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psych final exam

by: Hannah Zikria

psych final exam PSYC 1001

Hannah Zikria

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complete notes for the final exam
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Zikria on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Benbassat in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
VOCAB: Social psychology=the branch of psych which studies social values’ effects on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions and motives as well as studying groups and intergroup phenomena. Social cognition=the process where people select, interpret, and remember social info. Social perception=process where a person comes to know or perceive personal attributes. Covariation model=theory suggest people attribute a behavior to a causal factor if it was present whenever the behavior occurred but absent when it did not occur FAE=dual-tendency of observers to underestimate impact of situational factors and overestimate dispositional factors’ influence on one’s behavior Self-serving bias=attributional bias where people tend to take credit for successes &deny responsibility for failure Self-fulfilling prophecy=prediction about future behavior or event that modifies interactions to produce expected Social rule=socially-defined behavior pattern that’s expected from one who’s in a certain setting or group Rule=behavior guidelines for acting in certain ways in certain situations Social norm=group expectation for members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors Conformity=peoples’ tendency to adopt behaviors, attitudes, and values of others in a referenced group Informative influence=group effects that come from ind’s desire to be right & understand how to act the best Normative influence=group effects which come from ind’s desire to be liked, accepted and approved of by others Norm crystallization= convergence of group expectations into common perspective as talk & carry out activities Group polarization=groups’ tendency of decision-making to more extremes than would be by individual members Groupthink=tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable/unwanted input to reach consensus Attitude=learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, events and concepts in an evaluative way Persuasion=deliberate efforts made to change attitudes [whether in an individual or a group] Elaboration likelihood model=persuasion theory about likelihood people will focus on their cog. Processes to elaborate on a message & follow the central or peripheral routes to persuasion Cognitive dissonance=theory that tension-producing effects of incongruous cognitions motive people to reduce it Self-perception theory=idea that people observe themselves to figure out why they act the way they do; people infer about their internal states by perceiving how they act in certain, given situations Compliance=change in behavior consistent with a communication source’s direct requests Reciprocity norm=expectation that favors will be returned (if someone does a favor, other should reciprocate) Prejudice= Learned attitude to a target object/person/group involving negative affect [dislike/fear]& negative beliefs/stereotypes that justify attitude and behavioral intention to avoid, control, dominate or eliminate target Social categorization=process by which people organize social env. by categorizing themselves& others in groups In-group= a group with which people do identify Out-group=group with which people do not identify In-group bias= tendency to favor members of their own group over members of other groups Racism=discrimination against people based on skin color/race or ethnic heritage Sexism=discrimination against people because of their sex Stereotype= generalizations about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members Implicit prejudice= exists outside individuals’ conscious awareness Contact hypothesis=prediction that contact between groups reduce prejudice only if features like cooperation toward shared goals are included Aggression= behaviors that cause psychological and/or physical harm to another/others Prosocial behavior= behavior that is carried out in order to/ with the goal of helping others Altruism= prosocial behaviors people do for the better good/to help w/o considering their own safety or interests Impulsive aggression= cog-based, not goal driven uncontrollable actions aimed at harming another/or others; often found in antisocial personality types Instrumental aggression=cog-based and goal-directed aggression carried out w/ premeditated thought Frustration-aggression hypothesis=frustration happens in situations where people are prevented/blocked from attaining their goals; rising frustration leads to greater chance of aggression Reciprocal altruism= idea that people perform altruistic behaviors because they think/expect others to reciprocate Bystander intervention= the willingness to assist/help a person or persons in need of help Responsibility diffusion= in emergencies, the larger the number of bystanders the less responsibility each one feels Social reality construction Attribution theory: origin and uses FAE=> in looking for the cause of a behavior, when one overestimates dispositional factors and underestimates situational factors Self-serving bias: Self-fulfilling prophecy expectations: Power of the situation General rules and the roles of individuals Social norms Customs/culture Conformity Sherif and Autokinetic effect (Daily) conformity Nonconformity Group decision making Authority Obedience/paradigm Test situation (and its effects) Why people obey authority? For fear of the people or situation; Behavior vs. attitude: thoughts/patterns Persuasion processes Persuasion by one’s actions Cognitive dissonance theory; state of conflict after making a decision, carrying out an action or exposure to information that goes against one’s beliefs/values. Festinger=> Theory of self-perception; Complying Prejudice: origins and effects Stereotypes and their effects Reciprocity Love Differences in aggression-> individual vs. situational Prosocial behavior roots; C. Daniel Batson said there are 4 main forces that tend to prompt people to act for the benefit of the public 1. Altruism=> acting in response to a motive to benefit others (ex; a diver who saves a life) 2. Egoism=>performing prosocial behaviors in one’s own self-interest [to be reciprocated] 3. Collectivism=>performing prosocial behaviors to benefit a certain group (like for fam) 4. Principlism=>performing prosocial behavior to uphold moral principles (like civic dut Situational effects on prosocial behavior: Situational forces­>Bibb Latane and John Darley did studies to show bystander effect   Responsibility diffusion Main points Social reality construction  Individuals construct their own social reality  Beliefs and expectations influence social perception  People’s judgments made about the causes of behaviors = Attribution theory  many biases; like the fundamental attribution error, self-serving biases and self-fulfilling prophecies, can enter into attribution and other judgments/behaviors Power of the Situation  assigned to play social role (even in artificial settings) can cause people to act contrary to their beliefs, dispositions and values  groups members’ attitudes and behaviors are shaped by social norms  Sherif and Asch’s classic research showed informational and normative forces that lead to conformity  Minority influences can arise as a consequence of info influence  Milgram’s Obedience studies are powerful significant testimony to how situational factors can lead to ordinary people to sanction and participate in organized aggression Action, Attitude change, and Attitudes  attitudes= + or – evaluations of ideas, events or objects  attitudes must be highly accessible or stable in order to predict behaviors accurately Elaboration likelihood model: central route to persuasion depends on careful analyses of arguments. Whereas the peripheral route depends on superficial features of persuasive situations Dissonance and self-perception theory: take into account attitude formation and changes that start from behavioral acts  people can/do exploit reciprocity, consistency and commitment to cause compliance Prejudice  arbitrary, minimal cues can still yield/lead to prejudice when they define an in and an out-group  stereotypes tend to affect the way people evaluated certain behaviors and information in the world (they’re a part of schematic organization in the brain but can also lead to prejudice if not controlled and refined throughout life)  researchers eliminated some effects of prejudice by making situations where members of different groups have to cooperate and reach shared goals [so the way to overcome prejudices is to work together toward and reach a common goal]  cross-culture studies suggest friendships plays important roles in eliminating prejudice Social relationships  interpersonal attraction determined partly by proximity, similarity, reciprocity, and physical attractiveness  frustration relationships are with respect to passion, intimacy and commitment  the attachment styles in each culture effect quality of relationships Altruism, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior  individual differences in aggressive behavior are reflections of genetics, brain function, and personality profiles  provocation and frustration can lead to aggression  cultures have different norms for aggressive behavior  researchers try to explain/ find explanation for why people engage in prosocial behaviors that don’t directly serve their own interests {for the good of others and humanity on a whole? Maybe it makes them feel better on the inside too? Win-win, or maybe it’s a requirement for them but they should still learn to enjoy it}  evolutionary explanations are focused on reciprocity and kinship  bystander intervention studies show situations and context greatly determine who is likely or unlikely to help in emergency situations


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