Astronomy FINAL Study Guide
Astronomy FINAL Study Guide PHY 1455
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Biekert on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHY 1455 at Baylor University taught by Dwight Russell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 218 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Physics 2 at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
Astronomy Final Study Guide (Thursday, May 5, 9-11am) Aristotle – most associated with the ancient Greek worldview Aristarchus – rejected geocentric world view Eratosthenes – accurately determined size of the Earth Ptolemy – wrote the Almagest (Astronomy textbook for 1400 years) Geocentric model of the Universe – earth is the center of the universe Heliocentric model of the Universe – sun in the center of the universe Copernicus – Heliocentric worldview stuck Tycho Brahe – Last astronomer without a telescope. Provided date for Kepler’s 3 laws Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion 1. shape of an orbit – ellipse (sun is focus) 2. area “swept” by a planet during a specific time is always equal area (planets move faster closer to the sun) 3. longer average distance to sun, longer it takes to go around Galileo – used a telescope and challenged conventional knowledge Telescope observations a. Phases of venus challenged motion of objects b. Moons of Jupiter c. Sunspots d. Mountains on the moon challenged nature of the heavens Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion 1. object at rest or in motion (in a straight line) with continue unless acted on by a net external force = gravity for planets 2. Force = mass x acceleration 3. for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction Universal Law of Gravity F= -GMm/r^2 Light is an electromagnetic wave, oscillating electromagnetic field, travels at the speed of light Frequency x wavelength = velocity (speed) of light Wavelength (short to long) Radio Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-ray Gamma ray Blackbody – perfect emitter and absorber of electromagnetic radiation (idealized object) / can ONLY tell the temperature of an object / hotter is brighter Wien’s Law – shorter wavelength = hotter star Stefan-Boltzman Law – brighter = hotter star Continuous spectrum – rainbow visible spectrum Emission line spectrum – light that a star/object emits shows when passed through a prism (bright/colored lines show) Absorption line spectrum – light that an object absorbs shows when passed through cold gas (dark lines show) Doppler Effect – change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to its source KNOW HR DIAGRAMS (see attached, written page) Low Mass star < 8 to 10 solar masses – becomes planetary nebula/white dwarf High Mass star > 8 to 10 solar masses – supernova Type II/ neutron star and black hole 1. What is the length of Mercury’s solar day? B. It rains sulfuric acid A. 50 Mercury years long C. It's too cold during the night. B. 1 Mercury year long D. Only A and C C. 2 Mercury years long E. None of the above D. 5 Mercury years long 2. What is the large impact crater on Mercury? 8. Why does Mercury have no atmosphere? A. Caloris Basin A. High surface temperature and low mass B. Low surface temperature and low mass B. Mosu Crater C. High surface temperature and high mass D. Low surface temperature and high mass C. Aphrodite Terra 9. Which planet is also geologically dominated by D. Charon impact craters as The Moon? A. Mercury 3. How long does it take Mercury to orbit the Sun? B. Venus A. 88 days B. 118 days C. Mars C. 98 days D. Earth E. Jupiter D. 365 days 4. Mercury's average surface temperature is: A. 510 K 10. How many moons does Mercury have? B. 350 K C. 440 K A. Four D. 475 K B. Seventeen E. 395 K C. None D. Two 5. What is the uniqueness of Mercury's rotation? A. very slow retrograde rotation B. resonance rotation 11. How many Earth days does it take to go from C. period of day is 24.6 hrs (similar to Earth) D. fast differential rotation noon to noon on Mercury? A. 88 Earth days B. 176 Earth days 6. How could Mercury's interior be defined as? C. 264 Earth days D. 100 Earth days A. Large hot iron rich core B. Rocky core C. Cool, ironrich core 12. Mercury has an unusual motion called “resonance D. Very similar to Jupiter's rotation” where every ____ times it orbits the sun, it rotates on its axis ____ times, taking 176 earth days to complete one noon to noon cycle. 7. Why is Mercury incapable of supporting life? A. 1; 4 B. 3; 2 A. It's too hot/dry during the day C. 1; 1 B. Grandious Basin D. 2; 3 C. Caloris Basin D. Grand Canyon 1. Venus has a very unusual type of motion. what is this motion called? 13. What are the cliffs on Mercury called? A. very fast retrograde rotation B. very fast revolution A. Ridges C. very slow retrograde rotation B. Mountains D. very slow revolution C. Scarps D. Peaks 14. What causes the formation of scarps on Mercury? 2. What is the name of Venus' largest mountain? A. Plates shifting A. Maxwell Montes B. Erosion from water C. The cooling and contracting of the planet B. Aphrodite Terra D. Impact from passing debris C. Isthar Terra E. Aliens D. Shield Volcano 15. Mercury has a weak magnetic field. A. True 3. Which of the following are true about Venus B. False A) The temperature does not drop at night B) The temperature changes around the poles 16. Which probe was the first to visit Mercury? C) There is little wind on the ground of Venus D) A & C A. Pioneer 10 B. Mariner 10 C. Ulysses 4. Which gas makes up the largest portion of Venus' D. Voyager 2 atmosphere? E. Galileo A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen 17. Which major moon in our solar system is larger C. Methane than Mercury? D. Carbon Dioxide A. Callisto B. Titania 5. Venus has... C. Triton D. Titan A. the longest rotation period of any planet in the E. Pluto Solar System B. 12 moons C. evidence of life 18. Mercury is what kind of planet? D. second longest distance from the sun A. terrestrial planet B. giant planet 6. Venus is the planet closest to earth in size. C. dwarf planet D. extrasolar planet A. True B. False 19. What is the name of the large crater on Mercury? 7. What is Venus's atmospheric pressure compared to A. Espanos Basin the earth's? A. 1x the pressure B. 25x the pressure 4. What are the layers of the earth in order from the C. 50x the pressure innermost layer to the outermost layer? D. 90x the pressure E. 100x the pressure A. Inner core, outer core, crust, mantle B. Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust C. Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core 8. Venus does not have any moons. D. Crust, mantle, inner core, outer core A) True B) False 5. Weather and clouds occur within ___________ km of the earth's surface. 9. What are the clouds on Venus mostly made up of? A. 20 B. 10 A) Hydrogen C. 100 B) Carbon D. 18 C) Sulfuric Acid D) Water Vapor 6. The ozone layer absorbs _______, while greenhouse gases retain _______. 10. The final changes in the rotations of axis planets generally thought to be caused by? A. oxygen, carbon B. IR radiation, UV radiation C. carbon, oxygen A. Related to the sizes of the local mountains. B. Related to its rotation around the sun D. UV radiation, IR radiation C.Impacts by large meteors D. Rockets from early alien civilizations 7. Earth's interior is not uniform. The materials have been separated by density in a process called.. 1. Why is planet density so important? a) Plate Tectonics A. Because it tells us the mass b) Volcanism B. Because it tell us the composition c) Differentiation d) Convection C. Because it tell us the size of the planet D. Because it tells us the distance between the planet and the sun 8. What is the geological activity that is responsible for Hawaii? 2. What is the name of the geological process that explains the movement of oceanic and continental A. Convergence of two continental plates. plates, causing Earthquakes? B. Subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate. A. Pangaea C. Meteors B. Divergent/Converging Plates D. Lilo & Stitch C. Hot Spots in Hawaii E. Hot Spots D. Plate Tectonics 9. What geological activity is responsible for the Himalayas? 3. Which element primarily makes up Earth's atmosphere? A. Convergence of two continental plates B. Hot Spots A. Carbon Dioxide C. Subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental B. Oxygen C. Argon plate D. Nitrogen D. Meteors E. Caloris Basin D. 100% 8. What is the most noticeable stretching of the mass 10. What percentage of the Earth's surface is land? of the earth due to the gravitational pull by the moon? A) 43% A. magnetic field B. tides in the ocean B) 60% C. solar tides C) 29% D. neap tides D) 20% 9. How fast does the moon travel around the Earth? 1. What kind of rotation does the moon have? A. Resonance Rotation B. Synchronous Rotation A. 3,700 kilometres per hour C. Fast Differential Rotation D. Normal Rotation B. 2,500 kilometers per hour C. 5,630 kilometers per hour 2. How long does it take the moon to orbit Earth? D. 3,500 kilometers per hour A. 24hrs B. 27.3 days C. 48hrs 10. a name for trench like areas on the moon's surface D. 60 days 3. Which of the following is not a prominent feature A. craters of the moon? B. spots C. rills A. maria D. divides B. volcanoes C. highlands D. craters 1. The tallest mountain in the solar system is on 4. How far is the moon from the Earth? _____. A. 5,000,000 Miles B. 250,000 Miles C. 20 Miles A. Earth D. 432,900 Miles B. Mars E. All of the above 5. Who were the first two men on the Moon? C. Venus A. Lance Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin B. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin D. Saturn C. Michael Collins and Neil Armstrong D. Tyco Brahe and Buzz Armstrong 6. Which is not a type of rock found on the moon? 2. Mars’ surface is red, because _________. A. Basalts A. The planet’s surface temperature is over 300 Kelvin B. Anorthosites B. its ironbearing surface minerals are oxidizing C. Breccia D. Granite C. its surface is acidic E. Regolith D. it formed from red star dustE. the planets atmospheric pressure is so high 7. What percentage of the Moon is visible from 3. What temperature does it typically drop at night on Earth? A. 1% mars? B. 2% A. 100˚C B. 69˚C C. 59% C. 0˚C D. 150˚C C. The Great Red Spot 4. Which of the following is correct about Mars? D. The Great Spot A. Mars is the "sister planet" of Earth. B. Mars has similar seasons to Earth. C. Windblown caused a yellow color on the sky of Mars. D. Mars has the biggest mass in Solar system. 2. How many of Jupiter's moons did Galileo discover? 5. What causes the atmosphere of Mars to be more A. 17 responsive to heating and cooling than Earth's atmosphere? A. A lower density B. 4 B. A higher density C. 64 C. Neither both densities are equal D. Higher surface pressure D. 0 6. Which of these planets is volcanically active today or has been volcanically active in their geological past? A. Earth B. Venus 3. What do currents in the interior of Jupiter produce? C. Mars A. Cloud Layers B. Hurricanes D. All of the above C. Magnetic fields Correct: D D. Heat 7. What feature(s) of Mars are most similar to Earth's? A. Its mass B. Its small cool core 4. What is the name of Jupiter's moon that is also the C Its motion and tilt largest in our Solar System? D. Its density and volume A. Ganymede B. Galileo 8. How many moons does Mars have? C. Ulysses A. 1 D. Europa B. 2 C. 3 5. _____ is the largest planet in our solar system. D. none of the above A. Mercury B. Jupiter 9. The maximum temperature on Mars is ______. C. Earth A. 100 degrees F D. Saturn B. 60 degrees F C. 70 degrees F 6. Jupiter has 4 large moons, but how many does it D. 170 degrees F have in total? A. 5 10. What is the mass of Mars? B. 16 A. .27 Earth Masses C. 49 B. .11 Earth Masses D. 67 C. .53 Earth Masses D. 1 Earth Mass 7. Jupiter has 4 large moons, but how many does it 1. What is the large oval in Jupiter's southern hemisphere known as? have in total? A. 5 A. It has no special name. B. 16 B. There is no oval in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. C. 49 6. What is the atmosphere of Venus made up of? A. 75% Hydrogen 25% Helium D. 67 B. 25% Hydrogen 75% helium C. Oxygen D. 33% Oxygen, 47% Nitrogen, 20% Helium 8. What is the primary element composing Jupiter? 7. What is the surface temperature of Saturn? A. Methane a. 97 kelvin B. Hydrogen b. 120 kelvin C. Oxygen c. 58 kelvin D. Carbon d. 85 kelvin 9. What causes the clouds of Jupiter to form bands 8. How many known moons does Saturn have? around the planet? A. 12 A. Its Orbital Path B. 21 B. Its Distance from the sun C. 54 C. The planets rapid rotation D. 62 D. The planets intense gravity 9. How many earth years does it take to make one year 10. What are the strongest winds on Jupiter? on Saturn? A. Westerly winds A. One B. Easterly winds B. Sixteen C. None since there is no gravity C. TwentyNine D. Equatorial westerlies D. Eighty E. Negative eastern winds 1. What gives Uranus and Neptune their color? 1. How would you describe the rings surrounding A. lack of atmosphere Saturn? B. carbon monoxide A. Extremely Thick C. methane B. Dim, Slightly Visible to a Telescope D. hydrogen gas C. Bright, Wide, and Thin E. ice crystals D. Uniform 2. Which Jovian planet(s) have a rocky core 2. What do Saturn's rings consist of? surrounded by a "slush" layer? A. Water ice A) Neptune B. Gaseous elements B) Saturn C. Asteroids C) Uranus D. Mere light D) A and C E) All of the above 3. The highest wind speed ever recorded on Saturn was: 3. What is remarkable about the rotation of Uranus? A. 1025 mph a) its rotation period is very long (about 12 years) B. 100 mph b) its rotation axis lies in its orbital plane C. 560 mph c) its rotation axis always points at the sun D. 835 mph d) its rotation period varies from year to year 4. In addition to the heat remaining from the planet's 4. Which of the following planets has a moon with an formation, how is heat is also generated? atmosphere and is named Triton? A. Helium Precipitation A. Venus B. the Sun B. Mercury C. Saturn's rings C. Neptune D. the surface temperature\ D. Uranus E. Mars 5. How does Saturn compare to Jupiter? A. it is less massive but has more colorful clouds 5. What trace gas gives Neptune its blue color? B. it is more massive and has more colorful clouds A. Hydrogen C. it is more massive but has less colorful clouds B. Oxygen D. it is less massive and has less colorful clouds C. Methane D. Beryllium A. 1 B. 2 6. Each season on Neptune lasts how many Earth C. 5 years? D. 6 A. 30 E. 7 B. 20 C. 40 6. Due to its elliptical orbit, Pluto is sometimes closer D. 50 to the Sun than is ____. A. Jupiter 7. Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun. B. Uranus A. True C. Neptune B. False D. Saturn 8. What are the characteristic of Neptune's moon, 7. What was the first object to be discovered in Triton? the Kuiper belt? A) thick oxygen atmosphere and deep craters A. Planet X B) orange tint and milehigh mountains B. Pluto C) thin nitrogen atmosphere and ice volcanoes C. Jupiter's moons D) lakes of liquid gallium and intense humidity D. Neptune 9. Which moon has features that suggest that it has 8. Which of the following is the only known dwarf one broke apart and reformed? planet that is located in the Asteroid Belt? A. Charon A. Pluto B. Triton B. Ceres C. Europa C. Eris D. Miranda D. Haumea E. Makemake 10. Due to its extremely low orbit speed, Neptune has only orbited the sun _____ time(s) since its discovery 9. Planet X is presumed to be the size of... in 1846. A). Pluto A. 1 B). Neptune C). Earth B.2 D). Saturn C. 4 D. 10 E). Venus 1. An object in space has to be round to be considered 10. What telescope took the best image of Pluto and Charon? a planet A. True A. Pluto Telescope B. False B. The Great Telescope C. Charon Telescope 2. How many moons does Pluto have? D. Hubble Space Telescope E. We have no images of Pluto and Charon A. 2 B. 5 C. 12 1. What is an exoplanet? D. 0 A. A planet orbiting around a star other than the Sun B. A planet without moons C. A planet with extraterrestrial life 3. The space probe that made the closest approach to Pluto in July of 2015 is D. A desolate planet A. New Horizons B. Voyager 2. Between which two planets in our solar system does the main asteroid belt lie? C. MESSENGER A. Earth and Mars D. Mariner B. Mars and Jupiter 4. Are both Ceres and Pluto dwarf planets? C. Uranus and Neptune A. True D. Jupiter and Saturn B. False 3. What is the age of the oldest confirmed Exoplanet? 5. The International Astronomical Union recognizes A. 10 Million Years how many Dwarf Planets in the solar system so far? B. 15 Million Years C. 2 Billion Years 7. True/False: Asteroids can have small companion D. 6 Billion Years moons and are known as asteroidmoon systems. E. 13 Billion Years A. True B. False 4. Which of the following is NOT a type of exoplanet? 8. What is an Oort cloud? A. Lava A. a cluster of asteroids B. Purple B. a swarm of comets far from the sun C. Ice C. the cloud a meteor produces in the atmosphere D. Mega Earth D. the same as a coma of a comet 5. What is the density of Ice Objects? 9. When does a comet have the longest tail and largest A. >5000 kg/m 3 coma? B. 2000 kg/m 3 A. when it is nearest the sun 3 C. 1500 or less kg/m B. when it is moving most slowly D. 30004000 kg/m 3 C. when it crosses the ecliptic D. When it is 1 AU from the sun 6. Which best describes a comet? A. a celestial object consisting of a nucleus of ice and 10. Approximately how large must a meteoroid be in dust and, when near the sun, a “tail” of gas and dust order to survive passage through the atmosphere and particles pointing away from the sun appear reach the ground as a meteorite? B. rocky objects that size is not dominated by gravity A. as big as the size of a car C. close to the sun, closely spaced orbits, small B. as big as a penny masses C. as big as a fist D. far from sun, widely spaced orbits, large masses D. as big as a house
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