Study Guide: Intro to Psych - Third Exam
Study Guide: Intro to Psych - Third Exam APSY.UE.0002
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Study Guide: Intro to Psych - Third Exam Social Psychology Related Links: https://youtu.be/g513EUHqkfw https://youtu.be/7P0iP2Zm6a4 https://youtu.be/h6HLDV0T5Q8 https://youtu.be/UGxGDdQnC1Y Forming Impressions (Prejudice, stereotypes, illusory correlations, in-groups vs. out- group) In-Group vs. Out-Group Through our social identities, we associate ourselves with some groups and contrast ourselves with others This group identiﬁcation typically promotes an in-group bias, or favoring of one’s own group Prejudice to prejudge something negatively - to arrive at an unfavorable conclusion before we’ve evaluated all of the evidence can begin from stereotypes Stereotypes a belief- positive or negative- about a group’s characteristics that we apply to most members of that group typically stem from adaptive psychological processes trying to save mental energy by simplifying reality Can mislead people assume that all members of a group share a given characteristic cling to them too rigidly and are unwilling to modify them in light of disconﬁrming evidence Fuel conﬁrmation bias Illusory correlation overgeneralizing stereotypes reﬂect the presence of illusory correlation they indicate the perception of an erroneous association between a minority group and a given characteristic Ex. although most people believe there is a powerful correlation between mental illness and violence…studies indicate that the risk of violence is markedly elevated only among a small subset of mentally ill individuals. Attributions Attribution theory: posit its that people attribute others behaviors to either Internal Dispositions or external situations Crediting a person’s behavior to either the internal or external variables Behaviors Internal Dispositions External Situations Fundamental Attribution Error: Overestimating the inﬂuence of internal attributions and underestimating the inﬂuence of situations Experiment in 1979 They had students talk one at a time with a young women that acted either aloof and critical or warm and friendly. Half of the students were told the women’s behavior would be spontaneous (act like she wants) Half of the students were told the women’s behavior was instructed - she was told to act happy or cold The students Western countries fall prey to attributing behaviors to internal dispositions rather than external situation We are less likely to make an internal dispositions of yourself, more likely to blame the external situation. Attraction Attractive people are... Perceived as being healthier, happier, more sensitive, more successful, and as having better social skills Not seen as more compassionate or honest More likely to enjoy occupational success Beauty is in the eye of the culture Standards for what makes someone physically attractive is reﬂective of the time and the place In US: Being thin is associated with beauty / In other cultures: Being thin is associated with being poor Attractiveness also depends on our feelings about the person If we are lead to believe a person is honest, good sense of humor etc. - people tend to perceive them as more physically attractive Research suggests: Most likely, we love people because they are beautiful and because we love them, they are beautiful. Attitudes Attitudes are feelings, often inﬂuenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events Ex. If we believe someone is cruel, we will act unfriendly towards them Three Components to Attitudes: Cognitive Component Aﬀective Component Behavioral Component [ How we react ] Attitudes predict behavior & Behavior predicts our attitudes Not all attunes include all three components The stronger your attitudes & the stronger how you are When our attitudes and actions do not coincide, we experience cognitive dissonance When we become aware our attitudes and behaviors do not coincide- we intend to experience an intense disconnect To ﬁx: we bring our attitudes in line with our actions The more dissonance you feel, the more motivation you feel to align our feelings and actions Easier to change behaviors than changing feelings If you change behavior, you will lessen or heighten a particular attitude Conformity & Obedience (e.g. Asch, Milgram, Zimbardo) * Ash, Milgram, and Zimbardo are featured in the Hock Readings - also available via StudySoup. Social Inﬂuence - greatest inﬂuence of social psychology Behavior is contagious - people tend to be inﬂuenced by the behavior of others Ex. Street performers always have money in their tip jars so people believe others are donating to the cause. We are natural mimics - imitating the behaviors of others Do we behave similarly because we are imitating each other or both in the same situation? Theories of Personality Related Links: https://youtu.be/sUrV6oZ3zsk https://youtu.be/mUELAiHbCxc https://youtu.be/7vFf5CS27-Y Measuring Personality (e.g., MMPI, The Big Five) MMPI The classic personality inventory is the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was originally devised to identify emotional disorders To identify emotional disorders is still considered the most valid use of MMPI First Five Questions of MMPI: 1. I like mechanics magazines 2. I have a good appetite 3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian 5. I am easily awakened by noise After responding to the pattern of all the questions, it would become clear what personality one has Drawbacks in MMPI: Social Desirability Most people want to report themselves the most desirable If know ﬁlling this out for a job, going to answer questions like employer would like Lie Detecters installed within the MMPI Ex. I get angry sometimes If select this item: red ﬂag to the grader the person is ﬁlling out the MMPI in a way they want to be seen, not how they are The Big Five Most researchers use the Big Five McCrae & Costa maintain that most personality traits are derived from 5 higher-order traits: Extroversion Neuroticism Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness These traits seem to be universally applicable, as well as relatively stable throughout adulthood Cross Culturally, People tend to describe themselves and others consistent with these ﬁve trails Suggesting the ﬁve traits are universal Once reach adulthood, the personality traits become (mostly) stable. Where they ﬂuctuate when younger The Psychoanalytic Approach (e.g., levels of awareness, personality, defense mechanisms) The Psychoanalytic Approach The aggression and sexual repression left a huge mark on how Freud viewed the world Observing patients left Freud observe the unconscious Freud’s psychoanalytic approach attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior At ﬁrst, Freud thought that hypnosis might unlock the door to the unconscious, but he ultimately turned to free association He told patients to relax and say whatever came to mind, no matter how trivial and embarrassing it might seem. If the client was in a relaxed state and felt comfortable speaking about whatever came to mind, Freud would be able to follow the trail of thoughts to the triggering memory- once found, would release the client from their memory Three Levels of Awareness Conscious Whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time Preconscious Material just beneath the surface of awareness Unconscious Thoughts, memories, desires that are well bow the surface of awareness You doing know you have them, but are driving your behavior Personality Structure ID The primitive, instinctive component of personality that strives to satisfy basic drives Operates according to the pleasure principle Want to experience pleasure in the moment Ego Contains our partly-conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories Operates according to the reality principle Seeks to satisfy the ID’s imposes in realistic ways that will bring out long term eﬀects Personality executive: the mediator between the ID, Superego, and the real life demand of the external world Superego The moral compass that focuses on how we ought to behave produces feeling of pride and guilt Forces the ego to consider not only what is real, but what will be ideal in any given situation Focuses on how we aught to behave, not how we want to behave Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms are tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality Repression: Banishes anxiety- arousing wishes from consciousness According to Freud: The defense mechanism that underlines all other defense mechanisms Occurs no matter what other defense mechanism you eventually use Regression Allows us to retreat to an earlier stage of development Ex. A child on his ﬁrst day of ﬁrst grade (anxious), begins to suck his thumb - even though it is a behavior he hasn’t engaged in the last 3 years Reaction Formation The ego makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites Projection Defense mechanism that disguises our threatening impulses by attributing them on others Denial Rejecting a fact or its seriousness as protection from a painful event Rationalization Unconsciously generating self-justifying explanations Ex. An alcoholic says they are only having one drink because they are at a party and doesn’t want to make others feel uncomfortable Identiﬁcation Self-esteem is bolstering by forming an alliances Displacement Diverting impulses toward a more acceptable object or person Sublimation Unacceptable impulses are channeled into acceptable behaviors Neo-Freudians & Assessing the Unconscious Neo-Freudians Neo-Freudians have veered away from Freud in two key ways: They place more emphasis on conscious mind They doubt that sex and aggression are all-consuming motivators Tend to emphasis as they see as loftier motives and social interaction as motivators Karen Horney Childhood anxiety is triggered by the child’s sense of helplessness and dependence Child social tensions is what’s crucial for the formation of one’s personality Alfred Adler Called his theory: Individual Psychology Much of our behavior is driven by eﬀorts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority Child social tensions is what’s crucial for the formation of one’s personality Carl Jung Called his theory: Analytical Theory In addition to the personal unconscious, we have a collective unconscious Collective Unconscious: Explains deeply rooted feelings/concerns Ex. We might fear snakes not because we have had a negative association with snakes, but because the experiences of our ancestors who’s lives were threatened every day by snakes Assessing the Unconscious Objective assessments tap into the conscious Projective tests provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger the projection of one’s inner dynamic the test taker is asked to describe some kind of stimulus that is very ambiguous, where there is no right or wrong answer. The information that they share lends insight to what is going on in their inner psyche. TAT Asked to look at a photograph and describe the scene, what is going on Rorschach [The Most Commonly Used Projective Test] Asked to look at an inkblot and describe what they see Behavioral, Humanistic, Biological, & Social-Cognitive Perspectives Behavioral Perspectives Believe that psychology should only study observable behavior, and explain personality in terms of learning Albert Bandura: Models have a large impact on our personality development Self-eﬃcacy: our beliefs about our abilities to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes Focused on observational learning We learn to be shy, assertive, generous etc. by observing others B.F. Skinner: Behavior is fuller determined by environmental stimuli Did not believe in the concept of freewill The environment shapes who you are and who you become Personality is a collection of response tendencies Personality is acquired through learning over the course of the lifespan Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic psychologists focus on the way healthy people strive for self- determination and self-realization Abraham Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs Wanted to understand what makes people healthy, creative people Recent criticism by evolutionary psychologists Believe the top of the hierarchy should not be self- transcendence, it should be striving to ﬁnd a mate…retaining that mate…and successfully reproducing to spread their personality traits. Carl Rogers believed that, unless that are thwarted by their environment, people are primed for growth and fulﬁllment A central feature of personality is self-concept Critical to the personality characteristics you display Three aspects key to our development Genuine Open about their self-feelings Accepting Oﬀering us: unconditional positive regard - an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. Suggests we are valued, even knowing we have shortcomings Empathic Sharing & Mirroring our feelings reﬂecting out beliefs, meanings and attitudes Biological Perspectives Hans Eysenck posited tha personality can be characterized along three dimensions Introversion vs introversion Emotional Stability vs Instability Psychoticism Believed the three dimensions are predetermined, born with them Eysenck proposed that introverts have higher levels of physiological arousal, which makes them more easily conditioned to have inhibitions Act in an introverted manner in order to maintain an internal homeostasis. The brain chemistry in people who are extroverted suggest people they are naturally less aroused, thus they seek stimulation Modern research in behavioral genetics has supported his ideas that personality is molded by heredity Identical twins reared apart are signiﬁcantly more similar in personality than fraternal twins reared together Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of Personal Control External Locus of Control: The perception that outside forces determine your fate Internal Locus of Control: The belief that you control your own destiny ] Feel better mental and physical health Deal better with stressors There is a note of caution: The environment Is important - some situations are completely out of an individual’s control Culture & Personality Cultures seem to exhibit the same basic traits, but vary as to which particular traits are exhibited most Across cultures - individuals exhibit the same basic personality traits; but people vary cross culturally as to what personality trait is exhibited most Independent Cultures Western cultures View the self as unique individual - separate from others Children are encouraged from a young age to shine, to stand apart Interdependent Cultures East-Asian Cultures View the self as part of a larger group Encouraged to be more modest, introverted, to ﬁt in & adapt Psychological Disorders Related Links: https://youtu.be/wuhJ-GkRRQc https://youtu.be/aX7jnVXXG5o https://youtu.be/ZwMlHkWKDwM https://youtu.be/uxktavpRdzU Psychological Disorders (e.g., understanding disorders, classifying disorders) Understanding Disorders Medical Model Focus is on genetically inﬂuenced abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry Psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed and treated An in some cases, cured - as like any form of physical illness Acknowledge that psychological factors (enduring and traumatic events) do play a role, but they place more emphasis on the brain chemistry Biopsychosocial Approach Mental illness denotes a sickness that must be found and cured In addition, there might be an issue in the person’s environment, interpretation of event, habits, social skills, etc. Acknowledges that mind and body are inseparable from one another Cassifying Disorders Classiﬁcation aims to: Describe a disorder Predict the disorder’s future course Identify appropriate treatment Stimulate research to identify causes The classiﬁcation system is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Classiﬁcation results in labels Labels create preconceptions that guides our treatment Allows professionals to communicate what they are seeing and lay out a plan of action Without having a diagnosis/labels- insurance companies would not pay for treatment Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD): Unexplainably and continually tense and unease Panic Disorder: Sudden episodes of intense dread Phobias: Irrationally and intensely afraid of a speciﬁc object or situation Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Lingering memories, nightmares, etc. for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrollable event Generalized Anxiety Disorder Marked by excessive worrying and physical symptoms that run for at least 6 months Symptoms might seem commonplace; their persistence is not People continually worry, easy agitated, steel deprived and tense as a result Diﬃculty to identify the cause Much more common in women Rare after age 50 Much more likely to impact younger rather than older individuals Panic Disorders Anxiety escalates into a panic attack Panic Attack - minutes long episode of intense fear that something absolutely terrible is about to occur Recurrent panic attacks or the fear of having another panic attack Strikes suddenly, wreaks havoc, and disappears, leaving its mark. Prevalence is high. Smokers are at an especially high risk (2X as likely) Explanation: Nicotine serves as a stimulate, the person is much more susceptible to having a panic attack Phobias An irrational fear causes a person to avoid an object, event, or situation Not all phobias have speciﬁc triggers Problem: You don’t know what to avoid Common forms include claustrophobia, acrophobia, hydrophobia, and agoraphobia Social phobia is shyness taken to an extreme Have an intense fear of being scrutinize by others. Will avoid anything that might provide them with embarrassment The fear alone is not the disorder - it’s the steps you take to avoid it Ex. The thought of a storm coming causes you to hide under your bed for hours Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistently interferes with everyday living and causes distress Ex. Washing hands before eating = normal behavior Washing hands so much before you eat that your skin becomes raw = disordered behavior 2%-3% of the population develop OCD More common among teens and young adults Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 7% of the population have suﬀered from PTSD Common among war veterans, as well as survivors of accidents, disasters, and violent and sexual assaults The greater one’s emotional distress, the higher the risk for PTSD symptoms Come PTSD symptoms might be genetically predisposed Dissociative Disorders Conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings Dissociative Amnesia Sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive that it’s due to normal forgetting Ex. cannot remember your name Dissociative Fugue Loss of memory for one’s entire life along with sense of personal identity Dissociative Identity Disorder Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities No longer called multiple personality disorder Typically a person with DID is nonviolent Those with DID exhibit diﬀerent eye movement with diﬀerent personalities A lot of controversy of whether this is a real thing The number of cases rose dramatically int he 1980s as the same time as the DSM included it as a disorder Much less preeminent outside of North America - nonexistent in Japan or India Points to a cultural phenomenon People say it is a disorder created / triggered by therapists Psychoalanysts Some people say DID is a form of PTSD Learning Theorists Mood Disorders Depression 44% of college students are so depressed that they cannot function A far greater number felt some aspect of depression, but to a lesser extent Depression is the most common reason people seek mental health services 13% of adults in the U.S. suﬀer from depressive disorders. An actual diagnosed disorder - not just some symptoms Depression impacts twice as many women as men Depression is associated with past or current loss (compare to anxiety where they are afraid of something happening) Major depressive disorder occurs when at least ﬁve signs of depression last for two or more weeks & are not caused by another medical issue Depressed Mood Diminished interest in pleasure Signiﬁcant weight loss or weight gain Changing in appetite Insomnia Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness - Feelings of excessive guilt Diminished ability to think or concentrate - can also manifest as excessive decisiveness Suicidal Ideation Sadness is adaptive and an important part of life….when does this response move to being maladaptive? Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which an individual alternates between depression and mania During a manic phase, the individual is: Overly-talkative Overactive Elated Little need for sleep Few sexual inhibitions Irritated by advice These do not last for long, the individual will either return to a normal state or to depression Much less common than major depressive disorder - eﬀects 1% of the population Typically much more dysfunctional Impedes a person’s daily excessively Aﬀects men and women equally Schizophrenia 1 in 100 people will be diagnosed with Schizophrenia 24 million people suﬀer from schizophrenia the most dreaded form of mental disorder Schizophrenia = split mind Schizophrenia is marked by: Disorganized thinking Fragmented, bizzarre beliefs /delusions Paranoid Schizophrenics will have delusions of being persecuted Disturbed Perceptions might/might not suﬀer from hallucinations - having a sensory experience without any stimuli Seeing, feeling, tasting, smelling things that are not actually there More common ones - auditory; frequently voices making insulting remarks or commanding them Inappropriate Emotions & Actions Ex. Individual might laugh when remembering the death of a loved one There is a disconnect from their emotions and actions Catatonic - remain emotionless for hours on end Disrupt social relationships, diﬃcult to hold a job A signiﬁcant individuals with Schizophrenia will remain socially withdrawn from most of their lives Schizophrenia strikes as young people mature into adults Most often develops during the college years Strikes across cultures and contexts Males tend to develop schizophrenia earlier - develop more severe symptoms Males are slightly more diagnosed with schizophrenia than women For some…schizophrenia will happen suddenly, others will gradually develop schizophrenia Subtypes of schizophrenia include: Paranoid- most often depicted in media - preoccupied by their delusions and hallucinations often have themes of persecutions or grandiosity - they can do everything Disorganized Disorganized speech and behavioral patters Either no emotion or very inappropriate emotion Catatonic Excessive purposeless movement Ex. excessive rubbing of arm Extreme feeling of negativity Parrot like repetition of another person’s speech ( including inﬂection0 and movement Undiﬀerentiated Symptoms across diﬀerent forms of schizophrenia Residual Extreme withdrawal after delusions and hallucinations disappear Schizophrenia can be marked by positive symptoms or negative symptoms Postive symptoms (presence of inappropriate behaviors) Experiencing hallucinations Paranoia Exhibiting inappropriate emotions Negative Symptoms (absence of appropriate behaviors) Toneless Expressionless faces Mute or rigid bodies Treatment of Psychological Disorders Related Links: https://youtu.be/6nEL44QkL9w https://youtu.be/3UcjojHetfE https://youtu.be/jdawTFsCNtc https://youtu.be/HoFNs-3r0Go https://youtu.be/7LD8iC4NqXM https://youtu.be/w2efaHgJ93A Psychoanalysis Known as an insight therapy - in gaining more knowledge of the core of the disorder, patients learn more and take more responsibility. Presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they have previously devoted to id-ego-superego conﬂicts if you stop putting so much energy in id-ego-sugerego conﬂicts, you will be able to manage that much better with every day living Freud relied on free association for clues about what is going on in the unconscious Clients spontaneously expressed their thoughts and feelings as they occurred Want client to talk as freely as possibly without censorship Analysts will then study the free association for clues of what is going on in the client’s mind Blocks in the ﬂow of free association indicate resistance They hint at some kind of anxiety that is lurking beneath the surface They are clues that the individual is resisting from saying something embarrassing/uncomfortable Psychoanalyst is not looking for what the client is saying, but what the client is not saying Another clue to the unconscious is latent content of dreams Freud believed - our dreams are our way to express our feeling and desires that would not be appropriate in a social setting Humanistic Therapies Seek to boost self-fulﬁllment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self- acceptance Humanistic Therapies and Psychoanalysis both fall under the umbrella of insight therapies Assume as self-awareness grows, your problems will go away Humanistic Therapies Psychoanalysis Focus on the past Focus on the present and future (understanding repressed feelings) Achieve insight into origins of Explore feelings as they occur feelings Explore conscious thoughts Explore unconscious thoughts Taking responsibility Uncovering hidden determinants (client is in control of life/how client deal with situations) Promoting Growth Curing Illness Behavioral Therapies Someone might be highly aware of their faults, but it will help them in no way Look toward the application of learning principles to eliminate behavior problems Maladaptive symptoms are learned behaviors that can be replaced by constructive behaviors Counter-conditioning pairs the trigger stimuli (whatever causes the problematic behavior) with a new response to replace it Exposure Therapy Goal is to expose people that to what they might normally avoid Aversive Conditioning Most widely used form of exposure therapy is systematic desensitization The goal of systematic desensitization is to substitute a positive response for a negative response to a harmless situation The goal of aversive conditioning is to substitute a negative response for a positive response to a harmful situation Cognitive Therapies Cognitive therapies assume that our thinking colors our feelings The focus is on teaching people new, more constrictive ways of thinking Cognitive therapist Aaron Beck sought to reverse clients’ catastrophizing beliefs Cognitive-Behavior Therapy aims to alter the way people think and the way they act Become aware of irrational, negative thinking Replace it with new ways of thinking Practice a more positive approach in everyday setting Thoughts aﬀect behavior and emotions Emotions aﬀect behavior and thoughts Behavior aﬀects thoughts and emotions Goal of CBT is to change thoughts so you can change your behavior and emotions Drug Therapies Psychopharmacology refers to the study of drug eﬀects on mind and behavior Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and others forms of severe thought and disorders Side eﬀects include sluggishness, tremors and twitches Long-term use can produce tardive dyskinesia a condition involving involuntary movements of facial movements, the tongue and other muscles Long term /side eﬀects can result in a vicious cycle. People will feel like they cannot function in society with such severe side eﬀects and they feel like they have been ‘cured’ so they get oﬀ their meds/mess with the dosage. Resulting in them going back to their main symptoms /disorder Anti anxiety drugs are used to control anxiety, tension, and agitation Often used in combination with psychotherapy Get at the core of what is causing the anxiety, eventually the client does not need tot are the drugs Antidepressant drugs are used to treat depression, as well as anxiety OCD is often treated through antidepressant drugs 11% of women and 5% of men in the U.S. take antidepressants
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