Biology 1060 (General Biology II) Final Exam Study Guide
Biology 1060 (General Biology II) Final Exam Study Guide Bio 1060
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1060 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Thole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Exam 1 • Genotype: an organism’s genetic makeup • Phenotype: the physical manifestation of an organism’s genes, is affected by environment • Mutations do not arise in response to events; rather, they already exist in a population and those organisms that have advantageous mutations survive better and therefore become the new most common genotype in the gene pool • Germ-‐line mutations are important to evolution, but most cancers result from somatic mutations o Germ-‐line mutations: mutations in gametes (can be passed on) o Somatic mutations: mutations in somatic cells (can’t be passed on to offspring) o Silent mutations: do not affect organism o Point mutation: mutation in one nucleotide pair o Deletion: some of the genetic code is absent from the genome • Delta32 allele of CCR5 receptor protein makes it harder for HIV virus to get into cells • Heterozygous: AB • Homozygous: AA/BB • Individuals are heterozygous for a gene if they developed form a sperm and egg that carried different alleles • Most mutations have no effect on overall health because they reside in non-‐ coding DNA • With gel electrophoresis, simply regard one row as allele A and one as allele B • Hardy-‐Weinberg: p+q=1, p^2+q^2+2pq = 1 o P is allele frequency for dominant allele, q is frequency of recessive allele • Most speciation is likely allopatric because gene flow between populations prevents genetic divergence in sympatric speciation. • Monophyletic: includes all ancestors • Paraphyletic: includes all ancestors but not all descendants • Polyphyletic: includes some descendants but not all ancestors • Females choosing males is intrasexual selection, not intersexual selection, which is competition within one sex • Mutation is the only source of genetic variation • Know the types of barriers (pre and post), as well as genetic drift and bottleneck effect and founder effect Exam 2 • Horizontal gene transfer happens through conjugation • Vertebrates are distinguished from other chordates by a protective cranium in all vertebrates • • Protostomes: first opening becomes the mouth • Deuterostomes: second opening becomes the mouth • Amniotic egg was such a significant evolutionary trait because it removed the dependence on water for reproduction • Ascomycetes: can be single celled or multicellular, have karyogamy and meiosis take place in the ascus, have each ascus produce 8 spores, and have ascocarps made of dikaryotic hyphae, but sexual reproduction DOES NOT occur in the conidia • Mitotic cell division in unicellular eukaryotes can result in a cell that is either 1n or 2n, depending on whether the organism lives predominantly as a haploid or diploid • Multicellular organisms whose cells are highly differentiated and organized into distinct interior and exterior tissue layers are most likely complex multicellular organisms. • Homo sapiens first inhabited Africa then migrated to other parts of the Earth • The most diverse group of Arthropods are the insects • Mollusks do not secrete shells of calcium phosphate. • Know the symmetry of each group in the above table Exam 3 • The roots of a small grass plant growing through the soil that run into large rocks directly beneath it will have the root apical meristem stop growing, but lateral roots will grow from the pericycle and grow outwards from the initial root. • Monocot root layers from outside to inside: epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular tissue, pith • Seeds become plants because the seed contains the embryo, which is the diploid sporophyte, and during germination mitotic cell divisions take place to produce primary growth from the root and shoot apical meristems • The pith of root tissue is primarily used for storage • The plant embryo in a seed has a shoot apical meristem and a root apical meristem • Water transport in xylem depends on hydrogen bonding between H2O molecules. • With the removal of gravity, plant roots will begin to grow outward and upward more than they would with gravity. • Maryland Mammoth experiments could not have been done in the tropics because daylength does not change much throughout the year and is never shorter than the critical period • Removing sugars from phloem does not increase turgor pressure at the sink • Angiosperms contain vessels as their primary form of water transport • Phloem, unlike xylem, is made up of cells that are still metabolically active. • Know the life cycles of mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms Ecology • Three key features of a population are size (N), geographic range, and population density • 3 types of dispersals: random, clumped, and overdispersed/uniform • per capita growth rate (r) is the change in N over the change in time, all divided by the initial N • Exponential growth is when resources are unlimited and predators aren’t around (never exists for long in nature) • R-‐selected species reproduce a lot and invest little in young, tend to be type 3 survivorship curve (death most likely in young) • K-‐selected species reproduce a little and invest a lot in their young (humans), tend to be type 1 survivorship curve (death most likely in old) • Type 2 curve means death rate is constant throughout life • Intraspecific competition is competition within a species • Interspecific competition is competition between multiple species • Carrying capacity (K) is maximum number of individuals a habitat can support • Density-‐dependent factors: factors that are more prevalent when density is high • Density-‐independent factors: factors that do not depend on density of population • When age-‐structured distributions are bottom-‐heavy, it means the population will grow in the future • Niche is multidimensional habitat that allows a species to practice its way of life, determined by abiotic and biotic factors (distinct from habitat: habitat is “address”, niche is “occupation”) • Resource partitioning: species whose niches overlap may diverge to minimize the overlap • Fundamental niche is always greater than realized niche • Mutualisms: symbioses that benefit both (facultative=they don’t rely on each other to survive, obligate=they do) • Antagonisms: symbioses where one loses more than it gains (predation, herbivory, parasitism, competition) • Commensalism: benefit to one, neutral effect to other • Competitive exclusion: one species is prevented from occupying a particular niche because of an antagonism • Keystone species has a disproportionate effect on their community compared to their biomass • Disturbances are good in moderation for biodiversity • Succession=species rebuilding a community after a major disturbance o Primary=no soil, secondary=soil • Primary producers use sun and environment to produce nutrients which cycle and energy which flows (10% to each trophic level, rest lost as heat) • Know carbon and nitrogen cycles • Humans are severely hurting the environment with global warming due to burning of fossil fuels which adds CO2 to the atmosphere and causes ocean acidification and nitrogen fertilizer which causes dead zones in coastal oceans
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