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Essay Outline

by: Clara Wimberly

Essay Outline HI 1073

Clara Wimberly

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About this Document

outline of essay for final
Modern US History
Alison Greene
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clara Wimberly on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HI 1073 at Mississippi State University taught by Alison Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Modern US History in History at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
Essay 1 (20 points) The first essay addresses material covered since the second midterm (from the Women’s  Movement to the new millennium). You will choose one of the following two prompts to answer in essay form (4­5 paragraphs). Elaborate on each example with specific supporting details.  1. Both the Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s Movement balanced an emphasis  on rights with an increasing focus on liberation. Choose one of these movements.  Explain the difference between rights and liberation in the movement, and explain the movement’s gradual shift from an emphasis on rights to liberation. i. Intro ii. Body 1: The beginning of the movement 1. Brown v. Board of Education 1954 a. The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v.  Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, unanimously  agreeing that segregation in public schools is constitutional. The ruling paves the way for large­scale desegregation, The decision overturns the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that  sanctioned “separate but equal” segregation of the races,  ruling that “separate educational facilities are inherently  unequal.” It is a victory for NAACP attorney, Thurgood  Marshall, who will later return to the Supreme Court as the  nation’s first black justice.  2. Rosa Parks a. December 1, 1955 b. (Montgomery, Ala.) NAACP member Rosa Parks refuses  to give up her seat at the front of the "colored section" of a  bus to a white passenger, defying a southern custom of the  time. In response to her arrest the Montgomery black  community launches a bus boycott, which will last for more than a year, until the buses are desegregated Dec. 21, 1956.  As newly elected president of the Montgomery  Improvement Association (MIA), Reverend Martin Luther  King, Jr., is instrumental in leading the boycott. 3. Little Rock 1957 a. (Little Rock, Ark.) Formerly all­white Central High School  learns that integration is easier said than done. Nine black  students are blocked from entering the school on the orders  of Governor Orval Faubus. President Eisenhower sends  federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on  behalf of the students, who become known as the "Little  Rock Nine." 4. Sit in (Greensboror, N.C. ) 1960 a. On Feb. 1, 1960 four black freshmen at North Carolina  A&T State University, Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil,  Ezell Blair, Jr., and David Richmond, took seats at the  segregated lunch counter of F. W. Woolworth's in  Greensboro, N.C. They were refused service and sat  peacefully until the store closed. They returned the next  day, along with about 25 other students, and their requests  were again denied. The Greensboro Four inspired similar  sit­ins across the state and by the end of February, such  protests were taking place across the South. Finally in July,  Woolworth's integrated all of its stores. The four have  become icons of the civil rights movement. 5. SNCC 1960 a. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)  is founded at Shaw University, providing young blacks  with a place in the civil rights movement. 6. Ole Miss, James Meredith 1962 a. James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at  the University of Mississippi. Violence and riots  surrounding the incident cause President Kennedy to send  5,000 federal troops. iii. Body 2: Turning Point 1968 1. Martin Luther King, Jr., was an American clergyman and civil  rights leader who was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in  Memphis, Tennessee, on Thursday, April 4, 1968, at the age of 39.  King was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital, where he was  pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. that evening. He was a prominent  leader of the Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize  laureate who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil  disobedience. 2. King received frequent death threats due to his prominence in the  Civil Rights Movement. He had confronted the risk of death and  made that recognition part of his philosophy. He taught that  murder could not stop the struggle for equal rights. After the  assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1963 Dr. King  told his wife, Coretta, "This is what is going to happen to me also.  I keep telling you, this is a sick society." iv. Body 3: Aftermath 1. Black Panthers a. The Black Panthers were formed in California in 1906 and  even though their time in the civil rights movement was  short, it was also very important.  b. The Black Panthers believed that the non­violent campaign  of MLK had failed and any promised changes to their  lifestyle via the “traditional” civil rights movement, would  tak too long to be implemented or simply just not  introduced. c. The language of the Black Panthers was violent as was  their public stance. They were willing to use violence to get what they wanted.  d. The Black Panther Party became notorious for advocating  armed self­defense in response to police brutality. The  party demanded the release of black prisoners because of  racism in the criminal justice system.  v. Conclusion:  1. Conclude with your own opinion and connection of how thr  movement of rights moved into a movement of liberation after  MLKs death. 


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