Sociology 100 final exam study guide
Sociology 100 final exam study guide soc 100
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 100 at Purdue University taught by Steve Hillis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Sociology 100 final study guide Auguste Comte coined the name “Sociology” Sociology the scientific study of social behavior and human group. It focuses on social relationships; how those relationships influence people’s behaviors; and how societies, the sum total of those relationships, develop and change. Sociologica Imagination an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past. Term coined by C. Wright Mills. Key element in this is the ability to view one’s own society as an outsider would, rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases. Science the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation. Natural Science study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change. Example: Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, and Physics. Socia Science the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change. The social sciences include sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, and political science. Theory a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior. An effective theory may have both explanatory and predictive power. Anomie refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. Macrosociology concentrates on largescale phenomena or entire civilizations. Microsociology stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means. Cultural Capital refers to noneconomic goods, such as family background and education, which are reflected in a knowledge of language and the arts. Not necessarily book knowledge, cultural capital refers to the kind of education that is valued by the socially elite. Social Capital refers to the collective benefit of social networks which are built on reciprocal trust. Falsifiability Of a statement, hypothesis, or theory is the inherent possibility that it can be proven false. A statement is called falsifiable if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which negates the statement in question. Conflict Theory Interprets society as a struggle for power between groups engaging in conflict for limited resources. Karl Marx is the founder of conflict theory. Anomie Lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group. Functionalist Theory The perspective in sociology according to which society consists of different but related parts, each of which serves a particular purpose. Interactionist Theory Perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society. Durkheim’s theory on suicide Durkheim explored the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics, arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates. According to Durkheim, Catholic society has normal levels of integration while Protestant society has low levels. Reliability The extent to which an experiment, test, or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials. Validity The quality of being logically or factually sound Variable Any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types. An experiment usually has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled. Correlation A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things. Measurement The assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. Causality the relationship between cause and effect. Independent Variable The variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate. It is usually what you think will affect the dependent variable. Dependent VariableWhat you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. The dependent variable responds to the independent variable. It is called dependent because it "depends" on the independent variable. Hawthorne Effect A type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. Longitudinal Research Correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time, often many decades. It is often a type of observational study, although they can also be structured as longitudinal randomized experiments. Measurement ErrorThe difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value. In statistics, an error is not a "mistake". Variability is an inherent part of things being measured and of the measurement process. Measurement Bias Favors a particular result. A measurement process is biased if it systematically overstates or understates the true value of the measurement. Sampling error The error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. The sampling error is the difference between a sample statistic used to estimate a population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the parameter. Sampling Bias A bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others. Random Assignment A procedure used in experiments to create multiple study groups that include participants with similar characteristics so that the groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study. Random Selection Refers to how sample members (study participants) are selected from the population for inclusion in the study. Random Sampling a set of items that have been drawn from a population in such a way that each time an item was selected, every item in the population had an equal opportunity to appear in the sample. Research Design Refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Experimental Research An experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. Sampling Design Made up of two elements: Sampling Method and Estimator. Sampling method refers to the rules and procedures by which some elements of the population are included in the sample. Different sampling methods may use different estimators. For example, the formula for computing a mean score with a simple random sample is different from the formula for computing a mean score with a stratified sample. Similarly, the formula for the standard error may vary from one sampling method to the next. Casual logic The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one leading to the other. Control variable A factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable. For example, if researchers wanted to know how adults in the United States feel about restrictions on smoking in public places, they would probably attempt to use a respondent's smoking behavior as a control variable. That is, how do smokers versus nonsmokers feel about smoking in public places? The researchers would compile separate statistics on how smokers and nonsmokers feel about antismoking regulations. Correlation A relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other. For example, data indicates that people who prefer to watch televised news programs are less knowledgeable than those who read newspapers and newsmagazines. This correlation between people's relative knowledge and their choice of news media seems to make sense, because it agrees with the common belief that television dumbs down information. But the correlation between the two variables is actually caused by a third variable, people's relative ability to comprehend large amounts of information. People with poor reading skills are much more likely than others to get their news from television, while those who are more educated or skilled turn more often to the print media. Dependent variable The variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable. Its action depends on the influence of the independent variable. In other words, the researcher believes that the independent variable predicts or causes change in the dependent variable. For example, a researcher in sociology might anticipate that the availability of affordable housing (the independent variable, x) affects the level of homelessness in a community (the dependent variable, y). Hypothesis A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Independent variable The variable in a causal relationship that causes or influences a change in another variable. Operational definition An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept. For example: a sociologist interested in status might use membership in exclusive social clubs as an operational definition of status. Someone studying prejudice might consider a person's unwillingness to hire or work with members of minority groups as an operational definition of prejudice. Racial Group A group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance. Ethnic Group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns. Minority Group a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs. Racial Formation a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed. Prejudice a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority. Ethnocentrism the tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Racism The belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior. Stereotypes unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group. Colorblind Racism the use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo. Discrimination the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. Glass Ceiling refers to an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity. White Privilege refers to rights or immunities granted to people as a particular benefit or favor simply because they are white. Institutional discrimination refers to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society. Affirmative Action refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group. Exploitation Theory used to explain the basis of racial subordination in the US. Racial Profiling any arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on an authority based on race. Contact Hypothesis states that in cooperative circumstances, interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes. Genocide the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation. Segregation refers to the physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events. Amalgamation this happens when a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group. Assimilation the process through which a person forsakes his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different culture. Pluralism based on mutual respect for one another’s cultures among the various groups in a society. AntiSemitism antiJewish prejudice Symbolic ethnicity refers to an emphasis on concerns such as ethnic food or political issue rather than on deeper ties to one’s ethnic heritage. Transnationals Immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin with the society of settlement. Remittances The monies that immigrants return to their families of origin. Model, or ideal, minority A subordinate group whose members supposedly have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally despite past prejudice and discrimination. Apartheid A former policy of the South African government, designed to maintain the separation of blacks and other nonwhites from the dominant whites. Social Science the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change. The social sciences include sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, and political science. What is social structure? The system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups. What are the differences between statuses and roles? Status describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting. We all occupy several statuses and play the roles that may be associated with them. A role is the set of norms, values, behaviors, and personality characteristics attached to a status. What are the differences between ascribed, achieved, and master statuses? Achieved status is a concept developed by the anthropologist Ralph Linton denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It is the opposite of ascribed status. It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts. Master status is the social position that is the primary identifying characteristic of an individual. It is defined as "a status that has exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life" Primary vs. Secondary Groups A primary group is typically a small social group (smallscale society) whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, in shared activities and culture. Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups. Secondary groups have the opposite characteristics of primary groups. They can be small or large and are mostly impersonal and usually short term. These groups are typically found at work and school. What are the differences between ingroups and outgroups? An ingroup is an exclusive, typically small, group of people with a shared interest or identity. An out group can be thought of as the people who do not belong to a specific ingroup. How does Weber define an ideal type? Weber himself wrote: "An ideal type is formed by the onesided accentuation of one or more points of view and by the synthesis of a great many diffuse, discrete, more or less present and occasionally absent concrete individual phenomena, which are arranged according to those one sidedly emphasized viewpoints into a unified analytical construct... cannot be found empirically anywhere in reality." McDonaldization of Society McDonaldization is a term used by sociologist George Ritzer in his book The McDonaldization of Society (1993). He explains that it becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fastfood restaurant. Weber’s analysis of a bureaucracy (iron cage, rationalization) According to Weber, bureaucracy is a particular type of administrative structure developed through rationallegal authority. Weber argued that the bureaucratization of the modern world has led to its depersonalization. The iron cage is a term coined by Max Weber for the increased rationalization inherent in social life, particularly in Western capitalist societies. The "iron cage" thus traps individuals in systems based purely on teleological efficiency, rational calculation and control. What are reference groups? A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared. Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group. Granovetter’s concept “The strength of weak ties” Individuals with weaker ties have greater opportunities for mobility According to differential association theory, what is the cause of crime? In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. Are criminal acts immoral by definition? No. Many but not all illegal things are immoral just as many legal acts are usually morally okay but not all. Ceasare Lombroso’s views on criminals He states that criminality was inherited and that someone “born criminal” could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic. Differential association theory on social network and crime Differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. The differential association theory is the most talked about of the learning theories of deviance. This theory focuses on how individuals learn to become criminals, but does not concern itself with why they become criminals. Durkheim’s views on crime, deviance, and society Functionalist crime serves as the welfare of society. We need crime. You cannot have good without evil. Deviance helps draw boundaries. Deviance encourages social change. Responding to deviance brings people together. Labeling theory The Labeling theory emphasizes how a person comes to be labeled as deviant or to accept that label ‘deviant behavior is behavior that people so label” Also called the societalreaction approach it’s the response to an act, not the behavior itself that determines deviance. Merton’s typology 1. Conformity: The individual conforms to the dominant culture. Here, the individual experiences no problem in terms of goals and the means that society provides to achieve those goals. There is no need to engage in deviance to obtain goals deemed worthy by society. 2. Innovation: Innovators are people who accept the goals of society. For some reason, like poverty, they cannot achieve societies’ goals by legitimate means. They have to use illegitimate means such as stealing. 3. Acceptance (ritualism): People who ritualize have similar problems that the innovator experiences, but for ritualists, the individual rejects the goals and accepts the means. The individual may, for example, choose to work hard knowing that he or she is not going to achieve the goals that society defines as worthy because they do not get paid enough. 4. Retreatism: People who are retreatists reject both the means and goals of society. Drug addicts and vagrants are examples of people who retreat. 5. Rebellion: The individual rejects the culture (values, goals, norms). Those individuals pursue alternative cultures. Included in this group are revolutionaries and some gangs. Social disorganization theory and crime. The social disorganization theory is one of the most important theories developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. The theory directly links crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics; a core principle of social disorganization theory is that place matters. Travis Hirschi’s views on law and crime. He has a selfcontrol perspective on crime. He also argues that delinquency can be explained by the absence of social bonds. What does the Milgram experiment indicate? Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up. People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and / or legally based. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace. What is sanction? Sanctions are mechanisms of social control. As opposed to forms of internal control, like cultural norms and values, sociologists consider sanctions a form of external control. Sanctions can either be positive (rewards) or negative (punishment), and can arise from either formal or informal control. What is social control? The enforcement of conformity by society upon its members, either by law or by social pressure. What is victimization survey? The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, is a national survey of approximately 49,000 to 77,400 households twice a year in the United States, on the frequency of crime victimization, as well as characteristics and consequences of victimization. When does secondary deviance occur? Secondary deviance refers to deviant behavior which flows from a stigmatized sense of self; the deviance is thought to be consistent with the character of the self. Any person's self can be stigmatized or tainted by public labeling. Secondary deviance is contrasted to primary deviance which may be behaviorally identical to secondary deviance though incorporated into a ‘normal’ sense of self. Ascribed status and achieved status Achieved status is a concept developed by the anthropologist Ralph Linton denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It is the opposite of ascribed status. It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts. EMILE DURKHEIM Coined the term “Social Fact” Developed a theory to explain how individual behavior can be understood within a social context. He pointed out the influence of groups and societal forces on what had always been viewed as a highly personal act. Clearly, Durkheim offered a more scientific explanation for the causes of suicide than that of inherited tendencies or sunspots. His theory has predictive power, since it suggests that suicide rates will rise or fall in conjunction with certain social and economic changes. AUGUSTE COMTE Coined the term “Sociology”. Credited for being the most influential of the philosophers or the early 1800s Believed that a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society. HARRIET MARTINEAU Offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices of both her native Britain and the United States. Martineau’s book Society in America examined religion, politics, child rearing, and immigration in the young nation. It also gave special attention to social class dysfunctions and to such factors as gender and race. She also wrote the first book on the sociological methods. HERBERT SPENCER Spencer did not feel compelled to correct or improve society; instead he merely hoped to understand it better. He applied the concept of evolution of the species to societies in order to explain how they change, or evolve, over time. His approach to societal change was extremely popular in his lifetime. Unlike Comte, he suggested that since societies are bound to change eventually, one needed not be highly critical of present social arrangements or work actively for social change. This viewpoint appealed to many influential people in England and the United States who had vested interest in the status quo and were suspicious of social thinkers who endorsed change. 1. When you are part of a society you take for granted many small cultural patterns that reflect the basic ____, ____, and ____ of the culture of the society. (pick all that apply) A. Beliefs B. Personalities C. Customs D. Values E. Fashions 2. When a fairly large number of people live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture, they constitute a(n) ____. 3. True false: Cultural values are uniformly shared among all members of a society. 4. ____ is founded on the work of Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution. A. Cultural relativism B. Endomixis C. Sociobiology D. Ethnocentrism 5. The systematic study of how biology affect human social behavior is called ____. A. Natural science B. Sociobiology C. Global science D. Cultural biology 6. Material culture refers to the physical of technological aspects of our daily lives, including which two of the following? (pick all that apply) A. Raw materials B. Government C. Tools D. Customs 7. Sociologists recognize discovery and invention as the two forms of cultural ____. A. Innovation B. Revitalization C. Stabilization D. Destruction 8. If people go to a foreign country and practice cultural relativism, this means that they do which of the following? (pick all that apply) A. Unquestionably accept every cultural variation B. Place a priority on understanding other cultures C. Judge the host culture as strange and misguided D. Practice value neutrality 9. The tendency to view one’s own culture and way of life as normal and superior to all others is called ____. 10. Countercultures are primarily composed of which of the following? (pick all that apply) A. Foreign terrorists B. People who have a life style outside of the mainstream culture C. Older people who dedicated their lives to the larger culture D. Young people who can more easily adjust to new cultural standards 11. How would cultural relativism impact outsiders’ views of the practice of bullfighting in a society that allows it? A. They would try to legalize bullfighting in their own countries in order to change their cultures’ norms and values. B. They would view bullfighting as strange and exotic, with little or no cultural worth. C. They would recognize that different social contexts have different norms and values from their own cultures. D. They would try to outlaw bullfighting in that country in order to match their own culture’s norms and values. KEY 1. A, C, and D 2. Society 3. False 4. C 5. B 6. A and C 7. A 8. B and D 9. Ethnocentrism 10. B and D 11. C
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