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PSY 340 Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Taylor Russell

PSY 340 Exam 3 Study Guide PSY340

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY340 > PSY 340 Exam 3 Study Guide
Taylor Russell
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Exam 3 study guide from attention to reasoning in cognitive development
Introduction to Cognitive Development
Dr. Rebecca Gomez
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Russell on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY340 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Rebecca Gomez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Development in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
PSY 340 Chapter 8: Conceptual and representational development & representational development in early childhood Conceptual Development  The knowledge base o Most areas adults know more, however children outperform adults in their expert domains o Example: 10-year-old chess pros  Symbolic representations o Representational insight: realization that one thing is a symbol standing for something else o Dual representation: cognitive ability to think about one thing in two ways o Representational specificity: understanding a symbol as a key for drawing inferences  Concept views o Traditional: concepts are mental structures that are more than just sensory representations o Modern: cog-neurosci suggests concepts are based on distributed representations that can capture developmental processes  Categorization o Appropriate response to grouped items o Fundamental to cognition, lang, perception o Expanding upon existing knowledge  Object recognition, numerical cognition, transfer of learning o Category Levels  Superordinate (*think super- ordinary*): extremely vague level  Basic level: more specific than superordinate  Subordinate: referring to a very specific type o Quantitative Enrichment  Gradual accretion of perceptual information during infancy  Language provides important input for transition from percepts to concepts Reasoning  Reasoning: thinking that involves principles of logic o Deductive Reasoning: general principles to specific  Conclusion follows logically with certainty from the premises o Inductive Reasoning: specific principles to general  Conclusion follows probabilistically from the premises  Number reasoning o Conservation task o Gelman: magic experiments  Piaget says that without concept of number, the children should treat all “transformations” the same, so they would track number of items o Counting  One-One principle: “tick” per item  Stable-order principle: count words are assigned to each object  Cardinal principle: final number represents number of items in a set  Abstraction: any group of items can be counted regardless of type or if they are physically present  Order-irrelevance: enumeration of items in a set does not affect the number of items in the set o Core Magnitude  Infants born with a core number system to track large numbers  Compare numerosity of two sets without counting individual items of a set Chapter 9 Perception, Attention and Memory in Middle Childhood Perceptual Learning  Gibson and Gibson o Start with middle card and distinguish feature of similar looking figure cards o Face perception  Develops through brain maturation  Goodman et al o Test: surprise recognition o Results: Face expertise by age 9-10  Porporino o Global processing and distractors o 6 and 8 yr olds have more difficulty ignoring distractors in global condition compared to local  Selective attention and executive function o Stroop task not mental fusion o Visual decision span task o Full mastery at age 10, sharp difference in performance of 5 year olds o Results: 10 year olds better at color span backwards and visual decision  Pickering et al o Increase cognitive capacities o Working memory  Middle childhood achieves 7 items (adult ability)  WM supports better vocab  Measured by phonological loop and central executive function o 7-8 year olds similar phono loop and centreal exec o 14-15 year olds more developed phono than central exec o Improving WM performance  9-10 year olds with low WM improve with practive  no transfer from practice task to real world Long term memory development  Basic processes o Encoding o Retrieval o Memory strategies o Serial position effect o Recency effect o Primacy effect  Rehearsal o Ornstein o Older children spontaneously rehearse more items in a set than younger children  Event Memory o Autobiographical  Neisser study that some childhood events more memorable than others o Memory for highly emotional or surprising  Flashbulb memory: a vivid picture or clip of a poignant memory or event o Eye witness memory  Highly biased based on type of questions (misleading questions vs unbiased quesitons)  Hudson and Fivush o Description of a place o Children interviewed  Free recall  Cues  Children require different cues at different ages o Children tune out routine aspects and remember a unique feature more Chapter 10 Representation and complex cognition in middle childhood Basic vs Higher order process  Basic o Perception o Attention o Memory  Higher order processes o Thinking o Reasoning o Decision making o Problem solving  Organization of knowledge base o Episodic knowledge o Semantic knowledge o Organization learned in middle childhood  Markman et al o Collections as a coherent way to organize information hierarchically o Collection: class of individuals organized together based on similarities o Class inclusion New Theories  Nativist: children born with concepts like animism, causation  Empiricist: children develop concepts based on experiences  Naïve theory: children magically materialize commonsense theories in order to categorize concepts  Carey o Children organize info differently at different ages  Preschoolers based of prototypes and themselves  Middle schoolers learn science and biological organization


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