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UNCC / Woman;s gender studies / Wom 1101 / What are the two marriages?

What are the two marriages?

What are the two marriages?


School: University of North Carolina - Charlotte
Department: Woman;s gender studies
Course: Intro to Women's Studies
Professor: Kelly finley
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: wgst, women's and gender studies, and wgst 1101
Cost: 50
Name: Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Test 3 Study Guide
Description: In-depth study guide for Test 3, which covers the lectures from April 13 to April 27.
Uploaded: 05/03/2016
11 Pages 6 Views 12 Unlocks

Yesenia Padberg (Rating: )

If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!

WGST 1101 – Professor Finley – Test 3 Study Guide

What are the two marriages?

Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Highlight = Important Person

Lecture – April 13

Look through the lens of “Marriage” 

1. History of the definition of “marriage”

2. Legacy of “women as property”

3. The new “single woman” and her power

4. New relationships

5. Modern marriage myths

Marriage is a political, cultural, and economic institution 

The concept of “marriage” has evolved over centuries 

∙ No one static cultural or legal definition of “marriage”

∙ Ancient Romans only allowed top 1/3 of classes to marry

∙ Early Christianity forbade women and men to marry

∙ In the U.S., women and children within marriage were property of the husband ∙ Slaves, Native Americans, and Asians in the U.S. were not allowed to marry ∙ Loving v. Virginia (1967) forced all states to stop discriminating against marriage based upon  race

What is a cohabitation?

If you want to learn more check out How many amendments does the U.S. Constitution have?

Obergefell v. Hodges/Ohio (2015)

∙ Legalized marriage between two people of the same sex

∙ 14th Amendment provides equal protection under the law

Two “Marriages” 

∙ ceremonial marriage – performed within a place of worship, according to tribal customs and/or  procedures of tradition

∙ legal marriage (license/contract issued by State) – the legal union of two people. Once a couple  is married, their rights and responsibilities toward one another concerning property and support  are defined by the laws of the state in which they live If you want to learn more check out What does jurisprudential mean?

Wife=Civilly Dead

∙ before, a female went from daughter ???? wife ???? mother ???? widow

coverture – legal doctrine stipulated that a married woman had no separate legal existence from her  husband

∙ dependent on husband (like a child or slave)

∙ could not own property, control earnings, or make contracts

What is the culture of heteronormativity?

∙ had no custody of children, even as widows

A New Role = “Single Woman”

Now, most women go from…

daughter ???? single woman ???? wife and/or mother

Single women are emerging powers 

∙ single women comprise the fastest-growing segment of the American population, according to  the U.S Census Bureau, with 42% of women 18 and older never married, divorced, or widowed ∙ according to the National Association of Realtors, single women now comprise the second  largest group of homebuyers, just after married couples We also discuss several other topics like What is Interest Group?

∙ Employment Policy Foundation for that single women who live alone and have full-time jobs  earn 28 cents more than similarly situated men

Significance of the women’s vote 

∙ Women have voted in higher numbers than men in every election since 1980 ∙ Women were 56$ of the vote for President Obama in 2008

∙ 2012 saw the largest gender gap in voting to date (meaning women voted more for one  candidate while men voted for the other)

∙ in 2012, women were 53% of voters = women decided the outcome of the election

Is Everyone “Getting Married?”

∙ in 2014, the number of people who live alone = 28% of all households (up from 17% in 1970) ∙ for every 100 unmarried women, there are 88 unmarried men

∙ 56.4% of the female population are “unmarried”

Living Together

∙ cohabitation – living together as if husband and wife. In recent years, this concept has expanded  to include any two partners who have integrated their residence, property, and daily lives o many Americans do not identify as “single” because they are parents, have partners, or  are widowed

o increase in multi-generational households (16% of households)

∙ the number of unmarried couples living together increased 88% between 1990 and 2007 ∙ 12.8% of unmarried partners report to be same-sex couples. 87% report to be opposite-sex  couples We also discuss several other topics like Exists when several potential causes vary simultaneously, is what?

Age of First “Marriage” in the U.S.

∙ by age 30, 75% of women in the U.S. have been/are married

∙ median age of first marriage for women is 25.9

∙ median age of first marriage for men is 28.7

Impact of Marriage: The Myths and the Facts

∙ Fact: many studies have shown that the arrival of the first baby commonly has the effect of  pushing the mother and father farther apart, and bringing stress to the marriage o couples with children have a slightly lower rate of divorce that childless couples

o one factor of success in couples is when women felt household duties were equally  divided

∙ Fact: a recent study based on marriage rates in the mid-1990s concluded that today’s women  college graduates are more likely to marry than their non-college peers, despite their older age  at first marriage. This is a change from the past when women with more education were less  likely to get married We also discuss several other topics like What are the four levels of protein structure and how do they differ?

∙ Fact: new research shows that it also depends upon the age of cohabitation, with couples under  30 showing higher rate of divorce while those over 30 show neutral effect

Big Wedding = Big Love?

∙ Fact: across income levels, the more a couple spends on their wedding, the shorter their  marriage

∙ average wedding cost in America = $30,000

∙ the wedding industry is a $55 billion/year business

∙ presence of family at a wedding increases longevity of marriage

Culture of Heteronormativity 

1. assumption of heterosexuality

2. cultural bias in favor of opposite-sex relationships

3. hyper-representation and idealization of young heterosexuality

4. under-representation of same-sex and other non-hetero relationships  

Fact: according to a large-scale national study, married/partnered people have both more and better sex  than do their unmarried counterparts. Not only do they have sex more often but they enjoy it more,  physically and emotionally

Top Predictors of Divorce 

1. age at marriage – 50-75% chance if married under age 30

2. living together before marriage

3. your parents were divorced

4. pregnant before marriage

5. not married long (most end by the 15th year)

6. your income If you want to learn more check out Why Ralph Ellison countered Richard Wright?

Divorce and Economic Impact

∙ median duration of marriage is 7.2 years

∙ median age of divorce for women is 33.2 and 35.6 for men

∙ 50% of new marriages end in divorce, 60% of remarriages end in divorce

∙ men experience a 28% increase in standard of living after divorce

∙ 25% of women fall into poverty within 5 years of divorce

Money and Marriage

∙ married people have more than twice as much money, on average, as unmarried people.  Married people save more while enjoying some economies of scale

∙ married men also earn up to 26% more than single men

∙ similarly, married women earn more than unmarried women, but only if they have no children o married women, no kids = $.90 to $1.00

o married women, kids = $.70 to $1.00

o average woman = $.77 to $1.00

Who Makes the Most?

1. married man (stay-at-home wife, kids)

2. married man (married to a career woman, no kids)

3. married career woman (no kids)

4. single woman (no kids)

5. single man (no kids)

Who Makes the Least?

1. divorced, single mothers

2. married, career woman (with kids)

Women’s 3 Shifts = Two at No Pay 

∙ first shift – job/career in which monetary wage is earned (40 hrs/week)

∙ second shift – job at home caring for and managing children, household social and physical lives  of household members (27 hrs/week)

∙ third shift – time and money spent on “looking” appropriate to participate in first shift jobs and  second shift activities

The New Facts = Who Does What?

1. employed, married mothers still do more housework and childcare as compared to married  fathers (27.7 hours/week vs. 11.1)

2. married fathers are doing more than previous generations (from 4 hr/wk in 1965, 7 hr/wk in  1985, to 11.1 in 2010)

Absent Working Mom Myth

∙ modern working mothers have increased the amount of time they spend with their kids ∙ further, they have increase quality of time with kids = “intensive parenting” = investing in  intellectual development of child

∙ how have mothers accomplished this? by giving up sleep and leisure time

Slacker Dad Myth

∙ 68% of working dads experience conflicts with their employers and duties as a parent ∙ 65% of fathers believe care should be equal

∙ 30% report actual equality in caregiving

∙ why the inequity? = unemployed men do less housework than women who work full-time

Lecture – April 20

Sexual Violence

2012 FBI official definition of rape – penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or the anus with  any body part or object, or by oral penetration by a sex organ of another person without the consent of  the victim

State Laws (North Carolina)

Sexual Battery 

∙ if for the purpose of sexual arousal, sexual gratification, or sexual abuse a person engages in  sexual contact with another person

o includes sexual contact and touching (even through clothing)

Scope of the Suffering

∙ seven of eight reported rape victims were women; one in eight are men

∙ one in five girls and one in ten boys will be sexually assaulted in their lifetime

Profile of the Crime

∙ 4 in 10 take place in the victim’s home; 2 in 10 take place in a friend or relative’s home; 1 in 10  take place outside of a home; 1 in 12 take place in a parking garage

∙ 30% of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger = 70% KNOW HIM ∙ 43% take place b/w 6pm and midnight; 24% take place b/w midnight and 6am ∙ college age women are 4 times more likely to be sexually assaulted

∙ in 47% of rapes, the victim sustained injuries other than rape injuries = 53% NO OTHER OBVIOUS  SIGNS OF ATTACK

∙ 58% to 71% of rapes are planned

Profile of a Criminal = Rapist

∙ 73% of sexual assaults were perpetrated by a non-stranger. 38% of rapists are a friend or  acquaintance. 28% are an intimate partner. 7% are a relative

∙ 2 of 3 rapists are sober

∙ 84% report use of physical force only

∙ average age of a convicted rapist is 31 years-old

Reporting and Convicting Rape

∙ in 1996, only 31% of rapes and sexual assaults were reported to law enforcement officials  ∙ the FBI report includes only those rapes actually reported to law enforcement – according to the  US Department of Justice

∙ the most common reasons given by women for not reporting these crimes are the belief that it  is a private or personal matter and that they fear reprisal from the assailant

∙ under 5% of all reported rapes are false reports

Convicting Rape

∙ even in the 39% of attacks that are reported to police, there is only a 16.3% chance the rapist  will end up in prison

∙ factoring in unreported rapes, about 6% of rapists will ever spend a day in jail. 15 out of 16 will  walk free

Myth about Sexual Assault

∙ survivors of rape should be able to “get over” it easily

o false: there are long lasting effects of sexual assault, including

▪ 3 times more likely to suffer from depression

▪ 13 times more likely to abuse alcohol

▪ 26 times more likely to abuse drugs

▪ 4 times more likely to contemplate suicide

New Story = Rape is a Crime of Violence

1. BODY AS PROPERTY = a person’s body is their property with all rights therein 2. ACCESS/USE of property = requires articulated consent and/or permission (each time, every  time)

3. CRIME OF VIOLENCE = methods used cause suffering, pain, bodily harm, extreme psychological  and mental abuse; not about sexual desire

How Not To Be A Rapist

∙ get consent = that means a verbal “yes” especially if any alcohol/drugs have been consumed ∙ stop when told to “stop”

∙ watch out for your male and female friends

∙ talk to your brothers/sons/friends about what legally constitutes rape and what “consent” is ∙ teach “when in doubt…go without”

Rape Culture “Green Light Mentality” 

∙ Entitled to proceed until told to “stop.” Rapist is incapable of controlling their desire to “go.”  Victim is responsible to say “no.” Lack of “no” means “yes.” This is rape.

Culture of Consent “Red Light Mentality” 

∙ Start at “Stop.” Person can control their desire. Consent is explicitly asked and explicitly given.  You must ask and hear “Go.” No answer = No, red light. Never assume. Never entitled.

Relationship Violence 

∙ previously known as “domestic violence”

∙ 1 in 3 American women and 1 in 4 American men will experience relationship violence by an  intimate partner

∙ 85% of domestic violence survivors are women

∙ 43% of dating college women report experiencing abusive behavior from partner ∙ women are more likely to be victims of homicide when they separate from their husbands ∙ on average, a sufferer of abuse will leave an abusive relationship 7 times before they leave for  good

Violence Against Men and Women

∙ approximately 33% of female homicide victims were known to have been killed by their  husbands, former husbands, or boyfriends

∙ men, however, were more likely than women to experience violent crimes committed by both  acquaintances and strangers

Why Do People Become Abusers?

∙ over 80% of abusive partners had themselves either been victims of child abuse or had  witnessed their mothers being abused

∙ grow up in a family and social group that supports their abusive beliefs such as: o anger causes violence

o if you don’t control someone, they will control you

o smashing things is “venting”

o jealousy is natural

o somebody has to be in charge

∙ not all who were abused become abusers

∙ though men make up 95% of convicted abusers, women can be abusers too. They often resort  to verbal, psychological, and emotional abuse

Profile of Abuser Tactics 

∙ controlling behavior – a batterer may attribute their controlling behavior to concern for their  partner (ex. their partner’s safety or decision making skills). They may assume all control of  finances or prevent their partner from coming and going as they wish

∙ quick involvement – sometimes battered women know their partner for less than six months  prior to getting married, engaged or living together. They may pressure their partner to commit  to the relationship. Later, a victim may feel guilty for wanting to slow the pace or end the  relationship

∙ isolation – a batterer may isolate their victim by severing their ties to outside support and  resources. The batterer may accuse others such as the victim’s friends and family of being  “trouble-makers.” They may block their partner’s access to use of vehicle, work, or telephone  service in the home

∙ verbal abuse – a batterer says things that are intended to be cruel and hurtful, curse or degrade  their partner or put down their accomplishments (“shut up,” “stupid,” “fat,” “bitch,” etc.) ∙ dual personality – abusive behavior and moodiness, which can shift quickly to congeniality are  typical of people who batter their partners

∙ hypersensitivity – an abusive person is easily insulted and doesn’t have a sense of humor about  themselves

∙ threats of violence – this consists of any threat of physical force meant to control the partner.  While most people do not threaten their partners, a batterer may try to excuse their behavior  by claiming that “everyone talks like that”

∙ breaking or striking objects – the batterer may break household items, punch holes in walls or  kick doors to scare the victim

∙ use of force during an argument – the batterer may hold down their partner, physically restrain  them from leaving, push or shove them, or tell them if they leave they will hurt them

Emotional Abuse (where it starts)

∙ they tell constant mean jokes, criticize, and judge you

∙ you feel guilty or insecure, sad often

∙ they refuse to communicate

∙ when you’re apart, they constantly text/call you

∙ blame bad moods on you

∙ their jealousy scares you

∙ they try to control your spending

∙ they are unfaithful or threaten to be

∙ they threaten to hurt themselves if you leave

Profile of Victims

∙ there is no one type of person who suffers from relationship violence. A person experiencing  relationship violence does not cause the violence to happen. The violence is a result of the  abuser’s behavior, not the survivor’s

∙ relationship violence happens to people from all different backgrounds

Cycle of Violence 

Phase 1: Stress/Tension Building Phase 

∙ abuser will

o verbally abuse and pick fights

o emotionally abuse

o act jealous and possessive

o criticize, threaten

o drink, use drugs

o be moody, unpredictable

∙ sufferer will

o feel like they are walking on eggshells/going crazy

o try to reason/calm/please the abuser; “make them happy”

o keep silent, try to keep children quiet

o feel afraid or anxious, sick, and stressed

Phase 2: Crisis/Violence Phase 

∙ abuser will

o verbally and/or physically abuse

o sexually assault

o increase control over money

o restrain partner

o destroy property, phone

o emotional assault

∙ sufferer will

o experience fear, shock

o protect self and children

o use self-defense

o call for help

o try to flee and leave

o pray for it to stop

o do what is necessary to survive

Phase 3: Calmer Phase “Honeymoon Phase” 

∙ abuser will

o ask for forgiveness

o promise it won’t happen again

o stop drinking and/or using drugs

o go to counseling

o be affectionate

o initiate intimacy

o minimize (explain it) or deny (I just…) abuse

∙ sufferer will

o forgive

o return home

o arrange for counseling

o feel hopeful

o then secretly feel manipulated

o blame self

o minimize (explain it) or deny abuse

o start to think is this “normal” or “love”

Cycle of Violence 

∙ each stage lasts a different amount of time in the relationship, with the total cycle taking from a  few hours to a year or more to complete

∙ emotional abuse is present in all three stages

∙ it will happen again and it will get worse

Lecture – April 27

What is “Reproductive Justice?” – term developed by African-American feminists/activists (Loretta Ross)

Loretta Ross 

∙ Margaret Sanger was approached by black women in Harlem and Brooklyn to open birth control  clinics in black areas

∙ dual-value system – African-Americans and other minorities had to fight for the use of birth  control but also fight eugenics/forced sterilization

∙ was sexually assaulted by her cousin and got pregnant as a result; gave birth to her son at 14;  said this experience made her a feminist; attempted to give her son up for adoption but decided  to keep him after the nurses brought him to her

∙ wasn’t allowed back at school after giving birth to her son and had to sue the school district for  her right to go to school; won the case

∙ 1972 – D.C. Rape Crisis Center was the only rape crisis center in the world at the time ∙ a friend who was a member of the Black Panther Party convinced her to visit and volunteer at  the D.C. Rape Crisis Center and became director of D.C. Rape Crisis Center in 1979 ∙ was a victim of forced sterilization due to IUD malpractice by her doctor, which she sued for

∙ lack of sex education harmed her and millions of other teens

Reproductive Justice 

∙ the right to have a child or not to have a child

∙ the right to parent and control birthing options

∙ a woman’s ability to determine her reproductive destiny is directly connected to the conditions  of her community

∙ focuses upon the whole female and her overall health outcomes

Menarche – first menstrual cycle

∙ global crisis of stigma against menstruation and girls missing school

∙ average age of first menstrual cycle in 2000 is 12.4 years-old

Menopause – permanent cessation of menstruation

∙ average age of menopause in America is 51 years-old

Managing One’s Reproductive Life

∙ American female = reproductive life lasts 40 years

∙ without birth control, the average female would have 12 – 15 pregnancies within her lifetime ∙ current American birth rate is 1.8/1 female

∙ biggest birth rate factor = economic

o more money = fewer births

Birth Control Saves $$ and the Future

∙ average US annual cost of raising a child = $9,000 to $25,000

∙ studies link an increase to women’s wages to the availability of birth control

Sexually Transmitted Infections

∙ half of all reported STI cases = 15 - 24 years-old

∙ chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis – cause life-long health complications, chronic pelvic pain, and  infertility


∙ abstinence-only education had no effect (positive or negative) on delay of sex ∙ 99% of Americans want AIDS and STI education

Supreme Court Birth Control Cases 

∙ Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) – ruling that struck down state laws prohibiting distribution of  birth control to married adults

∙ Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) – ruling struck down state laws prohibiting the distribution of birth  control to unmarried adults

o stare decisious – decision stands; rule of law

Birth Control Effectiveness

∙ pregnancy rate per 100 females in one year

o implants – 0.01%

o the pill (combined and progestin only) – 9%

o male condom – 18%

o no method – 85%

Emergency Contraceptive Pills (EPCs)

∙ “Plan B,” “Morning After Pill”

∙ inhibits ovulation, conception, or implantation, depending upon the time of use ∙ effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after unprotected sex/failed contraception/rape

ECPs compared to Mifepristone

∙ ECPs do not cause medical abortions; there is no medical pregnancy present; available over the  counter

∙ Mifepristone causes medication abortion; by prescription only; effective after confirmed  pregnancy and up to 9 weeks; 97% effective

pregnancy – begins with fertilized egg completes implantation into the uterus (American Medical  Association)

Roe v. Wade 

∙ 1973 Supreme Court ruling

o woman’s right to decide whether or not to be a parent is constitutionally protected o the State must safeguard maternal health

o the State has interests in protecting viable life (sustained survival outside of the womb)

Abortion Statistics

∙ 49% of pregnancies in US are unintended

∙ 3 in 10 women will receive an abortion by the age of 40

∙ 42% live below 100% poverty level ($10,830/year per single female)

∙ 54% were using birth control (76% pill; 49% condoms)

∙ 91% of all abortions performed prior to 13 weeks

Danielle Deaver 

∙ got pregnant and had a normal pregnancy for 22 weeks before her water broke ∙ the embryonic fluid did not recover and upon seeing a doctor, she was told because of this the  fetus would not develop properly

∙ she could not end the pregnancy because Nebraska passed a ban on abortions after 20 weeks ∙ she and her husband returned home, and 10 days later she gave birth to the child who died 15  minutes after being born because they had underdeveloped lungs

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