Microbiology Final Study Guide
Microbiology Final Study Guide Microbiology 210
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Microbiology 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elizabeth McPherson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 312 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Skin infections Rocky Mountain Chicken Pox / Folliculitis Measles Spotted Fever Shingles Causative Agent Staphylococcus Rickettsia rickettsii Varicella-‐Zoster virus Rubeola (epidermis or aureus) Organism Characteristics Gram+ cocci that collect in a Intracellular, Gram-‐, Helical nucleocapsid, envelope , Icosahedral, enveloped, DNA ‘grape cluster’ formation coccobacillus ssRNA Reservoir Mucous membranes, skin Rodents (zoonosis) Other people, highly infectious People, highly contagious Mode of Transmission Direct contact and fomites Biological vector: ticks Respiratory droplets and direct Respiratory droplets contact through lesion fluid Portal of Entry Sebaceous gland of hair follicle Parenteral Respiratory tract Back of the throat Organism’s Virulence Only aureus is virulent: Hemagglutinin (attachment) Factors coagulase, hyaluronidase, and viral fusion protein to enter staphyloskinase, lipases, Protein Not killed by host cells Latency, envelope, DNA cells and force membrane A, slime layer fusion with other cells How Organism Affects Body Causes damage to blood cells forms pimple, sty (edge of eyelid), furuncle (boils), or which results in loss of fluid, Temporary vision problems, CTL’s kill infected cells and low blood volume, reduced flow hearing loss, paralysis of face, carbuncle (escalation of to organs, disordered tissue ongoing pain cause the symptoms furuncle) function and thrombocytopenia Signs and Symptoms Fever, lesions covering the body Fever, sore throat, dry cough, Red, swollen pustules show up Non-‐itchy, spotted rash and at the area of infection petechiae form papules which then scab conjunctivitis, Koplik spots, over and fall off raised lesions/rash on skin Sequelae Scarring, may develop into Respiratory, CNA, GI, and renal Development of Shingles later MRSA (if the strain doesn’t system failure, encephalitis, and in life. Tissue damage as a result y infections common, more severe the second time respond to antibiotics) death of the immune response Epidemiology S. epidermis is part of normal Common in Appalachia, Highly contagious. Seen in Very contagious. Infants, flora, and S. aureus is very Oklahoma, and the children mostly, is more severe pregnant women, common as well southeastern US in adults immunocompromised people Diagnosis Positive coagulase test points to Rash on palms and soles, Via signs. Koplik spots in the virulent S. aureus infection, while negative indicates sudden fever, headache Tell-‐tale lesions and mouth, look like grains of salt following exposure to ticks surrounded by red ‘halo’ opportunistic S. epidermis Treatment Remove tick, administer Chickenpox – none required Administration of Vitamin A, Drainage of the infection and administering antibiotics doxycycline, tetracycline, or Shingles – bedrest, loose-‐fitting antibodies against measles chloramphenicol bandages covering lesions virus, and ribavirin Prevention Hygienic practices and infected Avoid tick infested areas and Attenuated vaccines: Varivax person contact precautions frequent tick checks for children and Zostavax for Live, attenuated vaccine those 60 and older Cardiovascular infections Lyme Disease Malaria Mononucleosis Causative Agent Human Herpes virus 4, Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmodium species Epstein-‐Barr virus Organism Characteristics Exoerythrocytic cycle Gram-‐ spirochete with endoflagella Erythrocytic cycle Enveloped ds DNA virus Sporogenic cycle Reservoir White footed mouse (zoonosis) Monkeys (zoonosis) Other people Mode of Transmission Biological Vector: ticks Anopheles mosquitos Saliva Portal of Entry Parenteral Blood stream Oral Organism’s Virulence Lacks iron-‐containing enzymes, changes Red blood cell replication, adhesins, Latency, causing lifelong infection. Lytic Factors outer surface proteins which confuses merozoites replication immune system and endotoxin How Organism Affects Body Can go dormant for a while. Most of Extreme fever, large scale erythrocyte Infects epithelial cells of pharynx or signs and symptoms are caused by lysis, renal failure, and dark urine, small salivary glands. Virions released into the immune response to bacterial presence hemorrhages, tissue death bloodstream Signs and Symptoms Vast array, but generally three main Fever, chills, diarrhea, headache, stages. Red ‘bull’s eye’ rash, neurological pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction , Sore throat, fever, weakness. Swollen lymph nodes, spleen, night sweats (10% of cases) then severe arthritis anemia, weakness, fatigue Sequelae Immunity gradually develops if victim Causes B lymphocytes for become Rarely if ever fatal survives acute stages immortal (can lead to B cell lymphomas) Epidemiology Concentrated in the Northeast and Areas with high temperature, humidity Children sometimes, but prevalent in upper Midwest and rainfall. teens and 20’s Diagnosis Signs and symptoms, followed by Case history, and plasmodium species in B lymphocytes with atypical nuclei. detection of organisms or antibodies in the blood blood smears Antibodies to EBV (monospot test) Treatment Doxycycline or penicillin for first phase, Chloroquine, mefloquine, antifever meds Relief of symptoms. Takes two to four difficult to treat later and occasionally blood transfusions weeks. Biggest danger is ruptured spleen Prevention Avoid ticks, use bug spray, wear long Limit contact with mosquitos, Prevention almost impossible pants, etc. prophylactic drugs Respiratory infections Tuberculosis Streptococcal Diseases Influenza Causative Agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Streptococcus & S. pyogenes Orthomyxovirus Organism Characteristics Gram+ rod with mycolic acid Gram+ facultatively anaerobic ssRNA genome, enveloped Reservoir Humans Humans Birds, pigs, etc. (zoonosis) Mode of Transmission Respiratory droplets Respiratory droplets Droplet, airborne, or fomites Portal of Entry Inhalation Inhalation Inhalation Organism’s Virulence Mycolic acid: Slow growth, protected M protein, hyaluronic acid capsule, Lytic replication cycle, envelope, Factors from phagocytosis, intracellular growth streptokinases, C5a peptidase, glycoprotein spikes (neuraminidase and Cord factor Pyrogenic toxins, Streptolysins hemagglutinin) How Organism Affects Body Tubercles form in lungs over several Infects throat, can cause strep throat Epithelial cells are lysed, patient months, collagen fibers enclose tubercle. Cavity forms and immune and bronchitis if normal microbiota is susceptible to secondary bacteria l depleted. SP can occasionally break infection. Cytokines from immune system reaches stalemate. When it through mucous membranes response cause symptoms breaks bacteria enter bloodstream Signs and Symptoms Cough and fever progress to symptoms Red pharynx, swollen lymph nodes, corresponding to the complications purulent abscesses, fever, malaise, Pharyngitis, congestion, fever, dry arising from wherever the bacteria are laryngitis, bronchitis, cough, malaise, headache, myalgia deposited in secondary infection glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever Sequelae Move from blood vessels to lymphatic Scarlet fever develops from a certain system and are carried to bone marrow, strain of S. pyogenes when pyrogenic Secondary bacterial infection spleen, kidneys, spinal cord, or brain toxins are released Epidemiology Kills four people each minute, mostly is Changing antigens, there will always be Asia and Africa. Those with lowered Children most susceptible susceptible people. Young, elderly, and immunity at highest risk immunocompromised are at risk Diagnosis Skin test, chest X-‐ray, sputum sample Strep test, serological testing Signs and symptoms during community with acid-‐fast cells present outbreak Treatment Common antimicrobials don’t work Antiviral therapy, must be started early because it grows so slowly. Have to beSensitive to antimicrobials: penicillin to be effective. Tamiflu and Relenza slowly released Prevention BCG attenuated vaccine. Not common Keep sick children isolated and treat in the US because disease is not Immunization with multivalent vaccine prevalent immediately to avoid Rheumatic fever Nervous system Bacterial meningitis Viral meningitis Causative Agent Over 50 species (some opportunistic) Enterovirus Organism Characteristics N. meningitides – Gram-‐ diplococcus S. pneumoniae – Gram+ coccus Small, non-‐enveloped, RNA Reservoir Humans Humans Mode of Transmission Respiratory droplets Fecal contamination of food and sometimes respiratory secretions Portal of Entry To meninges via bloodstream Infect GI tract or lungs, then bloodstream Organism’s Virulence NM: Capsule, fimbriae, and lipooligosaccharide Factors SP: IgA protease, capsule, phosphorylcholine Viruses can cross blood brain barrier more easily How Organism Affects Body Inflames spinal meninges, puts pressure on Spreads from blood to lymph system, then surrounding nerves and muscles, neck grows stiff and some sensory and motor control affected crosses blood-‐brain barrier. Kills cells in meninges Signs and Symptoms Encephalitis, Increase in white blood cells in More mild than bacterial meningitis but cerebrospinal fluid, petechiae , sudden fever, and headache is worse, fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, meningeal inflammation confusion, nausea Sequelae 100% of untreated cases lead to death Death is rare Epidemiology NM – children and young adults Very common and very contagious. Neonates are SP – age extremes, babies and old people at highest risk of morbidity and mortality Diagnosis Culturing bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid tap Signs of meningitis with no bacteria in CSF. Blood Serological tests for antibody presence tests also available Treatment Antimicrobial drugs Bed rest, fluids, medication for symptoms Prevention NM: MPSV4 (Menomune) MCV4 (Menveo, Menactra) Hard to prevent, so just wash your hands SP: PPV (Pneumovax) PCV (Prevnar 13) STI/STD Gonorrhea Chlamydia Genital Warts Causative Agent Neisseria gonorrhoeae Chlamydia trachomatis Papillomaviridae Organism Characteristics Gram – diplococci Gram-‐, intracellular obligate, nonmotile Non-‐enveloped, DNA viruses Susceptible to drying Reservoir Humans Humans Humans Mode of Transmission Sexually transmitted (direct contact) Sexually transmitted (direct contact) Direct contact and fomites Portal of Entry Urethra, vagina, and anus Mucous membranes Urethra, vagina, and anus Organism’s Virulence Fimbriae, capsule, Lipooligosaccharide, Most common sexually transmitted Extremely contagious. Most common Factors IgA Protease, multiply in neutrophils BACTERIUM in the US sexually transmitted DISEASE in the US How Organism Affects Body Adhere to mucous membranes of Elementary body attaches to receptor to Low risk: doesn’t cause cancer. Causes genital, urinary, and digestive tracts. trigger endocytosis, then reticulate body genital warts Attach to cervix (not vagina) and to replicated inside vesicle. Convert back High risk: integrate into human sperm via fimbriae. Infection during into EB’s, lyse the cell and infect chromosomes. Linked to many cancers, childbirth can lead to blindness neighboring cells. especially cervical Signs and Symptoms Men: urethritis, discharge from penis, Most people do not experience signs Development of warts within 3 to 4 scarring of prostate and symptoms. Men may experience months after infection, however many Women: 50-‐80% asymptomatic, burning urination, yellow or bloody discharge discharge or burning urination. HPV infections never ex hibit this sign Sequelae Men: may result in infertility Can lead to sterility, pelvic inflammatory Women: could lead to infertility or pelvic disease, and ectopic pregnancy . Makes a ment of cervical, anal, vaginal, penile, and oral cancers inflammatory disease point of entry for other pathogens Epidemiology Adolescents with multiple sexual Most prevalent in women less than 20 6.2 million new cases every year in the partners in the southeast. More years old because the cervix isn’t fuUnited States. More than half of sexually common in males matured yet active adults are infected Diagnosis Gram-‐ diplococci in penal discharge. Chlamydial DNA found in cells at site ofAbnormal PAP smear results, DNA Asymptomatic people can be diagnosed with commercially available probes infection probes, other observation Treatment Treatment with two antibiotics at the Warts removed (however viruses often Doxycycline or Erythromycin for 21 days same time remain in surrounding tissue) Prevention Reinfection is common. Surface antigens Condoms provide some protection, but not always effective as they can cause Gardasil are variable. Condom use is effective abrasions
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