PSY/CLDP 3362: FINAL Review
PSY/CLDP 3362: FINAL Review CLDP 3362.001
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Meridith Grant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Review Questions Big Questions in Cognitive Development » If development occurs in stages, what two main assumptions do we make? o Qualitative changes (very clear, dramatic change; caterpillar to a butterfly) o Concurrence assumption (light bulb goes off across contexts; changes occurring concurrently) **Also, know continuous assumptions Define: Assimilation: representing experiences in terms of existing knowledge Accommodation: understanding altered by new information o EX: Cow = dog; different types of dinosaurs Equilibration: realize dinosaurs lived a long time ago and now they’re extinct Theory Measurement and Ethics Descriptive Method: o Describes things as they are. o Examples: Surveys Naturalistic observations Case studies Correlational Method: o Looks at relationships between variables providing information about STRENGTH and DIRECTION of relationship. o Examples: Family income and IQ score Sense of humor and health Experimental Method: o Dealing with confounds “The video deficit” - Imitate tv less than people for object retrieval, action sequences, word learning - Complexities: o Often experimenter designed videos o Baby Wordsworth videos INFANCY: Perception, Memory, Naïve Physics Do we control infants’ attention? Support your response. - We don’t have to capture infants’ attention - By 3.5 mos can control their own visual attention (anticipatory eye gaze; so they are learning where the stimuli will come, they learn these patterns) Cross-model perception: - Combining information from two or more sensory systems (modalities) o Infants attention is attracted MORE to multi-modal information and they learn faster (e.g., rhythm and lights) Visual cliff study: Traditional paradigm: 7 m.o. with crawling experience will NOT cross, 7 m. o. NO crawling experience cross Social Referencing: 1 y.o. infants use cues from mother to decide whether to cross “Full Object Concept” o The “Object Concept” states objects are enduring entities that continue to exist when out of sight. This concept is traditionally tested with reaching tasks. Violation of expectation paradigm supports rich understanding of the physical world developing between 3.5 and 12 months of age. THE SOCIAL INFANT Attributions of Mental States Do infants attribute mental states? Intentional stance: higher order cognitive state Teleological stance: simple minded explanation - In some paradigms 12 m.o. infants could view agents as intentional or rational - 12 m.o. infants attention attracted to helping behavior, potentially supporting an intentional stance. » Look longer at helping behavior, suggesting a type of mentalistic understanding (but could also still have a rational understanding) Gaze following Social Reference Pointing False belief //Assignment 1// Research Question: o Do infants (15-months) have false belief understanding? Method: Limitations/Weaknesses? o Lots of infants dropped – cohort? o Not a lot of demographic info o Meaning of findings not completely clear o Implicit versus explicit, unclear the extent to which this task may map onto (connect) latter verbal tasks. Why are these findings important? o New method with infants that can potentially be used with animals. o Could be used for early identification of social impairments (e.g., autism) o Contrast to what was the prevailing use (age 4) - Infants seem to attribute mental states to other agents in a variety of paradigms. CONCEPTS Prototype Theory: (pgs 109 – 125) o Properties correlated with concepts o Hierarchical » Superordinate » Basic » Subordinate o Basic-level = most accessible = greatest utility o Some concept members are “better” than others o The best is the Prototype: average/most typical Theory Based Representations: (pgs 123 – 128) Identify causal relationships that make something a member of a category “Theories” - informal intuitions/knowledge about causal relationships “Core theories” - children may be predisposed to develop certain core theories, basic for survival By age 2, children use their theories to categorize actions (Mandler & McDonough) (living vs non-living & living things need water) Problem: What qualifies as a theory? Subparts of Biological Death o Finality/Irreversibility (4 depending); Once you die, there’s no coming back; understand a bit earlier in non-emotional context o Universality (often by age 6); all living things die o Non-functionality/cessation (6 or 7) Biological Psychological: sensation of the body (takes a little longer) o Causality (4 and 7 depending) Present (children with different items): Child, dog, goldfish, plant, house, couch, doll Ask questions: Are there things to cause X to die? If yes: Finality: Remember this X dies, can it come back to life? Will it be dead forever? Universality: Do all X die? Non-functionality: Now that the X is dead, can X still eat? Breathe? Grow?; Think? Dream? Want? Causality: How do you think Terry’s XXX died? What are some things that caused XXX to die? Influence of Religion Over 80% of Americans believe in some type of afterlife With age move towards dual representations (biological + religious) Adults can have “mixed” epistemologies Experience with Pets o Children who raised goldfish vs. not o Children with goldfish: More knowledge about goldfish Extended (biological) knowledge to unfamiliar animal, frog o 3 to 6 y.o. with/without pets (more relevant study) Observation Parent report Tasks to measure biology understanding Property Interview Take home thoughts: - Children are curious, learning about death from many sources - Knowledge of biology leads to a better understanding of death and may reduce fear (of death) - Attend to individual child (dead squirrel) - Should not ignore religion/spirituality LANGUAGE - What is categorical perception and how does categorical perception of speech change over development (e.g., universal to culturally bound language speakers)? Do children learn phonemes from video? » 1 mo can make categorical discriminations between sounds (e.g., “ba” vs. “pa”) » Infants sensitive to phonemic contrasts in non-native languages (unlike adults) » Sensitivity to non-native phonemes declines around 10mo. o Universal to Culture Bound (or Specific) Language Speakers o @ 9mo, infants prefer listening to native phonemes o @ 4 days can distinguish native language from other languages (not specific to humans; rats can do this as well) » Social interaction crucial for retention of phonemic awareness. - How do infants find words in speech? How does IDS help? » The word-segmentation problem » Infants learn statistical regularities (i.e., associative learning) o 8 mo infants dishabituate: novel words “part” words o In most situations they dishabituatue (example of bottom-up processing) suggesting infants do learn statistical regularities o NOT species specific - How can we promote communication? o Children learn the words that they hear most. (Provide a language rich environment) o Social interaction matters (Talk and play with children) o Children learn from what interests them (Follow child’s interests) o Children learn words best in meaningful contexts o Keep it positive! (“Strive for five.”) Would you recommend to another parent that their child participate in a music program (refer to Assignment 2; Kraus et al., 2014)? o Findings: Children with 2 years of music training distinguished syllables better (at neurological level). Overall, more training led to better language processing; linear relationship. » Displacement: we can talk about things beyond here and now; we can refer to things that aren’t immediately present » Phoneme: sounds that make up words in a language; different languages use different phonemes » Morphology: the rules that govern structure of words o “Drive” ing but not “Car” ing » Pragmatics: the rules for engaging in effective communication o Involves social awareness o The basis of metaphors and some humor » Syntax: the rules that determine how words can be combined into phases o “The goulp was pudaded under his limex.” » Over-regularization: errors in which rules of grammar applied to exceptions o Rare (“cactuses” vs. “cacti” / “foots” vs. “feet”) SOCIAL COGNITION » ability to understand the mental states (e.g., thoughts, desires, beliefs, knowledge) of someone else (AKA “Theory of Mind”); ToM is NOT just false belief – much more than that Gross cracker study** » Establish child’s preference for broccoli/crackers (usually for the crackers) » Researcher demonstrates opposite preference (“gross crackers, yummy broccoli”) » Researcher asks child for some more (does the child recognize the researcher has a preference different from their own and acknowledge it?) » Finding: 18 m.o. (but NOT 14 m.o.) understand that others can want different things False Belief o Unexpected Transfer Task: Sally-Ann Task o False Contents Task: Smarties Task o Appearance-Reality Task: Sponge-Rock (tends to be the easiest task) False Belief Tasks o Results: Most 5 y.o. pass About half 4 y.o. pass 3 y.o. don’t typically pass o Findings seen across cultures o Microgenetic studies (super compressed) indicate gradual understanding – have to pull in a lot of information o Manipulations to improve performance: Emphasis on time frame/language (where will sally look first?) Deception as motive for change Children carry out transformation - What type of experiences facilitate the development of the understanding of mental states? Conversation: o Discussion of emotions at 33 to 36 m.o. predicts ability to correctly attribute emotions and pass false belief tasks later on (could explain gender differences) o Experimental training indicates causal link between dialogue and mental state understanding for 3 y.o. Using the mental state word, “thought” leads to better understanding of labels of what they otherwise may not know Mind-Mindedness o Treat young children as individuals with mind (thoughts, feelings, volitions,…) – parent can understand the “babble” Measure mind-mindedness at 20 m.o. and 3 y.o. 20 m.o.: “He says XXX to mean YYY” vs. mom endorsing vocalizations not understandable 3 y.o.: “He’s an outgoing and friendly kid who really enjoys…” vs. “He’s a tall but typical boy.” One is much richer than the other Measure false belief understanding at 5 y.o. o Mothers of securely attached infants more likely to be mind-minded o All mind-mindedness measures predict better false belief performance at 5 Siblings o Siblings contribute to more advanced ToM skills beyond age and language and are even more important for children with lower vocab skills MEMORY Know the modular account of memory, including definitions for the subparts of memory. o Table o Infantile Amnesia (don’t remember much before 3): » Magic shrinking machine: o If they had the word at the time of encoding, they are more likely to have a verbal memory for that word. o If not verbally encoding, may make retrieval more difficult » No sense of self » Infants may just focus on events differently (Symbolic Understanding) o Snoopy Study (big room vs. little room) o The Development of Scripts (we get a cart, onions, we leave) When you add a novel event, they believe that is part of the overall script younger kids Novel event stands out; we already have the script down older kids Maternal elaborateness (Circus example) – try to make it a very developed, richer memory » Neurological structures o Plausibly relates to some extent, but not the only explanation. What are some potential explanations for infantile amnesia? Is there evidence to support any of these explanations (e.g., “Magic Shrinking Machine”; Symbolic Understanding)? Autobiographical Memories Infantile Amnesia: 1. Freud: Repressed memories 2. Sense of self (before the age of 3, children don’t have a sense of self) 3. Neurological structures 4. Infants may focus on events differently, making retrieval difficult (the memories are there, but stored differently) 5. Differences in encoding and retrieval Females tend to have earlier memories than males AND females tend to have more advanced language development than males (links to the possibility of encoding and retrieval differences) Magic shrinking machine o 27- 39 m.o. play with shrinking machine, language skills assessed o 6 months or 1 year later test memory verbally and nonverbally o Findings: 1. Good nonverbal memory 2. Verbal memory connected to words children knew at time of encoding (if they did not know the vocab word at the time of encoding, they did not know it at the time of retrieval – suggests the difference in how the memory was stored) Symbolic Understanding: 2.5 and 3 y.o. asked to use a scale model (archiacal mockup of the room) to find a hidden item (viewing the world differently General finding: 3 y.o. succeed, 2.5 y.o. fail (suggesting they don’t have the same symbolic understanding we do as adults) o Magical shrinking machine (more engaging, leads to a hazier connection to the actual room) o Line/drawings/photographs Trouble with: o Representational Correspondence Development of “Slave Systems” AKA Baddeley and Hitch’s Model of WM o Some plausible possibilities: Children initially rely on visual codes and switch to phonological codes (around 5 y.o.) As get better at information processing, become more efficient at using both INTELLIGENCE Mental Age Quotient (IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age x100) o Problems: IQ may decrease with age as adult Age 6 and age 10 with the same mental age quotient very different Deviation IQ (what we use today) o Mean of 100 o Standard Deviation +/- 15 o +s and –s for deviation IQs Infants: o Faster habituation correlates with later IQ Especially for infants at risk Different from short attention span o Visual recognition memory correlates with later IQ Versus IQ, Infant Measures may relate to: o PROCESSING SPEED o INHIBITION o From age 8, correlations on IQ tests are high. (Lower between infancy and 5 years.) o The closer together tests taken, the higher the correlation o Scores are NOT constant Self-fulfilling Prophecy “maze bright” vs. “maze dull” rats (expectation of how the rat should perform affected their performance) Do teacher EXPECTATIONS influence student LEARNING? Method: Start of school year, students in grades 1 to 6 administered nonverbal intelligence test (TOGA) Teachers told: “Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition” that predicted academic “blooming” Teachers told that 20% of children showed would show “unusual intellectual gains” during school year BUT students were actually randomly assigned Administer IQ test 8 months later Bottom line: Expectancies translated to the classroom, particularly for younger grades Implications? If you were given a list of students at the start of a school, some were “gifted” and others had learning/behavioral disabilities, how would that impact behavior? Some later research: Teacher expectations may lead to more positive interactions that influence students to enjoy school more Findings for expectancies extended to a variety of settings Fixed vs. Growth Mindset How children and adults think about learning influences how well they learn and how they bounce back from obstacles. 1. Fixed mindset: failure due to a lack of ability 2. Growth mindset: failure due to a lack of effort How to encourage a growth mindset: o Instead of praising ABILITY, praise EFFORT “You are a fantastic baseball player” vs. “You connected with the ball much better this time” o Tell stories about achievements through hard work. o When a child receives a poor grade, try to focus on effort and future actions. o Talk to children as they get older about how they can “strengthen” their brains. o Demonstrate to children that you think learning is important. Executive Functioning Skills, including self-control Working Memory: ability to hold information in mind and mentally work with it Inhibition: ability to control one’s impulses, attention, and emotions Cognitive flexibility: ability to change perspectives, adjust priorities based on new information o Delay of gratification task o 4 year old child given a treat o Child told that experimenter will leave room for a while and kid has two choices: Wait for experimenter to return = 2 treats Ring a bell = get 1 treat o The better children were at delaying gratification, the better they were at: explaining ideas paying attention coping with stress SATs (around 200 points higher) years later!! How do we delay? o Distraction – shift our attention elsewhere o Cognitively Reframe – “Think Cold, Think Cognitive” Preschoolers directed to think “hot” thoughts about a control item were able to wait about 17 minutes on average to earn their reward. Developmental Changes in strategies to delay o 4 yo often choose the least effective strategies o As they begin to use better strategies able to wait longer o The value of abstract thoughts (i.e., cool thoughts) is later developing, often not occurring until 3 to 6 grade. o Criticisms of the marshmallow task? Moffit et al., 2001 Self-control composite o What was the purpose of the study? Looking at the extension to which self control scores predicted as far as intelligence, etc. o What type of study was it? Longitudinal o How was the study conducted? o Main findings: Longitudinal research examining nine different measures of self control during the first decade of life finds that, controlling for SES and intelligence, self control in childhood is related to many factors such as health, wealth, and crime Criticisms? Why do the researchers argue that we should take a “targeted approach” to addressing self-control? o “Early childhood interventions that enhances self control is likely to bring greater return on investment than harm reduction programs targeting adolescents alone.” o Argue we should TARGET self-control in early childhood versus developing lots of programs for adolescents that address common problems (e.g., drugs, teen pregnancy, truancy, anger management,…) Blair, 2016 Neurobiology o Subcortical regions (often from stress response) signal prefrontal cortex to direct our attention o Moderate stimulation facilitates EF o Too much stimulation overstimulation o Too little stimulation inhibits neural activity Self regulation o Recursive at first: Primarily outside of conscious awareness during infancy and toddlerhood (“top-down”) o Grow older, more conscious (“bottom-up”) o STILL early and later EF seems to be connected Individual differences in EF (visual memory, emotional reactivity) predict later EF Measurement difficult and somewhat unreliable. Why? o Poor at measuring construct of EF? o EF poorly defined or operationalized? o EF changes? In poverty o Because situations of poverty are often stressful, hormone levels can be altered in ways that alter the stress response. o Protective factors through: Positive parenting Supportive relationship with mother o Also, changes our need and want for food. Training works Bottom Lines: EF Skills I. CRUCIAL for success in school, on the job, in friendships, in marriage, for mental and physical health, etcetera II. Malleable: Improve over time and with some interventions T/F: An individual with an overall IQ score of 100 is well above average. FALSE T/F: The size of one’s brain correlates with intelligence. TRUE. ACADEMIC SKILLS Literacy Languages are represented differently o Phonological Complexity: Grain Size o Phonemes o Syllables o Morphemes o Orthographic Transparency PA: Bottom lines o Developmental sequence of phonological skills appears language universal Syllables onset/rhyme phonemes o Phonemic awareness depends on literacy training and varies across languages `Dyslexia o Common misconception: Letter perception (orientation matters) Typically by 2 /3 grade o Difficulties with phonological representations of sound structure of words o Pragmatically: Children with wide vocabularies and high IQ that struggle with reading and spelling Mathematical Development o Linguistic system o Visually based code o Analog Magnitude Representation System in which numbers are coded as “approximates” (better sense of what smaller numbers are) versus exact Follows Weber’s law: ratio sensitive (easier to detect a difference between 5 and 100 vs 5 and 6) Adults, infants, and animals all use AMR at times… …STILL to explain simple math: Subitizing 3, 4, & 5 to decide which row has more squares Children more successful when ratio 1:2 than 2:3 Counting did not affect success rate Many studies corroborate basic findings Neuroimaging supports the idea of separate systems EEG (better temporal info as far as timing) data supports the idea of ratio sensitivity Math: o Kindergarten: Single-digit addition and subtraction (finger counting) nd th o 2 to 4 grade Multiplication o Inversion (a + b – b = ?) 4 to 5 years with objects only 6 to 9 years rd th o 3 or 4 graders struggle with Mathematical Equality (3+4+5=__ + 5) o Children develop strategies to help them learn these skills Retrieval – high confidence Back-up strategy – low confidence o Individual Differences: Use 1st grade math test to divide kids into 3 groups Not so good students: made errors Good students: fewer errors, faster, used retrieval more Perfectionists: Equally accurate, but perfectionists used backup strategies instead of retrieval much more often. Very strict confidence criterion needed for retrieval. Counting o Counting Principles: One-One (only one word per object) Ordinality (assign numbers in the same order) Cardinality (last count indicates numbers in the set) o Early Counting: “Give a number” task Find: o Grabbers o Counters Conclusions: o Shifts around 3.5 o Differences in counting for small vs. large numbers Longitudinal follow-up: ads tasks “How many?” “Point to X” Find: kids learn 1, 2, 3 then larger numbers Debate regarding representation of larger numbers Cultural Differences: Age 3 - children in the US can generally count to 10. There are cultural differences in the counting level attained by young children. PIAGET Sensorimotor Period: 0 – 2 years Understanding of the world increases dramatically » Knowledge develops via action » Gradual differentiation of self from environment » Gradual growth of intention Preoperational Period: 2 – 7 years Development of symbolic understanding and language use Engage in pretend play, think about the past BUT suffer from egocentrism and centration » Egocentrism: Children limited in ability to take the perspective of others o Tested with 3-mountain task (understanding we have different visual perspectives) » Centration: focus on one aspect of a problem, neglecting others o Tested with conservation “Do I have more, do you have more, or are they the same?” o Tested with physics: “toy train task” 1. Piaget said children were egocentric through early childhood » BUT, other researchers have found differently i. False belief around 4 or so ii. Drawing rotation… iii. … iv. … 2. Piaget said children didn’t understand conservation » BUT, why else might they fail? o Improving performance on conservation tasks Concrete Operational Period: 7 - 11 years Begin to think logically about world (e.g., pass conservation task with number and liquid) Grasp length, volume, time Can solve multiple classification problems BUT, don’t think abstractly o Difficulty with hypothetical reasoning problems o Difficulty using systematic approaches to solving some problems (e.g., chemistry problems) Haphazard (versus systematic) Stop gathering evidence too soon Formal Operational Period: 12 years and up Understand abstract concepts, logic, hypothetical thinking Different Perspectives 1. Piaget said that acquiring conservation should be universal » BUT, some cross-cultural differences Mexican children making pottery understand it earlier Children in cultures without formal education understand it later » And not all conservation solved at once 2. Piaget said that kids can’t do logical reasoning BUT, kids this age CAN do it if experts or taught some strategies Major Contributions to Cognitive Developmet: 1. Founding the field of cognitive development 2. Conceptualizing development as active and constructive (children want to learn; we should let them) 3. Exploring new methods (scientific approach to studying kids) 4. Getting a good “gist” of cog dev processes, especially with older children VGOTSKY Development depends on what is learned from others Internalization of socially shared processes: » Intermental level: other people » Intramental level: self Zone of proximal development: (area in-between Actual and Potential development levels); amount of extra reasoning they would be able to do with little help » ZPD Example: o Sorting dollhouse furniture o 3 and 5 y.o. helped a puppet move dollhouse furniture into a house; one group got help (their mom), other got scaffolding o Found: performance on the new hard task was better for children who had help from mom throughout the task opposed to children who just got feedback at the end. They can do more extra reasoning when they are helped throughout the process. Developmental milestone reached when children linked cognition and language (language helps refines and strengthens their cognition skills to organize their thoughts, activities, etc.) Starts with egocentric/private speech Reaches inner speech (self-talk you do in your head) » Helps remove themselves from the immediate context to detach themselves to see what’s beyond Describe how functioning can be mediated by cultural tools (e.g., alphabet song, abacus). o Psychological functioning mediated by cultural tools (e.g., “alphabet song”, abacus (in learning addition and subtraction)); suggesting that those cultural tools ARE really important! Piaget vs. Vygotsky Piaget’s Theory: o Focus: Individual child o Context is important for eliciting thoughts in the child (more involved as the child as an active learner) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: o Focus: Child in context o Child’s thinking cannot be separated from context (how they grow up is inherently important for a child) Where are we going? WRAP-UP 1. Are some capabilities innate? Yes; development starts in the womb… - But more than not, nature and nurture are extremely intertwined - Ex: Language (universal to specific), analog numbering representation (children have an approximate number sense that seems to potentially increase mathematical abilities) 2. Does development progress through stages? - More often than not, it’s continuous 3. How does change occur? Lots of ways! o Biological changes o Habituation and conditioning (children to prefer to look at something slightly different) o Social learning (Vgotsky) o Information-processing mechanisms (as something becomes more automatic, it becomes easier for us to do something else as well) o Domain-specific learning mechanisms (the whole object concept) 4. How do changes in brain contribute to cognitive development? - Development of prefrontal cortex more sophisticated thinking, planning, and metacognition - Brain plasticity 5. How does the social world contribute to cognitive development? - Social interaction and culture impact how children think - Scaffolding: structuring how children think 6. How do individuals differ? - Figure out general developmental trends before being able to understand individual differences! - Development is an ACTIVE exploratory process (idea of executive functioning skills and that they can be learned); self-regulation and executive function skills are linked to many other things beyond intelligence
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