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Diversity of Life II Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Jacob Erle

Diversity of Life II Exam 3 Study Guide 211

Marketplace > Syracuse University > 211 > Diversity of Life II Exam 3 Study Guide
Jacob Erle
GPA 3.85

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This is the study guide for our final final. This covers all the material we have covered over the past weeks. Not all of the sections have been filled in (Common Traits) so that you will go in ...
Diversity of Life II
Justine Weber
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.

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Date Created: 05/03/16
Diversity of Life II Exam 3 Study Guide  FISH What makes a fish a fish? How many extant species of fish are there (conservatively)? What are some properties of water that affect the shape of fishes? 1.)   2.)                3.)  4.)  How do they influence body design?  Evolution of Fish What taxonomic group(s) are fish derived from? What evolutionary innovations were important to the success of fishes? What is this organism, and what is its relation to evolution of fishes? Types of Respiration (3) ­define and be able to give examples Extant Representatives of Fishes Know common traits, and be able to give examples for each group: The Pre­Teleost Fishes  Gnathostomes (Jawed Craniates) RAY­FINNED FISHES Osteoglossomorpha ­ Most primitive form of teleost (220species) Elopomorpha ­ Leptocephalus larvae (804species) Otocephala “ear to swimbladder” (8,344 species) Ostariophysi  Clupeomorpha  ­All have a Weberian Organ Cypriniformes  Gymnotiformes  Siluriformes  Salmoniformes Percomorpha Other Examples Flying fish, walking fish, ice fish Cichlidae Deep Sea Fish Order Stomiiformes What major adaptations/changes resulted in extreme Teleost diversity? HERPS Class Amphibia (~5900species) Common Traits? (Not all are shown here, but just to help get started) ­Smooth Skin – why does this trait impact how amphibians live their lives (habitat,  respiration, and reproduction)? ­More active at night – WHY? ­What about their eyes? Order Anura – Frogs and Toads (~4,700species) Common Traits ­fused bones – why is this helpful? ≠ ­forelimbs   hindlimbs Order Caudata – Newts and Salamanders (~500species) Newts have drier, rougher skin than salamanders Common Traits ­equal­sized limbs with tail ­internal fertilization  ­What is so special about spermatophores anyway? ­Paedomorphosis =? (See Mudpuppies)  Gymnophiona (Apoda) – without legs, Caecilian ~160species Common Characteristics ­head is battering ram to drive through soil, eyes are largely vestigial & covered by  skin/bone ­dermal (bony) scales found deep in tissues of each annular groove (similar to fish scales) Reptilia What innovation(s) permitted them to venture away from water to live permanently on land? Subclasses – what purposes do they serve us (taxonomy)? ­Know defining features and examples of each class (extant or extinct) Synapsids Anapsids Diapsids Order Chelonia or Testudines (Turtles & Tortoises, 300species) ­type of skull? Common Traits? ­NO TEETH! ­Dig nests with hind feet on land What is defining about their special shells? ­lungs below carapace (surface of shell) ­ Implications – great longevity, high survival (don’t reach sexual maturity until 10­ 20years old) Lepidosaurs [Order Rhynocephalia ­ tuatara & Order Squamata ­ squamates (snakes and  lizards)], “scaled lizards” Common Traits Hemipenes  Ecdysis  Tuatara ­why are they special in terms of phylogenetics? Squamates – Lizards, Suborder Lacertilia, ~3000species, 25families Common Traits ­external ear openings ­most have 4 legs, but may be reduced or lost completely Any unique adaptations that stick out? Snakes – Suborder Ophidia, Serpentes, ~2300 species ­No sternum  ­Organs elongate, left lungs reduced or absent  ­Skull and jaws are exceedingly mobile ­Heat sensitive pits ­Limbless locomotors Amphisbaenids (suborder Amphisbaenia), ~135 species ­able to ram through soil in both directions using their skulls ­tentacle on head acts as chemosensory organ to detect underground prey Archosauria ­ Crocodilia (Aves) ­includes DINOSAURS and BIRDS Common Traits of Crocodlia ­Thecodont teeth ­Abutting osteoderms BIRDS Where do we see birds in today’s society? (Everyday applications, scientific theories)   Modern Lineages – Subclass Neornithes Palaeognathae ­Struthioniformes Neognathae ­Galloanserae:  Anseriformes and Galliformes ­Neoaves – EVERYTHING ELSE Bird Origins and Evolution Thecodont vs Theropod Hypotheses What characteristics of Archaeopteryx were similar to reptiles?  Birds?   Theories behind Origins of Flight? ­Ground­up/Cursorial ­  ­Trees­down/Arboreal –  ­WAIR ­   ­Jesus­dinosaur – Common Characteristics of Birds ­feathered, bipedal vertebrates ­lightweight skeleton (most of them) ­endothermic (‘metabolic furnace’), flying takes a lot of energy ­excrete waste as solid, pasty uric acid Why fly? What are some key adaptations for flight in birds? ­FEATHERS ­NO TEETH ­thin, hollow, fused bones How are the following body systems adapted for a life of flight? Digestive/Excretion Reproduction Circulatory Respiration Muscular What is aspect ratio? Adaptations for flightless birds’ wings? Mating Systems – define each, and give examples for the following: Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry Promiscuity Lekking Communication – Calls vs. Songs Functions of each? Example of non­vocal sound produced by bird? Nest Types (not all shown here): Scrape –  Cavity –  Adherent –  Why would brood parasitism be considered adaptive? Forms of Development (fill in the blanks) Precocial (nearly fully developed and completely independent)  Semiprecocial  _________  Altricial (____________________) Diversity of Bird Orders – Class Aves Be able to give examples, and any common traits of the following orders: Superorder Paleognathae Infraclass Neognathae Gallanoserae – Order Anseriformes Family Anatidae Order Galliformes  Family Phasianidae Megapodiidae Neoaves – most modern birds, everything else (‘Land Birds’ and ‘Water Birds’) Charadriiformes  Gruiformes  Cucliformes  Columbiformes  Phoenicopteriformes  Apodiformes  Caprimulgiformes  Podicipediformes  Procellariformes  Spenisciformes  Ciconiiformes  Pelecaniformes  Suliformes  Gaviformes MAMMALS Why bother studying mammals? How many species of mammals have been described? Know themes of evolution seen across groups of organisms (General trends, Extinctions and  Resilience, Speciation). Origins of  Amphibians = Earliest ancient Reptiles = PERMIAN EXTINCTION Ancestors of modern reptiles, DINOSAURS = Mammals = Birds = Know Thermoregulation Terms (4), Stability and Source What is the type of thermoregulation seen is Mammals?  Birds?  Dinosaurs?  People? (stability  and source) How did mammals contend with living in a world dominated by dinosaurs during the Mesozoic  Era?  What adaptations did mammals have during the age What is Cope’s Rule? Evolutionary Theme – adaptive function of structures evolve for different proximal purpose than  their ultimate function.  How does this apply to adaptations in mammals? What enabled mammals to “take Center Stage” at the end of the Mesozoic Era? What led to Prehistoric Megafaunal Extinctions around 2MYA?   Why were the megafaunal extinction rates in Africa at 2MYA significantly less compared to  those in the rest of the world?


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