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Biology 1060 (General Biology II) Final Exam Study Guide

by: Margaret Notetaker

Biology 1060 (General Biology II) Final Exam Study Guide Bio 1060

Marketplace > Saint Louis University > Biology > Bio 1060 > Biology 1060 General Biology II Final Exam Study Guide
Margaret Notetaker

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This study guide gives an overview of some of the most missed questions from exams 1-3, as well as some key concepts to know from those units, and goes into a little more detail about what to know ...
General Biology II
Dr. Thole
Study Guide
Biology, Ecology
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1060 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Thole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
Exam  1   • Genotype:  an  organism’s  genetic  makeup   • Phenotype:  the  physical  manifestation  of  an  organism’s  genes,  is  affected  by   environment   • Mutations  do  not  arise  in  response  to  events;  rather,  they  already  exist  in  a   population  and  those  organisms  that  have  advantageous  mutations  survive   better  and  therefore  become  the  new  most  common  genotype  in  the  gene   pool   • Germ-­‐line  mutations  are  important  to  evolution,  but  most  cancers  result   from  somatic  mutations   o Germ-­‐line  mutations:  mutations  in  gametes  (can  be  passed  on)   o Somatic  mutations:  mutations  in  somatic  cells  (can’t  be  passed  on  to   offspring)   o Silent  mutations:  do  not  affect  organism   o Point  mutation:  mutation  in  one  nucleotide  pair   o Deletion:  some  of  the  genetic  code  is  absent  from  the  genome   • Delta32  allele  of  CCR5  receptor  protein  makes  it  harder  for  HIV  virus  to  get   into  cells   • Heterozygous:  AB   • Homozygous:  AA/BB   • Individuals  are  heterozygous  for  a  gene  if  they  developed  form  a  sperm  and   egg  that  carried  different  alleles   • Most  mutations  have  no  effect  on  overall  health  because  they  reside  in  non-­‐ coding  DNA   • With  gel  electrophoresis,  simply  regard  one  row  as  allele  A  and  one  as  allele   B   • Hardy-­‐Weinberg:  p+q=1,  p^2+q^2+2pq  =  1   o P  is  allele  frequency  for  dominant  allele,  q  is  frequency  of  recessive   allele   • Most  speciation  is  likely  allopatric  because  gene  flow  between  populations   prevents  genetic  divergence  in  sympatric  speciation.   • Monophyletic:  includes  all  ancestors   • Paraphyletic:  includes  all  ancestors  but  not  all  descendants   • Polyphyletic:  includes  some  descendants  but  not  all  ancestors   • Females  choosing  males  is  intrasexual  selection,  not  intersexual  selection,   which  is  competition  within  one  sex   • Mutation  is  the  only  source  of  genetic  variation   • Know  the  types  of  barriers  (pre  and  post),  as  well  as  genetic  drift  and   bottleneck  effect  and  founder  effect     Exam  2   • Horizontal  gene  transfer  happens  through  conjugation   • Vertebrates  are  distinguished  from  other  chordates  by  a  protective  cranium   in  all  vertebrates   •   • Protostomes:  first  opening  becomes  the  mouth   • Deuterostomes:  second  opening  becomes  the  mouth   • Amniotic  egg  was  such  a  significant  evolutionary  trait  because  it  removed  the   dependence  on  water  for  reproduction   • Ascomycetes:  can  be  single  celled  or  multicellular,  have  karyogamy  and   meiosis  take  place  in  the  ascus,  have  each  ascus  produce  8  spores,  and  have   ascocarps  made  of  dikaryotic  hyphae,  but  sexual  reproduction  DOES  NOT   occur  in  the  conidia   • Mitotic  cell  division  in  unicellular  eukaryotes  can  result  in  a  cell  that  is  either   1n  or  2n,  depending  on  whether  the  organism  lives  predominantly  as  a   haploid  or  diploid   • Multicellular  organisms  whose  cells  are  highly  differentiated  and  organized   into  distinct  interior  and  exterior  tissue  layers  are  most  likely  complex   multicellular  organisms.   • Homo  sapiens  first  inhabited  Africa  then  migrated  to  other  parts  of  the  Earth   • The  most  diverse  group  of  Arthropods  are  the  insects   • Mollusks  do  not  secrete  shells  of  calcium  phosphate.   • Know  the  symmetry  of  each  group  in  the  above  table     Exam  3   • The  roots  of  a  small  grass  plant  growing  through  the  soil  that  run  into  large   rocks  directly  beneath  it  will  have  the  root  apical  meristem  stop  growing,  but   lateral  roots  will  grow  from  the  pericycle  and  grow  outwards  from  the  initial   root.   • Monocot  root  layers  from  outside  to  inside:  epidermis,  cortex,  endodermis,   pericycle,  vascular  tissue,  pith   • Seeds  become  plants  because  the  seed  contains  the  embryo,  which  is  the   diploid  sporophyte,  and  during  germination  mitotic  cell  divisions  take  place   to  produce  primary  growth  from  the  root  and  shoot  apical  meristems   • The  pith  of  root  tissue  is  primarily  used  for  storage   • The  plant  embryo  in  a  seed  has  a  shoot  apical  meristem  and  a  root  apical   meristem   • Water  transport  in  xylem  depends  on  hydrogen  bonding  between  H2O   molecules.   • With  the  removal  of  gravity,  plant  roots  will  begin  to  grow  outward  and   upward  more  than  they  would  with  gravity.   • Maryland  Mammoth  experiments  could  not  have  been  done  in  the  tropics   because  daylength  does  not  change  much  throughout  the  year  and  is  never   shorter  than  the  critical  period   • Removing  sugars  from  phloem  does  not  increase  turgor  pressure  at  the  sink   • Angiosperms  contain  vessels  as  their  primary  form  of  water  transport   • Phloem,  unlike  xylem,  is  made  up  of  cells  that  are  still  metabolically  active.   • Know  the  life  cycles  of  mosses,  ferns,  gymnosperms,  and  angiosperms     Ecology   • Three  key  features  of  a  population  are  size  (N),  geographic  range,  and   population  density   • 3  types  of  dispersals:  random,  clumped,  and  overdispersed/uniform   • per  capita  growth  rate  (r)  is  the  change  in  N  over  the  change  in  time,  all   divided  by  the  initial  N   • Exponential  growth  is  when  resources  are  unlimited  and  predators  aren’t   around  (never  exists  for  long  in  nature)   • R-­‐selected  species  reproduce  a  lot  and  invest  little  in  young,  tend  to  be  type  3   survivorship  curve  (death  most  likely  in  young)   • K-­‐selected  species  reproduce  a  little  and  invest  a  lot  in  their  young  (humans),   tend  to  be  type  1  survivorship  curve  (death  most  likely  in  old)   • Type  2  curve  means  death  rate  is  constant  throughout  life   • Intraspecific  competition  is  competition  within  a  species   • Interspecific  competition  is  competition  between  multiple  species   • Carrying  capacity  (K)  is  maximum  number  of  individuals  a  habitat  can   support   • Density-­‐dependent  factors:  factors  that  are  more  prevalent  when  density  is   high   • Density-­‐independent  factors:  factors  that  do  not  depend  on  density  of   population   • When  age-­‐structured  distributions  are  bottom-­‐heavy,  it  means  the   population  will  grow  in  the  future   • Niche  is  multidimensional  habitat  that  allows  a  species  to  practice  its  way  of   life,  determined  by  abiotic  and  biotic  factors  (distinct  from  habitat:  habitat  is   “address”,  niche  is  “occupation”)   • Resource  partitioning:  species  whose  niches  overlap  may  diverge  to   minimize  the  overlap   • Fundamental  niche  is  always  greater  than  realized  niche   • Mutualisms:  symbioses  that  benefit  both  (facultative=they  don’t  rely  on  each   other  to  survive,  obligate=they  do)   • Antagonisms:  symbioses  where  one  loses  more  than  it  gains  (predation,   herbivory,  parasitism,  competition)   • Commensalism:  benefit  to  one,  neutral  effect  to  other   • Competitive  exclusion:  one  species  is  prevented  from  occupying  a  particular   niche  because  of  an  antagonism   • Keystone  species  has  a  disproportionate  effect  on  their  community  compared   to  their  biomass   • Disturbances  are  good  in  moderation  for  biodiversity   • Succession=species  rebuilding  a  community  after  a  major  disturbance   o Primary=no  soil,  secondary=soil   • Primary  producers  use  sun  and  environment  to  produce  nutrients    which   cycle  and  energy  which  flows  (10%  to  each  trophic  level,  rest  lost  as  heat)   • Know  carbon  and  nitrogen  cycles   • Humans  are  severely  hurting  the  environment  with  global  warming  due  to   burning  of  fossil  fuels  which  adds  CO2  to  the  atmosphere  and  causes  ocean   acidification  and  nitrogen  fertilizer  which  causes  dead  zones  in  coastal   oceans  


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