansed souls can go Osiris - died and lived again They pray to him to do this as well (souls live after their bodies die) Worshiped throughout Egypt Judging souls: 1st the hall of double truth Soul is confronted by 42 gods Must make a negative confession declaring that they have not committed bad deeds Must have lived a just and moral life 2nd weighing of the heart Weights the heart against a feather Heart is the persons thought and emotions Should not be heavy with evil deeds Feather is justice and righteousness If souls pass these two tests they get to go to the underworld Change over time - began with only kinds then changed to all people The book of the dead Spells to get to the underworld Buried with the dead to help them with their journey Takeaways Death is a passing Death is associated with fertility and civilization Because of the association with Osiris Fertile ground around the nile Understandings of death development through time Geography of death changes A good afterlife becomes more widely available over time (for a price) Morality determines one's place in death You must live a good life to get into the underworld But it is believed possible to cheat death Hobi Native American The Kachinas Age classes are important to the Hobi Native Americans Kachinas: ancestor spirits Masked dancing divinities Live with the Hobi people from December to July Associated with fertility and death Death brought on a new kind of life Evil witches - Two Hearts Human and animal heart, associated with owls Hated and feared Sacrifice other people's families Hobi Believe you must be the best possible human being you can to ward off the evil spirts Tale of the husband and wife Wife's relatives keep dying off He goes to look for his mother-in-law (quest) Gets captured by a two heart The man keeps repeating that he believes the Kachinas will protect him He found the mother-in-law with the other two hearts Sun God Kachinas was there and saves the man The mother-in-law comes back and slowly dies Takeaways Immorality is associated with death Good and bad supernatural creatures govern death Piety brings salvation form immorality and death Piety is doing what you are supposed to for the gods Immorality and death are located in the family (usually it is the individual that determines their own fate) A bad family member can bring death to a family As the mother in law does A good family member can save the family As the husband does Greek Orpheus and Eurydice Muses - dance, music Queen of the muses, Calliope Her son is Orpheus He was one of Jason's Argonauts Most famous singer and poet ever He could sooth anyone with a song Rationality, knowledge and prophesies (Apollo) Orpheus can be considered an enemy of Dionysius Mysteries, bring people up (Dionysius) Orpheus was supposed to be married to Eurydice She is bite by a snake and dies Orpheus descends into the underworld He sang a song about his love for Eurydice while on the river of Styx The underworld stopped They agree to give back Eurydice Orpheus is the only soul to persuade Hades to give a soul back Taboo - Orpheus cannot look back as he leaves He ends up looking back because of love for Eurydice or fear of her health Maenads - worshipers of Dionysius They are mad that he is singing sad songs They tear him apart limb by limb Tragic - he losses his wife's and his own life The muses bury his limbs honorably His shade descends to the underworld and reunites with Eurydice Takeaways A hero-quest about the hope of cheating death Death's power in the taboo The same characteristic that enables the hero to cheat death also instigates his failure Love survives life into death Mesopotamia Inanna = Ishtar Earlier version of Ishtar Ancestor of Aphrodite Associated with the home (Storehouse of grain), rain (brings the grain), chariot (war), sky, stars, sexuality (night) Brings prosperity, victory in war Dumuzi (Tammuz), the shepherd, related to beer, meats, springs They are married Inanna is the most powerful, she ends up causing the death of Dumuzi Ereshkigal - Inanna's sister Infertility, queen of the great below Inanna goes into the underworld for an unknown reason Possibly knowledge Possibly a power trip - confront Ereshkigal Inanna abandons the 7 cities that she has been ruling over She wears jewels and armor She tell Ninshubur that if she has not returned in 3 days he should tell the other gods that Inanna is dead and must be revived Shows that she fears death like humans Alludes to her impending death Ereshkigal only lets Inanna come to the underground if she removes her adornment The stripping represents her preparation for death Mesopotamian people believed you could not take anything in to the next life Unlike Greek and Roman underworld, all souls are punished in the underworld Inanna is sentenced to death by Ereshkigal Even the goddess of war and fertility cannot conquer death Reviving Inanna Ninshubur gets Enki to help her Enki conjures two creature form the ground They have the tree of life and the water of life They slip into the underworld Find Ereshkigal on her throne crying She offers they gifts they refuse and ask for Inanna instead They sprinkle the tree of life and the water of life Misery loves company They need to find a substitute for Inanna Demons accompany Inanna and Enki Dumuzi is not mourning Inanna - he is sitting in her throne and wearing a beautiful robe Inanna orders the demons to take him away Dumuzi(beer) spends 6 months, his sister Gestianna (wine) spends the other 6 months Dumuzi's time on earth is the harvest season Takeaways Death is unconquerable Do humans long to conquer death? Reason for Inanna to go to the underworld Humans can take nothing with then in death Death is unwilling to release anyone unilaterally Is morality relevant? But a substitute can be negotiated at least by the queen of heaven Death is a reverse of birth Death is associated with agricultural cycle Eschatology Why have cultures told Eschatology Myths? Eschatology is a myth about the end times Fear of the unknown Revelation - Christianity Ragnarok - Scandinavian (even the gods don’t know about the apocalypse) Satisfy the desire for rewards Revelation - Christianity (moral people get reward: bad people get punished) Fear of Destruction Day of Kali -Indian Empower the powerless Revelation - Christianity (currently undergoing isolation and being killed) Express a desire that God will reward them in the end Make Children Behave Hopi Myth - Kachinas (good virtues, hard working, frugal people survive and repopulate) Moral decline (Ragnarok, Indian) Eschatology: description of the end-times Apocalypse: a divine revelation Narratives about a revelation Disclosed especially by an otherworldly being to a human recipient A chain of messages from a divinity The revelation discloses a transcendent temporal and spatial reality about a separate, supernatural world Not about the end of times Greeks and Romans do not have many myths about the end of the world Hesiod's five ages: recounts continuing human decline, predicts eventual destruction Not well developed Virgil's Aeneid promises a Roman "empire without end" Because Anise went to Roman and founded it The Pope Again not well developed Israelite Religion: temple, sacrifices, exclusivism (one god), moralism (emphasized strong morals) Yahweh the state divinity Prophets - God's spokesmen (called one) Zechariah Draws on the law If the people obey Yahweh they will be successful today Depicts a war Yahweh comes down to fight for Jerusalem Symbols of Yahweh's presence Plagues Egypt had a famine People around Israel bring tributes to Israel Takeaways An apocalypse? Yahweh is speaking directly to the prophet Supernatural events, Egypt having a famine Political weakness can generate eschatological expectations Eschatologies often project a restoration of glorious memories Yahweh was going to restore the days of David and Solomon Christian The prophet Job to seven churches Christians' Judaism and lower-class position Tense powerless time for early Christians Revelation in heaven - John is taken to heaven 24 elders (important symbols) Direct and a chain of revelation (an angel is with him) More symbols 666 = mark of the best = Nero (an empire of Rome that murdered Christians) Rome was seen as the present day equivalent of Babylon Esoteric symbolism 7 heads = seven evil Roman emperors 12 tribes of Israel 12 disciples Battle at Armageddon - powers are going to come to Israel again and this field will be where the battle is History will repeat itself Dragon = beast Gripping images Bowls of God's wrath - plagues Parody of Roman sacrifices of wine Natural disasters, harsh punishment End of the world Moral Disasters People become worst, they stop reading the Quran Natural disasters Plagues, earthquakes, floods NOT AS INTENSE BECAUSE THE SCHOLARS ARE DISTANT FROM THESE DISASTERS BECAUSE THEY ARE DOING WELL The Dajjal (Antichrist) - Imposter, fake Christ Comes in on a donkey Brings a huge army together Does supernatural feats such as producing rain Conquers the earth except for Mecca and other holy cities Only lasts 40 days Christ them comes on a white horse There is a show down between Jesus and the Dajjal Jesus rules for 40 years - imitating Christian scripture Gog and Magog Monsters come to destroy humanity 2 angels come to fight them Asrail - death or something Israfil - blows the trumpet to take away all bad things from the earth 40 years of earthquakes Second blow brings all of the dead souls back to life and they search for their bodies Resurrection day is awful Sinners rise as various animals Muhammad appears on a horse Throne of God - last judgment All sins are made apparent to everyone Good people can pass into paradise (Eden) Compare to Mesopotamia creation EA Takeaways An apocalypse constructed through detached scholarship Amalgamating different traditions, not speaking to a marginalized community Makes it more complicated and detailed A convoluted eschatology? Salvation is determined by morality, not just group identity Assumes that Islam is the dominant religion Jesus fights the battle, not Muslims Similar to Revolutions where you are meant to be patient and wait for Jesus to fight the battle Indian Eschatology Doesn't distinguish outsiders from themselves The Puranas systemized various mentions of the end of the world Apocalyptic - chain of story from a divine authority Kali - feminine form for time (dark void above space and time) Destructive - spread fire throughout the earth Associated with cremation - appease divine anger The age of Kali People stop doing their social obligations (Darma) Order is not sustained in the universe (only outward, external symbols show power) Moral decline Vishnu or Shiva becomes Rudra - avatar Rudra - Time and darkness, the black god The sun drys up the world Fire consumes the earth Colorful clouds rain and overwhelm the world in a massive flood - one ocean At the end of destruction creation can begin again Brahma - creator god Takeaways A purely moral eschatology Moral decline afflicts all different peoples An unusual apocalypse A cyclical eschatology Is there comfort in the assurance of the future renewal of the world? Is it ok that the world will be destroyed because a new one will be built? “Do myths from different human cultures reveal the similarities or the differences between cultures?” Introduction and conclusion Do not mention obvious things, pull out the concepts Choose the difficult myths to compare Nature is unpredictable Humans have no control Japanese culture Shinto is the most common religion Based on locality, Kami (mysterious reality), nature, hierarchy Emphasizes shrines being made out of nature (wood) Emphasizes honor between people and hierarchies 80 thousand shrines to gods Care deeply about preserving nature Japanese: Amaterasu and Susanowo Amaterasu - sun goddess Shinto cult consider her to be the ancestor of the Japanese emperors This story is told by Padraic Colum Struggle between male and female creator gods Amaterasu is ruler of the heavens and sky She is benevolent and caring but has the ability of violence Took care of the harvests, plants, people, temples Her bother, Susanowo is ruler of the seas and storms Unruly and wild Tormented people and destroyed crops One day they made a truce They exchanged tokens Amaterasu gave jewels Susanowo gave his sword They drank from the high heaven's river, the Yasu and put the tokens in their mouths From Amaterasu was born a son From Susanowo was born gods of growth and power Harvest were plentiful for a while Amaterasu claims that all of the children are technically hers This upset Susanowo so he came forth from the waters again and destroyed crops and threw people around Amaterasu hid in a cavern and refused to come out (no harvest) Takeaways Human dependence on the irregularity of nature Family relations influences nature Greek Demeter Mother Goddess and Fertility Goddess Associated with children not household She is a sexual goddess Brings life out of the womb and the soil The myth of Demeter and Persephone Persephone and Demeter are picking flowers in a field Zeus gave Persephone to Hades as a wife Cronus captured her from earth Demeter searched the earth for 9 days When she found out she left Olympus and disguised herself as human on earth Wanders to Eleusis Two people offer her lodging and something to drink Demeter nurses Demophoon (the peoples son) Demeter gives the baby something to become immortal Metaneira - the mother is enraged when she catches Demeter putting Demophoon in the fire The kid is not immortal but close to the gods Because Demeter is depressed she has stopped crops form growing Zeus sends Hermes to persuade Hades to let Persephone go - gives Persephone a pomegranate to eat Demeter and Persephone are reunited Because she ate the pomegranate she must live with Hades part of the year Etiology for seasons This explains winter Takeaways Independence of nature from civilizing control Family relations influence nature Native American Corn Mother From the Penobscot native Americans There was only an All-maker A young was born of the sea, wind, and sun A woman was born from a dew drop on a leaf They conceived the people of the earth People farm and they are happy so the All-make goes away3 As the amount of people increased the amount of animals decreased until the people ran out of food The first mother was sad so the father went in search of the all-maker The first mother was killed and drug by her sons After 7 days they returned to find green land and plants Her fruit (flesh) was sweet Her bones were buried and in their place grew a plant They burned the plants leaves to make their prayers effective The children remember their mother when they smoke and eat corn so she is living over and over again Takeaways Shows a symbiotic relationship between humanity and nature Drama in the potential for damaging the earth The family was at risk of starving so the mother sacrificed herself to feed them An ideal family A self-sacrificing mothering figure Hero-Quests Many follow the same 10 Motifs Ten Motifs 1. Extraordinary birth and childhood 2. Opposition from the beginning 3. Enemy instigates achievements - doesn’t appear much in non-Greek and non-Roman hero quests 4. Help form ally or allies 5. Insurmountable obstacles 6. Conflicts with human or divine opponents 7. Observation of taboos 8. The conquest of death 9. Success brings marriage, security, wealth, power 10. Knowledge through suffering, enlightenment, or deification Perseus - original Greek hero with the original Greek quest Argo Conforms to the standard patterns of Greek hero quests Heir to the throne of Argos His grandfather Acrisius has a brother named Proctus They fight - like all brothers in Greek Myth Acrisius ends up getting the city of Argos and Proctus gets Tiryns Proctus rapes Danae (Acrisius's daughter) Danae is locked in a basement room with only a small window Extraordinary Birth: Zeus comes into the room as a shower of gold and rapes Danae Danae gives birth to a boy They discover the child after he is four years old (Perseus) Early opposition: They are put into a chest and sent out to sea As to not kill them directly so to know bring the wrath of the furies on himself A fisherman rescues them from the sea Enemy instigates quest: Polydectes wants Perseus's mom so he says he will bring Polydectes Medusa's head instead of getting his mother Obstacle & taboo: Medusa the Gorgon Allies: Athena (explains what she looks like), Hermes (gives him a blade), the Graeae (gives an invisibility hat, winged sandals and a pouch) Conquest of Death: Medusa They enter while the gorgons are sleeping He looks into his shield to see what he is doing Obstacle: sea nymphs sent a sea monster to kill the kingdom unless Cassiepea and Cepheus give their daughter Andromeda Success: Perseus gets to marry Andromeda 200 men are mad because they wanted Andromeda He pulls out medusa's head and they all turn to stone He goes home and turns Polydectes to stone and gives the fisherman that saved him and his mother the kingdom Perseus gives Athena the head and she places it on her breast plate Perseus goes to face his grandfather Acrisius Perseus flings a discus and hits Acrisius and kills him Founds the city of Mycenae Andromeda and Perseus live happily ever after Takeaways This myth doesn’t really account for any knowledge or other growth of Perseus Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality Extraordinary birth: King of the City of Uruk, Son of the goddess Ninsun (two thirds god and one third man) Early opposition and ally He forces every man to fight him and they all lose He also makes each woman who gets married have sex with him on their wedding night instead of their husband Enkidu - challenges Gilgamesh to a fight - they tie They become friends This epic shows the bromance between them Instigating the quest They go on a quest to the cedar forest They run into Humbaba and kill him They bring back cedar trees to build palaces Ishtar comes on the Gilgamesh and his refuses her so she sends the Bull of Heaven to attack them They kill the bull and Ishtar kills Enkidu Gilgamesh morns the death of his friend and fears death He tries to gain immortality - this has only been done by Utnapishtim so he seeks him out Ishtar could have started this quest or it could be Gilgamesh his self Obstacles Journeys to the garden of the gods - kills lions Several gods talk to him about why he is skinny and his cheeks are burned and scared He has become a beast because he is so afraid of death He is destroying himself to gain immortal life He tells them that his is afraid of death because of Enkidu Help, allies Man-scorpion tells the way to the garden of the gods Siduri - pours beer for visitors Urshanabi-brings people across the water to the land of immortality Shamash- sun god They all tell him not to pursue the quest Should we look for a longer life or should we enjoy the time that we have while we have it Facing Death - Utnapishtim He learned that Utnapishtim knew that secrets of the gods He was in the right place at the right time Utnapishtim said the Gilgamesh's roll is to be a Shepard for the gods and sacrifice to the gods Says that if Gilgamesh can stay awake for 7 days he can become immortal He falls asleep he faces death and death wins Knowledge, enlightenment He becomes king and builds the wall around Uruk Immortalizing himself by his achievements instead of defeating death Takeaways Great example of character growth He failed the conquest of death because he was not meant to be immortal Is opposition is from himself If you consider himself as the enemy he did instigate achievement and Enkidu Different kind of help from allies Quest for Enlightenment Buddha Buddhism: India, China (Tibet, Mongolia), North America - 7% of the world’s population practice Buddhism Primarily practiced in China^ About 90% of Buddhists are in Asia and the Pacific Islands Mythology holds the religion together rather than community Founder is Siddhartha - later 500s BC Buddha - enlightened one Quest The Buddha had been a few different people before becoming the Buddha He was born this time by Maha-Maya (a queen) Extraordinary Birth She had a dream that resulted in her becoming pregnant with the Buddha who was an elephant She walks by a sale tree and holds on to a branch and gives birth standing up He jumps out onto the ground - at the same time his wife, horse and something else is born at the same time He is educated with a royal education - he hates the military part of his education Early opposition and marriage Married only if Siddhartha should show military competence He kicked an elephant 2 miles away Won a horse racing competition He got married and had a son - you must have a son before becoming a Buddha Instigating the quest Siddhartha lived a sheltered existence - his father shields him from the pain people are feeling in the city When he goes on a chariot ride he comes across dead and sick men One day he seeing an ascetic man - monk He decides to study asceticism himself His father is mad and locks him up Obstacle, help Devas help him escape Once out Siddhartha ditches his jewels and shaves his head Rudraka teaches Siddhartha to live off a limited amount of food He sat in the lotus posture under a tree and mediated everyday Conflict, taboo? Boddhisatta - someone who is training Distraction is the taboo because if he becomes distracted from his meditation he will fall out of asceticism If he gives into sexual desire The fear of death - emotional attachment to his body Mara the Friend - tempter Sends Siddhartha a letter saying that his father is losing his power Siddhartha does not care about power anymore Mara sends bad weather - Siddhartha is not harmed and just keeps meditating Mara tries to say that Siddhartha has not done any charities Mara makes her three daughters dance around Siddhartha to tempt him but he resists Success and enlightenment 28 days he becomes a Buddha The earth shakes People live harmonious The Buddha gains disciples Becomes a preacher Nirvana - change of consciousness that allows the Buddhist to be free from illusion and material things State at the end of their path of asceticism Takeaway Fits all hero motifs but some are only sort of fulfilled Oppsition is from his sheltered childhood because he believes that materials means take care of people The enemy of material means is what instigates achievements The conquest of death can be the acceptance of death he must achieve Cant flinch when the storm comes or weapons are used against him War, violence is Tragic Irish Medb and the bull After his youth Cuchulainn fights a number of wars Connaught - queen Medb (shape shifter) Medb sends the people to capture a large cow Cuchulainn wins in battle and spares Medb's life but she has to return the bull The bull dies soon after Cuchulainn’s Death Cuchulainn goes into battle because three kings are burning his crops and killing his cattle Cuchulainn throws spears but the kings throw them back and kills him He ties himself to a stone or tree to make so that he remains standing as he dies Constant war brings a tragic, premature death even to the best warrior Greek Hector vs Achilles Hector knows that if he goes and fights Achilles he will die but he would rather die than loss his army Hector runs away from Achilles and Achilles chases him around Troy Athena transforms into one of Hector's brothers and tells Hector that they will fight together Achilles throws his spear at Hector and misses, Athena brings it back to him Hector throws his spear and misses now he only has a sword They run at each other Achilles knows the weak spots on the armor because it is his own Achilles rams his spear into his throat - by killing Hector he is in a way killing himself Hector declares that though Achilles has won this battle, Paris will kill Achilles Achilles drags his body behind his chariot All of the woman of Troy wail about the death Bring destruction Mothers and children are left alone Parents lose their children The Sack of Troy When the Trojans are asleep Sinon opens the trap door The Greeks open the wall of Troy The Greeks kill the Trojans Neoptolemus kills Priam like a sacrifice Aenaus escapes from the slaughter With his father Anchises Cassandra tries to take refuge in the temple of Apollo A different Ajax takes her out of the temple and rapes her Hecuba becomes a slave woman for one of the warriors Polyxena - daughter of Hecuba and Priam She is sacrificed to Achilles because he has been interested in her Menolaus searches for Helen - he wants to kill her but is so in love that he just takes her back to Sparta
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