BIC 1324: Final Exam Study Guide
BIC 1324: Final Exam Study Guide BIC 1324
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIC 1324 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Rust in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
FRAZIER ▯1 F INAL EXAM STUDY G UIDE I. JEWISH H ISTORY LECTURE ) A. WHO IS A JEW 1. It is an ethnic self-identity B. WHAT IS IT JUDAISM 1. In contrast to the Old Testament, Judaism is not centered in the temple C. TWO GREAT TRAUMAS 1. Babylonian Exile 586 BC a) Beginning with the Babylonian exile, Hebrews became a dispersed people (1) Essenes, Sadducees, Zealots, Pharisees, Messianic Jews 2. Destruction of the Temple & Jerusalem 70 CE a) All Jewish sects destroyed except Pharisees and Messianic Jews (1) Pharisees => separatists => orthodox Judaism (2) Messianic Jews => inclusivist => modern Christianity D. TORAH = LAW = INSTRUCTION 1. Mt. Sinai = God gave Torah to Jews E. TWO TYPES OF LAW 1. written law 2. oral law developed by Pharisees F. CHRISTIANITY —“ RIGHT BELIEF” G. JUDAISM —“ RIGHT PRACTICE ” H. MAJOR TYPES OF CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM 1. orthodox judaism 2. reform Judaism a) founder: Moses Mendelssohn b) Judaism is ethic monotheism — not Torah (1) we can be Jews and still live like the society around us 3. conservative Judaism a) Jews should not abandon the Torah II. THE T HIRD “R”: R ECONNAISSANCE (LECTURE ) A. EUROPE GOES GLOBAL 1. discovery of the sea a) Renaissance advances despite the fear of nature/sea 2. oceans become highways for people, goods, ideas B. STIMULI 1. Renaissance mindset, especially curiosity, creativity 2. of classical learning; Pythagoras, Eratosthenes, Ptolemy 3. Reformation stirs religious competition F RAZIER ▯2 4. Turkish advance into south eastern Europe threatens traditional trade routes toAsia 5. technological advances C. CHRONOLOGY GEOGRAPHY 1. Portugal: West Indies (Vasco Degama) 2. Spain: Canary Islands, Caribbean (Columbus), LatinAmerica (Vespucci, Balboa, cortes, Pizarro), Philippines (Magellan) D. IMPORTANCE OF 1492 1. Toscanelli map—Triumph of imagination over experience 2. export and global domination of European culture 3. Columbian exchange 4. power shift from central to Western Europe 5. continued problem of getting toAsia E. WHY IBERIAN LEADERSHIP ? 1. “The Street Corner of Europe” 2. mastering the “Global Wind-Machine” 3. maritime tradition (coastal trade, fishing, shipbuilding) 4. Reconquista momentum vs. Crusades failure in the east 5. royal sponsorship (Henry the Navigator; Ferdinand and Isabella) F. THE NEW TECHNOLOGY 1. The Caravel—square/triangular sails, guns 2. blue-water navigation a) Global Wind-Machine b) astrolabe c) magnetic compass 3. gun powder 4. printing 5. Cartography G. REMAINING PROBLEMS 1. how to feed crew overtime 2. longitude not precise 3. consolidation ashore III.M ESO -AMERICAN P REHISTORY LECTURE ) A. BASIN OF MEXICO CITY -STATES (urban planning) B. ORIGINS OF AZTEC STATE 1. hummingbird god—God of War—Tenochtilis C. POLITICS IN THE AZTEC EMPIRE 1. city states owe taxes 2. geographical control not continuous FRAZIER ▯3 D. AZTEC MILITARY POWER 1. orders of nobility (social advancement) 2. expand territory and impose tribute demands 3. obtain victims for sacrifice E. AZTEC COSMOLOGY 1. creation myths: indebtedness to the gods for creation of sun, moon, and humans 2. Nanahuatzin, Tonatiuh, Quatzecoatl F. AZTEC HUMAN SACRIFICE 1. debt-payment by giving the heart of a victim up to the sun 2. aztec state as mediator between people and gods G. EVERYDAY IN THE AZTEC EMPIRE 1. homeschooling 2. then compulsory education H. TÍWANAKU 1. reciprocity and state-sponsored hospitality I. WARI 1. terracing 2. Quipu 3. feasting and hospitality a) brewery J. THE LATE INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 1. drought, famine, war, movement, fragmentation K. EMERGENCE OF THE INKA STATE 1. Cuzco—temple of the sun L. INKA MILITARY POWER 1. conscript army = numerical advantage 2. investment in infrastructure (roads, communication) M. INKA POLITICAL POWER 1. nesting hierarchy (decimal system) N. INKA ECONOMIC POWER 1. three types of taxation a) agricultural: men and women b) textiles: women c) m’ita: (turn) men O. INKA COSMOLOGY 1. ritual practice focused on establishing positive reciprocal relationships with landscape 2. importance of sun, ancestor worship P. INKA HUMAN SACRIFICE F RAZIER ▯4 1. more private sacrifices as a form of tribute by citizens 2. sacrifices become a deity, mediating between people and gods IV. SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE N EW W ORLD (LECTURE ) A. WHY DID SPANIARDS WANTTO CONQUER THE NEW WORLD ? 1. gold/silver source 2. new world has much land 3. glory of God and spread of Catholic Church 4. issues at home B. THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO :HERNÀN CORTÉS 1. Cortés acquires La Malinche 2. establishes alliance with Tlaxcalla C. MASSACRE AT CHOLULA D. SPANISH WEAPONS OF WAR 1. arquebusses, crossbows, canons, swords, pikes, lances, halberds, steel armor, helmets, buckets, war horses, dogs E. AZTEC WEAPONS OF WAR 1. bows, slings, atlatls, spears, hatchets, clubs, swords, shields, helmets, quilted body armor F. SPANIARDS TAKEMOTECUHZOMA II PRISONER G. MOTECUHZOMA II DIES 1. ruling council of Tenochitilan puts Cuitlahuac in power H. NOCHE TRISTE 1. spaniards flee Tenochtitlan I. BATTLE OF OTUMBA 1. spaniards go to Tlaxcalla J. SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC IN TENOCHTITLAN 1. virgin social epidemic 2. spaniards capture emperor - HOW WERE SO FEW SPANIARDS ABLE TO CONQUER THE AZTEC EMPIRE ? 1. it wasn’t just the Spaniards, but native allies 3. tech advances of arms, armor, and horses 4. Motecuhzoma’s hesitancy to attack initial Spanish forces a) prophecy that Spaniards were gods 5. timing: a) population devastated by academics b) divisions created by dynastic war increased native willingness to ally with Spaniards c) technological advantages — arms, armor, horses d) Alahuapa’s initial delay in attacking invaders e) native of imperial rule and how soldiers where mobilized and organized FRAZIER ▯5 FIRST ENCOUNTERS (SMALL GROUP ) V. A. MESO -AMERICANS 1. LA MALINCHE — a Nahua woman who was given as a slave to the Spaniards by the people of Tabasco. She served as an interpreter, advisor, lover, and intermediary for Hernàn Cortés. 2. MOTECUHZUMA II — the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan in Mexico (Aztec Empire) 3. ATAHUALPA — the last emperor of the Inca before the Spanish conquest B. EUROPEANS 1. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS — an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer who worked under the auspices of Spain to complete several voyages to theAmerican continent 2. HERNÀN CORTÉS — a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire 3. FRANCISCO PIZARRO — a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire C. PLACE NAMES AND TERMS 1. TENOCHTITLAN — in Mexico; island city 2. QUETZALCOATL — “feathered serpent” // Deity in Mexican Pantheon (god of vegetation) 3. CUZCO — in Peru; terracing (way of farming crops on the mountains) 4. QUIPU — way of keeping track of population, counting, recording, census D. QUIZ 1. Columbus described the Caribbean natives as… a) Timid, but then generous to a fault (1) Gold trade (2) They can sail (3) Columbus is superior in tone (a) Makes them childlike (b) Admires that they are part of the flora and fauna and their disinterest in power 2. Columbus does not fear resistance from the native peoples a) He seeks to justify the monarchy’s money put forth for his voyages 3. TheAztec natives pour blood all over the food a) Human sacrifice has a high status inAztec culture b) The gods need blood because they gave their hearts for theAztecs 4. According to that Teruscan accounts, the Indians saw the Spaniards in a certain way: a) They thought the baptismal water was blood in didn't want their children to die 5. De Las Casas wanted to stop the mistreatment of the native people by the Spaniards and convert them to Christianity a) He describes the Spaniards as savage and the natives as kind, teachable, and welcoming b) Reason for the king to put a stop to their mistreatment: so God will continue to back the monarchy and bless it with spiritual well-being FRAZIER ▯6 C OLUMBIAN E XCHANGE (SMALL GROUP ) VI. A. PAPALBULL OF 1493 1. Stated the primary purpose of Spain in New World: to convert natives to Catholic faith B. SEPULVEDÀ 1. Justification of colonizing and conquering a) Natives are less intelligent than Spaniards b) Natives are naturally inclined to be in a servant position c) Natives lack science and an alphabet C. DE LAS CASAS 1. Adefense of human sacrifice a) it doesn’t make sense that the natives will quickly throw away their habits/rituals 2. New World disease a) syphilis 3. Quinine a) a new world remedy b) seeds had to be harvested c) a form of biopiracy VII.SIXTEENTH CENTURY REFORMATION (LECTURE ) — FIVE MAJOR PATTERNS A. LUTHER AND LUTHERANISM 1. EARLY LIFE a) Conversion (1505), Thunderstorm b) Monastery:Augustinian 2. LUTHER ’S RELIGIOUS QUEST FOR SALVATION a) The problem (1) Will God destroy me? (2) Can I be saved? b) AVENUES AVAILABLE TO PLEASE GOD (1) Works (2) Penance (3) Mysticism c) KEY TEXTS FOR LUTHER ’S SOLUTION (1) Romans 1:17 (2) Justification = forgiveness (3) Forgiveness is a gift—saved by faith alone (4) The New Faith: Christ is on my side d) THEOLOGICAL FORMULA (1) Salvation by grace and faith alone F RAZIER ▯7 3. THE NINETY FIVE THESES a) Indulgences are bad b) Scriptural authority, not Papal authority c) Aftermath of Theses—Leepzig Debate 4. REFORMATIVE TREATISES a) Priesthood of all believers b) Criticized devotion to saints c) Two sacraments, not seven d) Ethics—not works, but faith and grace 5. ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY a) Printing press b) Propoganda 6. EXCOMMUNICATION OF LUTHER a) Diet of Worms b) Pope Leo X vs. Frederick of Saxony (Prince/protector) 7. POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS a) Origin of the term “Protestant” b) Augsburg Confession c) Wars & Peace ofAugsburg Prince determines religion (1) 8. SPREAD a) Northern Germany b) Scandanavia B. THE REFORMED TRADITION 1. Two major Protestant Theologians a) Martin Luther b) John Calvin (Geneva) 2. Calvinism challenged: Arminianism Synod of Dort (Calvinism) - free will - Total depravity - - conditional election Unconditional election - general atonement - Limited atonement - - resistible grace Irresistible grace - can fall from grace - Perseverance of saints C. THE ANABAPTISTS 1. MAJOR GROUPS a) Swiss Brethren b) Hutterites FRAZIER ▯8 2. KEY IDEAS OF SWISS BRETHREN : a) The church is voluntary b) Baptism is for adults only, no infants c) Separation from world and nominal Christianity d) No oaths 3. STATE EFFORTS TO DESTROY THEM a) Laws against re-baptisms (for Catholics that turnedAnabaptist and wanted to re-baptize) b) Martyr’s Mirrors D. THE REFORMATION OF ENGLAND VIII. THE R EFORMATION (SMALL GROUP ) A. MARTIN LUTHER 2. Thunderstorm! (“If you save me, God, I’ll become a monk”) a) Dedication to monastic life 3. Conversion experience studying Paul’s letters b) Became a reformer (not the only reformer) c) Struggled for safety 4. Protected by a prince d) Allowed to write, teach, and preach (THE NINETY FIVE THESES ) 5. Married Katherina von Bora and raised a family B. THREE MAIN POINTS 1. Sola Gratia—Only Grace a) We are saved because God’s righteousness is freely given 2. Sola Fide—Only Faith a) We accept God’s grace through faith in his Word 3. Sola Scriptura—Only Scripture a) Scriptural authority in teaching and preaching (rather than Papal authority) C. SPREADING LUTHER ’S WRITING (PRINTING PRESS ) 1. TheAugsburg Confession 2. The Small Catechism 3. The Large Catechism 4. The Twenty-SevenArticles 5. German translation of the Bible 6. commentaries on Scripture 7. hymns D. SCHLEITHEIM CONFESSION (SEVEN ARTICLES ) 1. Baptism for repented sinners (no infant or child baptism) 2. Excommunication is a way to handle repeated offenders to the community 3. Breaking of Bread (Communion) is only for the Baptized F RAZIER ▯9 4. “Separation” means that true Christians should remain apart from the secular world 5. Pastors must be men of good reputation 6. Violence must not be used in any circumstances 7. Christians should not swear an oath E. CATHOLIC SACRAMENTS F. PROTESTANT SACRAMENTS 8. 1. Baptism 1. Communion Confessio 2. Communion 2. Baptism 9. ashdfkasdf 3. Confirmation 3. ashdfkasdf 4. Confession 4. asdfhaksjhts 5. Marriage 5. Baptism 6. Holy Orders 6. Communion 7. Last Rite 7. Confirmation IX. SHAKESPEARE (LECTURE ) A. BACKGROUND 1. The English Reformation a) Act of Expulsion — Edward I — expelled Jews from England B. ELIZABETHAN PUBLIC THEATRES (THE CURTAIN & THE GLOBE ) 1. Unroofed 2. Circular or octagonal 3. Gallery seating 4. Elevated thrust stage C. RICHARD BURBAGE 1. Popular london actor 2. Member of The Lord Chamberlain’s Men a) This company used “The Curtain” and “The Globe” 3. Colleague and friend of Shakespeare 4. Both were “sharers” in The Lord Chamberlain’s Men a) sharers—a control company policy; bought plays, costumes; managed staff and performance schedule b) boy actors—played women’s roles c) tire man—takes care of the costumes (has the key) d) book keeper—keeper of the copy of the play D. FOLIO 1. 36 plays 2. Collection of works of Shakespeare 3. Published by John Hemmings and Henry Condell; printed by Jaggard and Blount 4. First Folio categorized plays into comedies, tragedies, histories (Merchant of Venice) E. QUARTO 1. Printing of Shakespeare’s plays 2. Revenue stream for book sellers F RAZIER ▯10 X. M ERCHANT OF V ENICE SMALL GROUP ) A. CATEGORIZED AS A COMEDY 1. Happy ending with parties and weddings B. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 1. Also known for sonnets 2. Did not personally know any Jews a) Jews expelled from England in 1290 (**first country to do so) 3. Borrowed plot from two other folk tales a) Vengeful, greedy creditor trying to get a pound of flesh for his death (1) In MERCHANT, this is mixed with villainous Jewish character b) Suitors forced to choose between three chests (caskets) to win their beloved (1) If they pick incorrectly, they will never marry C. THEMATIC THREADS THROUGHOUT THE PLAY 1. Meditations justice vs. mercy “The quality of mercy is not strained. // It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven, // Upon the place beneath. // It is twice blessed. // It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.” 2. Religious plurality in a cosmopolitan society “I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, sens- -es, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject by the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? if you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?” 3. Rule of father’s wishes over lives of daughters (Portia and Jessica) a) Father is dead but continues to have influence b) Portia wants to marry Bassanio, but her father wouldn’t approve c) Jessica elopes with Lorenzo 4. Role of money in social relationships What has Shylock lost by the end of the play? a) In the course of the play, Shylock has lost his servant, his daughter, his fortune, and a trea- sured ring given to him by his dead wife. He will forfeit his estate to the man responsible for steal- ing his daughter, and he will abandon his religion for one that forbids him from practicing the trade by which he earns his livelihood. XI. G ALILEO SMALL GROUP ) A. QUIZ 1. Before Galileo’s discovery…? a) Ptolemy FRAZIER ▯11 2. Opponents used…? a) Bible 3. Who does Galileo credit with modern model of the universe? a) Copernicus 4. The “Letter on Sunspots” proved…? a) Sun rotates on its axis 5. Galileo’s next logical step if his works were banned…? a) Ban looking at the night sky (1) Stop looking and thinking B. “GALILEO ’S LETTER TO THE GRAND DUCHESS OF TUSCANY ” 1. Publishes, then recants his work for fear of excommunication 2. Under house arrest for 8 years 3. Dies in house arrest
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