Study Guide 2.0: Children and The Media Final Exam
Study Guide 2.0: Children and The Media Final Exam CAMHS-UA 150
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Study Guide: Children and The Media Final Exam Media Addiction: Related Links: https://youtu.be/HﬀWFd_6bJ0 Understand the terms discussed (abuse, tolerance, etc.). Tolerance: A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired eﬀect. Markedly diminished eﬀects with continued use of the same amount of the substance Substance Dependence: When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance Behavioral Addiction: Does not rely on alcohol or other drugs (i.e. gambling addiction) Pathological gambling and substance use disorders are very similar in the way they aﬀect the brain and neurological rewards system. Both are related to poor impulse control and the brain’s system of reward and aggression Pathological Gambling is in the DSM ( 4 & 5) Abuse: use (something) to bad effect or for a bad purpose; misuse. Identify Impulse Control Disorders. Intermitten Explosive Disorder Abrupt anger Kleptomania Pathological stealing Pathological Gambling Pyromania ﬁre setting Trichotillomania compulsive hair pulling Know the results of Young’s 1998 Internet Addiction study. 1998:The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder suggested by Kimberly S. Young Young used Pathological Gambling as a model to deﬁne Internet addiction By using it as a model, addictive Internet use can be deﬁned as an impulse-control disorder that does not involve an intoxicant Was not added to the DSM Young found this by comparing Internet use to other impulse control disorders ( pathological gambling) Understand what dopamine is and its role in behavioral addictions. Internet and video games are proposed to be behavioral addictions that begin as entertainment that can stimulate emotional responses and dopamine release Dopamine: a neurotransmitter that is responsible for transmitting signals in between the nerve cells (neurons) of the brain Affects your emotions, movements, and your sensations of pleasure and pain Understand the results of the research done on video game addiction. Study of 1,178 children ages 8 - 18 More children self reported themselves as addicted to video games than the number of children the researchers deemed to be addicted to video games. 8.5% met criteria to be deemed addicted 21% of those who did not meet criteria self reported themselves as addicted 65% of those who did meet criteria self reported themselves as addicted In a study of a self-selected sample of over 5,500 online game players, nearly half considered themselves addicted to their preferred game (Yee, 2006) Perceptions of Video Game Addiction Surveyed 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft Respondents reported using computers 8 hours a day and playing video games 5.5 hours a day 73% of video game addiction test scores fell in the range “frequent problems, may be developing an addiction” 40% reported being addicted to video games (although only 6% scored as being at high risk on a video game addiction scale) 40% of players believed in the salience of video game play in their life Including playing or thinking about games a lot, craving games, scheduling around them, and games’ being central in their life 22% thought addiction would involve playing many hours, or “to excess” Two year, longitudinal study in Singapore 3,034 elementary and middle school students Prevalence of pathological gaming was similar to other countries (about 9%) Greater amounts of gaming, lower social competence, and greater impulsivity seemed to act as risk factors for becoming pathological gamers Depression, anxiety, social phobia, and lower school performance seemed to act as outcomes of pathological gaming Suggests that video game “addiction” is similar to other addictive behaviors It can last for years Not solely a symptom of comorbid disorders Understand the term comorbid Comorbidity- co-exhisting problems - the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient. About 86% of Internet addiction cases have a comorbid DSM-IV diagnosis present Patients generally present only for the comorbid condition(s), thus Internet addiction is unlikely to be detected Adolescents with Internet addiction had higher rates of ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility (Yen et al., 2007) Hostility was associated with Internet addiction for male but not for female students Suggests that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders Depression, Suicide, and Copycats: Related Links: https://youtu.be/WxVfVk9VXjg Know the epidemiology of suicide. 1 million people make suicide attempts every year over 32,000 people in the U.S. die by suicide every year 1950-1990 the suicide rate for adolescents 15-19yrs old increased 300% 5th leading cause death among those 5-14 yr olds and 3rd leading cause of death in ages 15-24yrs old Men are nearly 4X more likely to die by suicide than women Women attempt suicide 3 times as often as men Understand the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and its symptoms (including alternative presentations). Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder is estimated to be approximately 2% in children and 4-8% in adolescents Malte to Female ratio in childhood is 1:1 Female to Male ratio in adolescence is 2:1 Risk of depression increase by a factor of 2 to 4 after puberty (particularly females) Symptoms Must have at least two weeks of persistent change in mood manifested by either depressed or irritable mood and/or loss of interest and pleasure and ﬁve of the symptoms listed below SIGECAPS (siggycaps) S suicidal thoughts I decreased interest G guilt E energy (decreased) C concentration (decreased) A appetite (increased OR decreased) P psycho motor retardation (moving slowly) S sleep disturbances *must be able to recall from memory Alternative Presentations Mood lability Irritability Low frustration tolerance Temper tantrums Somatic complaints (i.e., stomachaches, headaches, chest pain, etc.) Social withdrawal S suicidal thoughts I decreased interest G guilt E energy (decreased) C concentration (decreased) A appetite (increased OR decreased) P psycho motor retardation (moving slowly) S sleep disturbances Know the rates of suicide and the factors that place children and adolescents at higher risk for attempting/completing suicide. 16% of teenagers ages 15 to 19 have thought seriously about committing suicide (increase from 14% in 2009) 8% have actually attempted suicide (increase from 6% in 2009) Increased Risk Factors: History of suicide attempts Co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, substance abuse, bipolar disorder) Impulsivity Aggression Availability of lethal agents (ﬁrearms) Exposure to negative life events (physical abuse, sexual abuse, violence) Family history of suicidal behavior or completed suicide Male gender Psychosocial stressors (break-up, family conﬂict, school problems) Hopelessness Homosexual or bisexual Know the results of the “Eﬀects of a Drug Overdose in a Television Drama on Presentations to Hospital for Self Poisoning: Time series and Questionnaire” study. This study found that portrayal of poisoning in a popular television drama was associated with a short lived increase in presentation of self poisoning to general area hospitals Choice of substance taken in overdose was also inﬂuenced by the broadcast Measured suicidal acts prior to and following the airing of a television suicide Increases of 17% in ﬁrst week after episode aired Increase of 9% in second week after episode aired 15% of patients who had viewed the episode reported that seeing the broadcast had inﬂuenced their decision to take an overdose and their choice of drug Know what age range of adolescents are at a greater risk of suicide following exposure to another individual’s suicide. 15-19 Years Old Understand the variables that inﬂuence the media contagion of suicide following a suicide story. Magnitude of the increase in suicides following a suicide story is proportional to: Amount, duration and prominence of media coverage Studies based on real situations in contrast to ﬁctional stories were 4.03 times more likely to ﬁnd an imitation eﬀect (Stack, 2000) Impact greatest for teenagers (Phillips & Carstensen, 1986) Literature suggests that youth are particularly susceptible to model acts committed by those of the same age group Body Image, Eating, and Eating Disorders: Related Links: https://youtu.be/eKkdNIpCGF8 https://youtu.be/eMVyZ6Ax-74 Know the statistics on childhood obesity. Children: Ages 6 to 11 32.6% are overweight or obese 18.0% are obese Teens: Ages 12 to 19 33.6% overweight/obese 18.4% are obese Know the relationship between media use and obesity. Children who watch more than 3 hours/day of television are 50% more likely to be obese than kids who watch < 2 hours/day Obesity in children increases as the hours that they watch television increases Know the diagnostic criteria for the two types of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Anorexia Nervosa Diagnostic Criteria from DSM 5 [ Have to be underweight] Restriction of energy intake, leading to significantly low body weight that’s less than minimally normal or expected. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain even though underweight. Disturbance in the way one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight. Anorexia Nervosa: Types Restricting Type: During the current episode of Anorexia Nervosa, the person has not regularly engaged in binge-eating or purging behavior (self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). Weight loss obtained thru dieting fasting, excessive excercise Binge Eating/Purging Type: During the current episode of Anorexia Nervosa, the person has regularly engaged in binge-eating OR purging behavior Bulimia Nervosa Diagnostic Criteria from DSM 5 [Not underweight] A. Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g., within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is deﬁnitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances B. A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g., feeling that one can’t stop eating or control what/how much one is eating) 2. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications, fasting, or exercise 3. The binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior both occur, on average, at least ONCE a week for 3 months 4. Self evaluation is unduly inﬂuenced by body shape & weight 5. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa Understand the deﬁnition of body image and at what age the desire for thinness seems to develop and becomes associated with body dissatisfaction. Body Image: The attitudes, feelings and thoughts related tot he appearance of one’s body The desire to be thin seems to develop around age 5 or 6, becoming more pronounced thereafter Identify the diﬀerences in body dissatisfaction among adolescent males and females. For females it appears to result in part from a normative increase in adiposity Boys enter puberty and naturally develop increases in muscle mass which does not appear to allay their concerns about having too little muscle Understand the Fiji study on Television and Eating Disorders (including methods, results, and implications). Fiji is a nation that has traditionally cherished the fuller ﬁgure RanadiJohnston - who held the Miss Fiji beauty queen title, said slim women were traditionally seen as weak In 1995 Fiji was introduced to its ﬁrst television station, which broadcasted programs from the UK, US and New Zealand such as Seinfeld, ER, Melrose Place and Xena: Warrior Princess Anne Becker, an anthropologist at Harvard Medical School, began studying Fijian eating habits in 1988 1998: Evaluated the impact of the introduction of television on disordered eating in media-naïve populations Aim: To asses the impact of novel, prolonged exposure to television on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls Results Key indicators of disordered eating were signiﬁcantly more prevalent following exposure to television Three years after television was introduced 15% of teenage girls reported that they had vomited to control their weight This was true of 3% before the introduction of television 74% of teenage girls felt they were "too big or fat” Narrative data obtained revealed subjects desire to model themselves after television characters A higher proportion of adolescents in Fiji were dieting than in Massachusetts Sex and Sexuality: Related Links: https://youtu.be/YQG8o5b4lKg https://youtu.be/_sYcseon80A https://youtu.be/6qTPdSJc9Cs https://youtu.be/sU-EAhudUKo https://youtu.be/L0jQz6jqQS0 Know the basic terms used in discussion of sexual development (gender, gender identity, sex, intersex, cisgender, transgender, etc.) Sex: The biological characteristics that deﬁne humans as female or male. Gender : A set of social and psychological traits often inﬂuenced by culture that classify a person as feminine, masculine, androgynous or other. Genetic Sex: The classiﬁcation of sex based on genetic makeup (XX, XY) Phenotypic Sex: The classiﬁcation of sex based on the phenotypic genitalia and other physical characteristics of male and female Intersex: Presence of intermediate or indeterminate sexual characteristics that usually distinguish male and female Sexual Orientation: Characterization of an individuals sexual attraction to males, females, or both genders Gender Identity:a personal conception of oneself as male or female (or both or neither). LGBTQIA Gender variance: Cis-gender: a gender identity that society deems to match the person’s assigned sex at birth. Trans-gender: Individuals whose gender identity and expression does not correspond to their biological sex. Be familiar with the disorders we discussed (i.e., Gender Identity Disorder, Gender Dysphoria, Klinefelter’s Disorder, Turner’s Disorder, etc.) *Know Genotypes of each disorder! Gender Identity Disorder: Long-standing and strong identiﬁcation with another gender Gender Dysphoria:A strong desire to be the other gender or insistence that one is the other gender A. A marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender, of at least 6 month’s duration. In children, the disturbance is manifested by six (or more) of the following: (one of which must be criterion A1) 1. A strong desire to be the other gender or insistence that one is the other gender 2. In boys (assigned gender), a strong preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; in girls (assigned gender), insistence on wearing only stereotypical masculine clothing or strong resistance to the wearing of typical feminine clothing). 3. A strong preferences for cross-gender roles in make-believe play or fantasy play. 4. A strong preference for the toys, games or activities stereotypically used or engaged by the other gender. 4. Intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other sex 5. A strong preference for playmates of the other gender. 6. A strong dislike of one’s sexual anatomy 7. A strong desire for the primary or secondary sex characteristics that Mach one’s experienced gender. 8. A strong rejection of toys representing one’s assigned gender. Klinefelter’s Disorder: Genotype: XXY a chromosomal condition that affects male physical and cognitive development Breast development Decreased testosterone production Small testicles Infertility Transsexualism: The desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by the wish to make his or her body as congruent as possible with the preferred sex through surgery and hormone treatment Turner’s Disorder: Genotype: XO random genetic disorder that aﬀects females. The main characteristics include short stature and infertility. Usually, a female has two X chromosomes. However, in females with Turner's syndrome, one of these chromosomes is missing or abnormal. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Genotype: XX Adrenal glands produce high levels of virilizing hormones- resulting in female anatomy but partial masculinization of anatomy Androgen Insensitivity: Genotype: XY Female or ambiguous characteristics due to inadequate androgens Androgen: any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors Know the order of sexual development in girls and boys. Order of sexual development in girls: Breast Development Pubic Hair Menstruation Order of sexual development in boys: Increase in testicular size Pubic Hair Body and facial hair Voice change Understand the eﬀects that early onset of puberty has on girls and boys. In boys, early onset of puberty is associated with increased conﬁdence and status In girls, early onset is associated with decreased conﬁdence and status Know the diﬀerence between diﬀerent sex education programs in schools, and what types of programs are the most eﬀective. Strong evidence suggests that comprehensive approaches to sex education help young people both to withstand the pressures to have sex too soon and to have healthy, responsible and mutually protective relationships when they do become sexually active There is no evidence to date that abstinence-only-until-marriageeducation delays teen sexual activity. Moreover, research suggests that abstinence-only strategies may deter contraceptive use among sexually active teens, increasing their risk of unintended pregnancy and STIs Know the methods and results of the study “Media as a Sexual Super Peer for Early Maturing Girls.” Methods: Researchers surveyed 471 Caucasian and African-American female 13- year-old adolescents Recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina White females were over-represented in the sample Results Younger girls reported less interest in sexual media than older girls Earlier pubertal timing was associated with increased interest in viewing sexual media Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse Video Games Related Links: https://youtu.be/ZO-t6DAPBkA https://youtu.be/jm_l4jEb6us Understand why video games are popular for children and/or young adults Children Pride in accomplishments Young Adults Relief from boredom Positive mood changes Engaging in antisocial activities in fantasy Both Entertainment value Competition Social value Being absorbed (reported +/-) Be able to identify ESRB ratings and their age descriptions Early Childhood Content is intended for young children Everyone Content is generally suitable for all ages. May contain minimal cartoon, fantasy or mild violence and/or infrequent use of mild language. Everyone 10+ Content is generally suitable for ages 10 and up. May contain more cartoon, fantasy or mild violence, mild language and/or minimal suggestive themes. Teen Content is generally suitable for ages 13 and up. May contain violence, suggestive themes, crude humor, minimal blood, simulated gambling and/or infrequent use of strong language. Mature Content is generally suitable for ages 17 and up. May contain intense violence, blood and gore, sexual content and/or strong language. Adults Only Content suitable only for adults ages 18 and up. May include prolonged scenes of intense violence, graphic sexual content and/or gambling with real currency. Rating Pending Not yet assigned a ﬁnal ESRB rating. Appears only in advertising, marketing and promotional materials related to a "boxed" video game that is expected to carry an ESRB rating, and should be replaced by a game's rating once it has been assigned. Know the eﬀects of violent video games and be able to identify and describe the mechanisms to explain the impact of violent video games (chart) Misattribution of the source of aggressive arousal Excitation transfer Short term occurs; this could lead to aggression The belief that violence is common and mundane Cognitive Desensitization decreases the likelihood Long term that moral evaluation will inhibit aggression Numbing of the emotional response to violent actions or experiences decreases Emotional Desensitization Long Term the likelihood that moral evolution will inhibit aggression Desensitization May explain the link between media violence exposure and aggressive behavior May aﬀect social interactions such as a person’s willingness to respond to a person in need After playing a violent video game, individuals’ EEGs indicated less motivation to inhibit an aggressive response, and this held true in their subsequent reactions to a competitive task Be able to describe the General Aggression Model including its three key elements GAM – continuous reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. Three key elements: Input variables (the person; the situation) The persons current internal state (thoughts, emotions, arousal) The outcomes that result from decision processes (thoughtful action; impulsive action) These three elements inﬂuences aggression caused by video games Know the outcomes of the Anderson et al. meta-analysis (2010) on the eﬀects of exposure to violent video games violent video games are associated with Aggressive behavior Aggressive cognition Aggressive aﬀect Desensitization Lower empathy Less proscial behavior Be able to identify risk vs. protective factors for those who play violent video games Risk Factor: *Don’t worry too much about this* Aggressive behavior ADHD Protective Factors Supportive and involved parents socioeconomic stability even temperament Cognitive Strengths Understand the eﬀect of video games on attention and the association/impact of video games with/on ADHD In the short term, computer games can have a positive eﬀect on attention in certain children, but this eﬀect deteriorates with increasing daily computer use, which can worsen attention Spending more than 1 hour/day playing video games can be detrimental to children with ADHD. Stereotypes in the Media: Related Links: https://youtu.be/vqzrY1aRwZ4 https://youtu.be/z6713bgsx64 Know the deﬁnition of stereotypes and racism and gender roles. Sterotypes A commonly held public belief about speciﬁc social groups, or types of individuals A generalization, usually exaggerated or oversimpliﬁed, and often oﬀensive, that is used to describe or distinguish a group (American Heritage) Generally speaking, "stereotypes" are not based on objective truth, but rather subjective and often unveriﬁable content-matter Racism a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial diﬀerences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race Gender Roles distinct behaviors displayed, reﬂections of gender stereotypes Know when children develop gender identity and gender constancy. Core Gender Identity, or the child’s acceptance and personal expression of gender identity occurs around age 2 or 3 Gender Constancy is developed by age 6, refers to the full understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender, i.e., a girl is still a girl even if she dresses up like a ﬁreman Understand how children process gender-schema information. Gender-schema-consistent information is processed more quickly than inconsistent information Children tend to misremember or distort gender-inconsistent story information in picture books to make it conform to their gender schemas Understand Cultivation Theory, Drench Hypothesis, and Audience Preference. Cultivation Theory Suggests that over time, exposure to television subtly “cultivates”viewers’ perceptions of reality Internalization of the standards and messages portrayed Television may be more inﬂuential than parents and peers because it oﬀers more commonly and widely shared messages than other sources of information Drench Hypothesis Children will be more aﬀected by content they choose to watch than by content they do not prefer Posits that individual characters and programs make a larger impact on viewers perceptions than television exposure as a whole Underscores the importance of examining what types of television children prefer Audience Preference Proposes that audience’s preferences and motivations are important in determining what they internalize from media Children are more attuned to the gender-stereotyped conceptions contained in their favorite television programs than in ones they prefer less * Main Takehome: There;s more impact when someone watches something by choice rather than just being exposed to it ( tv on background) * Know when children start to become aware of race and when they develop their own racial identity Children between 2-5-years-old start to become aware of race, ethnicity, gender, and disabilities Children develop their own racial identity during preschool and elementary school years Identify common stereotypes in the media based on gender and race female lead characters are likely to embody one of four well-known stereotypes: Nerdy girls without romantic opportunities Dumb blondes Spiteful, catty backstabbers Sweet, loyal girlfriends of the male protagonists Males are more often presented as the central ﬁgure, authority ﬁgure, and independent Know some ways we can counteract stereotypes. can choose media images for children with positive images such as people with disabilities doing activities familiar to children, and a variety of family units Teaching analytic skills can be a strategy for thinking about the meanings media transmit and the meanings viewers construct for themselves (Luke, 1999) NAEYC suggests talking positively about each child’s physical characteristics and cultural heritage Help children to diﬀerentiate feelings of superiority and those of self-esteem and pride in their own heritage Provide opportunities for children to interact with other children who are racially/culturally diﬀerent from themselves and with people who have various disabilities Listen to and answer children’s questions about themselves and others Don’t ignore, change the subject, or in any way make the child think she is bad for asking such a question Help them to think critically about what they see in books, movies, greeting cards, comics, and on TV Let children know that unjust things can be changed Potential Beneﬁts of Media: Be able to identify some potential positive eﬀects of the media on children. Increase in social skills and positive behavior Increase Reading comprehension Increase Math concepts and applications Know the term prosocial. That which is socially desirable and which in some way beneﬁts other persons or society at large. Understand the concept of empathy and when children develop it When children are around 6-to 7-years-old they are able to see the world from a “socio-centric”perspective, and thus develop empathy. Understand the concept of altruism. the belief in or practice of disinterested and selﬂess concern for the well-being of others. Understand the research studies presented in this lecture and the results of the literature presented (example: research paradigm described in the “Altruism” slide). Altruism diﬀerent children were shown diﬀerent clips—helping (Lassie), neutral, or competitive (Brady Bunch). When given a task, the“competitive”-exposed children were much less likely to ask for help with a task.The“helping”-exposed children were much more willing to ask for help, even if it meant losing a reward. Social Interaction after watching programs like Mr. Rogers’Neighborhood or Barney, children were found to have improved social skills and were better behaved. Schools, Achievements, and Inequality: A Seasonal Perspective, 2001 650 ﬁrst-graders were tracked from 20 schools in the Baltimore public school system. Students were tested using the California Achievement Test. Reading Comprehension Math Concepts and Applications Conclusions: The results highlight the need to supplement “regular schooling”with a long-term, coordinated program of summer interventions. For such interventions to counteract the powerful out-of-school forces that keep too many disadvantaged children from achieving at the level of their potential, they will have to be targeted at low- income children speciﬁcally. Recognition of the power of schools to make a diﬀerence in the lives of poor students needs to be coupled with eﬀorts to involve parents and communities in the schooling process so that all parents, not just middle and upper-class parents, are active collaborators in the education of their children. Learning to Read From Television: The Eﬀects of Using Captions and Narration, 2001 Methods: Linebarger investigated caption use, sound, and the reading behavior of 76 children who had just completed 2 nd grade. Used ﬁve 4-6 minute clips from a Nickelodeon show. One group viewed captions on the bottom of the screen, while the other group did not. Results: Found that beginning readers recognize more words when they view television that uses captions. The combination of captions and sound helped children identify the critical story elements in the video clips. Conclusion: Television captions, by evoking eﬀorts to read, appeared to help a child focus on central story elements and away from distracting information, including sound eﬀects and visual glitz. This theory is known as “On Screen Reading Practice” Health Knowledge Gain and Retention from Television, 2008 Methods: Tested the percentage of viewers aware of the likelihood of mother-to-child HIV transmission before and after an episode of Grey’s Anatomy aired that dealt with this issue. Results: Percent of viewers aware that there is a more than 90% chance a baby will be born without having contracted HIV when an HIV-positive woman received proper treatment during pregnancy Before Grey’s Episode: 15% One Week after Grey’s Episode: 61% Six weeks after Grey’s episode: 45% Understand the Theory of Action. The idea is that children will imitate behavior that is positive, just as they have been shown to imitate negative behavior. This is more likely if the character is… Realistic Similar to the child (in age or gender) Receives positive reinforcement Carries out an action that is imitatable by the child Media Literacy: https://www.mediaed.org/Handouts/DeconstructinganAd.pdf https://medialiteracyproject.org/deconstructions/ Know how to deconstruct an advertisement (as performed in class). A formula for the quick deconstruction of an ad (and most media) asks for technical, economic, cultural, ethical, social and health evaluations by the student by use of critical thinking A quick deconstruction: *Practice doing this ~ twice before exam* Who paid for the media? Why? Who is being targeted? Age? Ethnicity? Wealth? Profession? Interests? What text, images, or sounds lead you to this conclusion? What is the text (literal meaning) of the message? What is the subtext (unstated or underlying message) What kind of lifestyle is presented? Is it glamorized? How? What values are expressed? What tools or techniques of persuasion are used? Is there a historical, cultural, literary, or other context used by the example? In what ways is this a healthy and/or unhealthy media message? What related stories are not told by this media example? Know the deﬁnition of media literacy. The ability to critically consume and create many kinds of media Understand the potential beneﬁts of media literacy. Media literacy skills can help children, youth and adults: Understand how media messages create meaning Identify who created a particular media message Recognize what the media maker wants us to believe or do Name the "tools of persuasion" used Recognize bias, spin, misinformation and potential dishonesty Discover the part of the story that's not being told Evaluate media messages based on their own experiences, beliefs and values Create and distribute their own media messages Become advocates for change in our media system Know the traits of a media literacy advocate. Someone who has learned the skills of media literacy Negotiates meaning with media perceptively, actively, and systematically Accepts learning the issues of media literacy as a lifelong task, intimately connected to the cultural, historical, political and social contexts of his time Chooses an activist role advocating for change in the social, political, artistic, or philosophical realm of their choice Studies and teach media literacy but also are part of the solution to media- accentuated problems Family and the Media: Related Links: https://youtu.be/Zh1zIx-qidE https://youtu.be/csVO9NCVutk Know the statistics on family composition/dynamics and TV/media consumption. American children aged 2–17 watch an average of 25 hours of TV each week. One in ﬁve watch more than 35 hours of TV each week. The amount of television watched is related systematically to many family-level variables. Children of married parents watch 23 hours/week Children of divorced/separated was 29 hours/week Children of a single parent or widow(er) watch 34 hours/week Race is related to television consumption. Children of Caucasian families watch 23 hours/week Children of Hispanic/Latino or African-American families watch 31 hours/week Parents with less education report that their children watch signiﬁcantly more TV each week than children of parents with more education. Lower-income parents report that their children watch signiﬁcantly more TV each week than children of higher-income parents. Understand the diﬀerent ways in which parents regulate media use of their children and the risks and beneﬁts of each, as well as how to relate these risks and beneﬁts to diﬀerent age groups (i.e., active mediation, restrictive mediation, and co-viewing). Active Mediation Involves conversations that parents have with children about television content and format. The tone may be positive or negative, which in turn can inﬂuence the message received by the child. has been shown to reduce the negative eﬀects of violent content in ﬁlm violence and increase prosocial behavior. Media literacy programs, and clarifying or exploring topics on television have both been shown to be beneﬁcial. Restrictive Mediation Explicit rules about what media can be consumed, as well as when, for how long, etc. leads to fewer product requests, less aggressive behavior, less cultivation- like attitude. However, this is most beneﬁcial for younger viewers. led to less positive attitudes toward parents and more viewing of restricted content with friends, marginally related to more positive attitudes toward the restricted content. Coviewing Better than Active Mediation when watching educational TV. Parents discussing media content while consuming. most often occurs when children watch what parents want, not the reverse…but, children learn more from educational programs when watched with a parent. Coviewing of explicit/violent material with a parent, the child tends to internalize what he/she believes to be the parent’s opinion (i.e., like it or not like it). Know Ecological (Systems) Theory. Theory came of the belief that psychologists were not doing a great job of measuring the environmental contexts that shape a child’s development. Microsystem – people and settings of daily life. Mesosystem – intersection of individual microsystems (i.e., school and parent). Exosystem – social settings that inﬂuence a child’s development, but in which the child doesn’t have a direct role. Macrosystem – broader cultural context that shapes attitudes. Identify the diﬀerent parenting styles and the risks and beneﬁts of each. High/Low expectation of self control – whether a parent sets limitations and expectations for their child. High/Low sensitivity – whether a parent has sensitivity in decision making to a child’s emotional state. High Expectation for Self- Low-Expectation for Self Control Control High Sensitivity Authoritative Permissive Low Sensitivity Authoritarian Neglectful Highlights of Study Session: Only need to know the basics / main point of the studies Important People to know: Piaget Preoperational stage of thought Characterized by: Centration: focusing on only one aspect of one’s perceptual experience Egocentrism: regarding the self as the center of all thought Semi-logical thinking: focusing on the ends rather than the means, incapable of reversibility Development of conservation skills: understanding the basic, ﬁxed attributes of objects McChesney Media Literacy Avocate One of the main themes of his work is that "deregulated media" is a misnomer. Believes that the media is a governmentally sanctioned oligopoly, owned by a few highly proﬁtable corporate entities who jealously guard their privilege through legislative inﬂuence and their control of news coverage, by which they distort public understanding of media issues. He pinpoints the beginning of governmental oversight with the regulatory role imposed on the U.S. government at the advent of broadcast, where government was required to enforce the broadcasting rights of a limited number of participants and sees the Communications Act of 1934 as essentially allowing monopolistic rights to broadcasters who had shown the greatest propensity for proﬁt. Subsequent to this act were the provisions of the Fairness Doctrine, which had provisions for public interest broadcasting due to the scarcity of the broadcasting resource. These restrictions were later overturned in the 1980s under the banner of "deregulation." Our news is mostly based on violent events, celebrities and fluff rather than long term social issues that are critical for society (McChesney,1997, p.16) Some studies have suggested that the more a person consumes commercial news, the less capable that person is of understanding politics or public affairs (McChesney, 1997, p.17) Bandura Social Learning Theory Children will observe and extract what is appropriate for each gender through modeled events in the programs Children will actively transform and restructure information from the programs in the form of rules and conceptions These symbolic conceptions will then be translated into appropriate courses of action and will be reinforced by rewards or punishments of these behaviors Acceptance from peer and family versus rejection Greenberg Drench Hypothesis (In study guide) McQuail Audience Preference (In study Guide) Anna Becker Conducted the Fji Study (In study guide) Percentages (%) will be in multiple choice
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