Biology Final Review
Biology Final Review biology 1362
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaisatrimiar on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to biology 1362 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Ann Cheek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Comprehensive Final Exam Chapters 9 – 16, 18, 20-21, 23.1, 24.4, 25.1, Figures 26.2, 26.15, 26.16, 27.5, 27.10, 40, 41, 42 Format: 42 questions Vocabulary: Study vocabulary listed on study guides for each unit Concepts Heredity: Chapters 9 – 12 Mitosis in eukaryotes: Identify the ploidy level at the beginning and end of cell division; Name the 5 phases and describe the events in each phase, including what happens to chromosomes, nucleus, and cytoskeleton o Prophase: (2n) Nucleoli disappear Chromosomes: coil tightly. Appear are sister chromatids. 2 ndcentrosome forms Spindle forms Centrosomes begin to move away from each other o Prometaphase (2n) Nuclear envelope breaks down Each chromatid has a kinetochore Centromeres are at opposite poles Spindle microtubules enter nuclear space Some attach to kinetochores Others interact with microtubules from opposite poles Spindle fibers that don’t attach to kinetochores push the cell o Metaphase (2n) Chromosomes are in the center of the cell Kinetochore of each chromatid is attached to microtubule from opposite pole Centrosomes at opposite poles REQUIRES A LOT OF ATP! o Anaphase: (2n) Sister chromatids separate Kinetochore microtubules shorten Daughter chromosomes move toward poles Shortest stage of mitosis o Telophase (2n) Nuclear envelope reforms, making 2 nuclei Chromosomes relax Nucleoli reappear Spindle microtubules depolymerize 1 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 o Cytokinesis: (2n) Cytoplasm is separated Animal cell: Cleavage furrow forms inside cell membranes Actin & myosin microfilaments contract Pinches membrane inward, making 2 complete cell membranes Plant cell: Vesicles containing cellulose move to center of cell Cell plate fuses with plasma membrane Cell wall separates 2 cells Process of meiosis: Name the phases of meiosis I, describe the events of each phase, identify the ploidy level of cells at the end of meiosis I. Name the phases of meiosis II, describe the events of each phase, identify the ploidy level of cells at the end of meiosis II. Indicate when homologous chromosomes separate and when sister chromatids separate during meiosis. o Meiosis I: Prophase I (2n) Homologous chromosomes are held together by synaptonemal complex Crossing over occurs Produces recombinant chromosomes Nuclear envelope breaks down Spindle forms and microtubules attach to kinetochores Metaphase I (2n) Kinetochores of homologs are attached to microtubules from opposite poles Anaphase I (2n) Homologs separate Homologs move along spindle to opposite poles. Telophase I: (n) (2) 1n cells (2) Sister chromatids per chromosomes Complete haploid set of chromosomes at each pole. o Meiosis II Prophase II (n) New spindle forms Microtubules attach to kinetochores Metaphase II (n) Sister chromatids align in center Kinetochores attach to microtubules from opposite poles Anaphase II (n) 2 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Chromatids separate and move along spindle to opposite poles Telophase II & Cytokinesis (n) Nuclear envelope reforms Chromosomes relax Cytoplasm is divided Results in (4) 1n daughter cells – not genetically identical due to crossing over Explain what occurs during crossing over o Genetic rearrangement between non-sister chromatids involving the exchange of corresponding segments of DNA molecules. Products of meiosis: Name the products of meiosis and describe their chromosome content and their genetic make-up compared to each other o Meiosis I: 2 non-identical cells. Sister chromatids in each cell o Meiosis II: 4 non-identical cells. 1 chromosome in each cell. Key Study Methods: Be able to identify the type of cell division from a diagram. DRAW each stage of each process for a cell with 2n = 4. Make flash-cards of the diagrams in Fig. 9.7 and Fig. 10.8. Compare and contrast mitosis, meiosis I and meiosis II. Fill in text descriptions in a chart similar to the one below. Mitosis Meiosis I Meiosis II Ploidy level 2n 2n n BEFORE division 1 stage 2n 2n n 2ndstage 2n 2n n rd 3thtage 2n 2n n 4 stage 2n n n 5 stage 2n n n Product – number 2 genetically 2 non identical n 4 non identical n of cells identical 2n cells cells cells. Genetic make-up Define gene, locus, and allele. Know how many alleles an individual diploid organism can have for each locus. o Gene: discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in DNA o Locus: a specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located. o Allele: any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotype effects. 3 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Explain why the number of alleles per gene in an individual can be different from the number of alleles per gene in a population o Individual animals: each chromosome contains 1 allele per gene. A pair of homologous chromosomes may have the same alleles or may have 2 different alleles for the gene o Population: within a population, many different alleles may exist for one gene Identify dominant, recessive, co-dominant, wild-type, mutant, and sex-linked modes of inheritance from the notation (ebample: A is the dominant allele, a is the recessive allele, X indicates a sex- linked recessive trait) o Dominant: an allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote o Recessive: an allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote o Co-dominant: the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways. o Wild-type: the phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the individual with that phenotype. o Mutant: alternatives to the wild type due to alleles assumed to have originated as changes, or mutations, in the wild-type allele. o Sex-linked gene: a gene located on either sex chromosome Y linked genes: genes on Y chromosome X linked genes: genes on X chromosome Analyze a pedigree to determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive and calculate the probability of a dominant, recessive, or sex-linked trait being inherited by a son or daughter o Open square: male o Circle: female o Shading = this individual has the trait – affected o If both parents have a recessive trait, the only possible genotype for an offspring is recessive (ex. aa) o 2 heterozygous parents with a dominant trait can have a child with the recessive trait Use a Punnett square to figure out possible gamete genotype and progeny genotypes for autosomal and X-linked traits Key Study Method: Solve practice problems: Chapter 11 Concept Check questions: 11.1 Q’s 1 – 3; 11.2 Q’s 1 – 3; and Test Your Understanding: Q1-4, 6-12, 16-18, 20; Chapter 12 Concept Check Questions: 12.1 Q2, 12.2 Q1, Q3, 12.3 Q1 & Q2; Summary of Key Concepts: Concept 12.2 question; Test Your Understanding: Q1, Q2, Q5; Re-work homework problems in Mastering Biology 4 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 DNA: Chapters 13, 14, 15, 16.1 & 18.6 Apply complementary base pairing & anti-parallel arrangement of the 2 DNA helices to predict the sequence of one strand from the other Mechanics of DNA replication: Describe the molecules involved, the steps of the process on the leading strand and on the lagging strand o Origin of replication: short stretches of DNA having a specific sequence where the DNA double helix splits apart o Replication fork; a y shaped region where the parental strands of DNA are being unwound o Helicases: enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands o Topoisomerase: helps relieve the strain by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands o Primase: enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to MAKE primer during DNA replication, using the parental DNA strand as a template o Primer: a short stretch of RNA with a free 3’ end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand and elongated with the DNA nucleotides during DNA replication As soon as the replication bubble opens, the two primers for the leading strand are produced!! o DNA polymerase: catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a preexisting chain. o Leading and lagging strands What is the basis for the difference in how the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules are synthesized? DNA polymerase can join new nucleotides only to the 3’ end of a growing strand The elongation of the leading strand during DNA synthesis: depends on the action of DNA polymerase o Okazaki fragments: short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication. Many such segments are joined together to make up the lagging strand of a newly synthesized DNA o DNA Ligase: a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication. Catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3’ end of one DNA fragment to the 5’ end of another DNA fragment. Links okazaki fragments held together by phosphodiester bond Know and apply complementary base pairing of DNA & RNA nucleotides and anti-parallel arrangement of RNA in relation to DNA o U instead of T in RNA Know the number of bases in a codon o 3 Know where translation begins on the mRNA (5’ or 3’ end?) 5 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 o 5’ Use codon table (will be provided) to figure out which amino acids are coded for by a given DNA or mRNA sequence Mechanics of transcription: Describe the molecules involved, the steps of the process, and location within the cell o Transcription: copying DNA information to messenger RNA o RNA polymerase: enzyme pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins together RNA nucleotides complementary to the DNA template strand elongating the RNA polynucleotide. Don’t need a primer. Binds to the promoter. Can assemble a polynucleotide ONLY in its 5’ 3’ direction. They are able to start a chain from scratch, don’t need a primer. Bacteria: RNA polymerase itself specifically recognizes and binds to the promoters Eukaryotes: transcription factors mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription. Only after transcription factors are attached to the promoter does RNA polymerase bind to it. o Promoter: The DNA sequence where the RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription. Transcription start point: the nucleotide where RNA synthesis actually begins o 1. Initiation: after RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand o 2. Elongation: the polymerase moves downstream, unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5’ 3’. Enzyme adds nucleotide to the 3’ end of the growing RNA molecule DNA double helix reforms o 3. Termination: Prokaryotes: termination sequence on DNA Eukaryotes: AAUAA sequence in mRNA marks point for enzymes to cut mRNA from RNA polymerase The RNA transcript is released and the polymerase detaches from the DNA mRNA exits through nuclear pores to cytoplasm. Mechanics of translation: Describe the molecules, the steps of process, and location within the cell o Translation: a cell “reads” a genetic message and builds a polypeptide accordingly. Occurs in the cytoplasm. Site of translation: ribosomes. o tRNA: transfer amino acids from the cytoplasmic pool of amino acids to a growing polypeptide in a ribosome 6 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Each tRNA can translate a particular mRNA codon into a given amino acid Has a specific amino on one end and a nucleotide triplet that can base pair with the complementary codon on mRNA on the other end Single RNA strand Anticodon: nucleotide triplet that base pairs to a specific mRNA codon Aminoacyl-tRNA synthestase: attaches amino acids to tRNA o Ribosomes: facilitate the specific coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons during protein synthesis Has a large subunit and small subunit made of proteins and one or more ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) rRNA – most abundant form of RNA Ribosomal subunits exported via nuclear pores to the cytoplasm P site: holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain A site: holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain E site: discharged tRNA leave ribosome o 1. Initiation Small ribosomal subunit attaches to mRNA 1 charged tRNA base pairs with START codon (AUG) on mRNA Large ribosomal subunit attaches to small subunit GTP is required to provide energy for this complex to form Initiator tRNA sits in the P site of the ribosome, and the vacant A site is ready for the next tRNA o 2. Elongation Polypeptide chain is transferred to the amino acid on the newly added tRNA Ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation between amino acids Ribosomes move along mRNA Empty tRNA exits ribosomes. mRNA is moved through the ribosome in the 5’ 3’ direction o 3. Termination At STOP codon, an enzyme hydrolyzes bond between tRNA and polypeptide. Polypeptide is released. Explain how transcription factors regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including how and where they interact with DNA o Transcription factor: attach to DNA at control elements. Enhance or reduce the interaction of RNA polymerase with the promoter. Bind to specific control elements in the enhancers of various target genes and stimulates their expression. 7 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Explain how specialized cellular function depends on different transcription factors influencing gene expression o General transcription factors: can interact with promoters of any protein coding genes. o Specific transcription factors: works only on specific promoters. o Transcription factors present differ between cell types. This results in cell type-specific gene expression Key Study Method: Compare and contrast DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Fill in a chart like the one below to make sure you understand the different molecules and enzymes involved in each process. DNA replication Transcription Translation Produce 2 identical copies of DNA molecule. Essential Synthesis of for cell division polypeptide using during growth & the information in Purpose repair Synthesis of RNA the mRNA In the nucleus of almost every cell in Prokaryotes: the body (except cytoplasm Where it occurs sex cells) Eukaryotes: nucleus Cytoplasm Template molecule DNA DNA mRNA New molecule made DNA mRNA (5’ 3’) Polypeptide chain Helicase Primase Primer RNA polymerase DNA polymerase Promoter tRNA DNA ligase mRNA Ribosomes Enzymes Okazaki Fragments DNA rRNA Phase of cell cycle when occurs S Most likely G0/G2 Most likely G0/G2 Chromosome structure during the process Tightly coiled?? Extended Extended Evolution: Chapters 19, 20, 21, 23.1, 24.4, 25.1, Figures 26.2, 26.15, 26.16, 27.5, 27.10 Define 2 conditions necessary for natural selection and give examples that satisfy each condition 8 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Explain how natural selection acting on individuals can change the frequency of alleles and traits in populations o Those that have alleles/traits that help them survive and reproduce better become the more popular trait, while the ones not surviving begin to die off/reduce. Changes the allele frequency to favor the better survived trait/allele Contrast adaptive evolution and random evolution, including the conditions necessary, selection pressure and result o Adaptive evolution: evolution that results in a better match between organisms and their environment. o Natural selection: when environment changes. Which traits that are favorable for survival and reproduction can change. Differential success in survival and reproduction Individuals exhibit variations in their heritable traits and those with traits that are better suited to their environment tend to produce more offspring than those with traits that are not as well suited. Genetic drift Natural selection Unpredictable Environmental change in conditions are environment predictable and create selection pressure Allele frequency Allele frequency changes changes Surviving alleles Surviving alleles DO don’t necessarily code for a trait that code for a trait gives a reproductive that provides advantage reproductive advantage Random evolution Adaptive evolution o Selection pressure: some aspect of the environment that reduces survival and reproduction of a phenotype. Define random evolution and list 2 specific types of random evolution o Genetic drift: RANDOM events that change allele frequency WITHOUT REGARD TO WHETHER TRAITS PROVIDE A REPRODUCTIVE ADVANTAGE. Ex. Sudden environment change: hurricane, fire, isolation from other members of the same species Impacts smaller populations more o Gene flow: individuals from a geographically distinct population bring new alleles into the local population. Ex. Florida panther started to become endangered. Introduced cougars into the population 9 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Increases genetic variation Define and give examples of genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect o Look at answer above. Define each mode of natural selection - stabilizing selection, disruptive selection, and directional selection and draw a graph showing the frequency distribution for a trait in the original population and in an evolved population that experienced each type of selection o Stabilizing selection: extreme characteristics are selected against. Intermediate phenotype is favored. Reduces variation o Disruptive selection: environment changes. Intermediate phenotype is selected against. o Directional selection: common when environment changes or when members of population migrate to a different habitat. A more extreme phenotype is favored. Ex. Beaks of Galapagos finches. Large beaks > small beaks Interpret relationships shown in a phylogenetic tree: Identify species that share a common ancestor; identify groups of species that share a more recent common ancestor than another group; Compare trees and determine which show the same hypotheses and which show different hypotheses for relationships among species o Position of branch point indicates earlier or later Further to right – group diverged later Further to left – group diverged earlier o Rotating branches around a branch point does NOT indicate a different relationship o Homologous structure: characters shared because they were inherited from a common ancestor. May not have same function. COMMON ANCESTOR IS RECENT. o Analogous structure: characters with similar function because of similar selection, NOT due to gradual modification of an ancestor structure. COMMON ANCESTOR IS LONG AGO. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Key Study Method: Answer the short answer questions listed below for Chapters 19 – 21 (or re-work if you have already answered these questions). Chapter 19: Concept Check Questions: Section 19.1 Q1; Section 19.2 Q1, Q3; Summary of Key Concepts: Q at end of Concept 19.1; Test Your Understanding: 2, 3, 4, 6a & 6b Chapter 20: Figure Legend Questions: Fig. 20.5; Check Your Understanding Questions: 20.1, Q’s 1 – 4; 20.2, Q’s 1 & 2; Summary of Key Concepts: Q at end of 20.1, Q at end of 20.2; Test Your Understanding: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 10 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Chapter 21: Concept Check Questions: Section 21.1 Q1 and Q3; Section 21.2 Q1, Q2, Section 21.3 Q1 and Q3; Section 21.4 Q1; Test Your Understanding: 1, 3, 5, 7 ECOLOGY UNIT Review Guide Chapters 40, 41; Lyme Disease Case Study Concepts Dispersion – how organisms are distributed spatially Estimating population density – describe 3 methods Population growth when resources are unlimited = exponential growth: Know equation, understand effect of changes in r on graph, ∆ N recognize graph, be able to calculate ∆T and r Population growth when resources are limited = logistic growth: Know equation, recognize graph, know effect of changing K-N value, ∆N be able to calculate ∆T Define carrying capacity: the maximum number of individuals the environment can handle Density dependent v. density independent regulation of population size, be able to draw a graph of each type of regulation o Density independent: As population density increases, birth and death rates remain constant Physical factor affects same proportion of population regardless of population density Ex. Drought, flood, asteroid o Density dependent: As population density increases, birth rate decreases (and/or death rate increases) Competition for space If a breeding territory is necessary and space is limited, some individuals won’t reproduce Higher predation @ higher density Increasing death rate Ex. Predation, competition, disease Wolves of Yellowstone case: estimating values from graphs, stating results from a graph, drawing an inference from the results Graphing data: recognize from a text description which variable is dependent or independent List 2 metrics of diversity in a biological community 11 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 o Species richness: number of species o Relative abundance: proportion each population represents of all individuals in the community. Shannon index – how to calculate, how to use it to compare diversity of 2 communities o A numeric index to quantify community diversity o H= - Σ (p(lnP) o P = relative abundance of each species o Ln = natural log Define replicate and identify number of replicates from a text description Standard deviation Define reservoir competence Define dilution effect in the context of Borrelia transmission between hosts and vectors Black-legged tick life cycle Nymphal infection prevalence – calculate it from data on Borrelia presence in ticks after feeding on a host Lyme Disease case: estimating values from graphs, stating results from a graph, drawing an inference from the results EXTRA CREDIT: Latin names of animals observed (or potentially observed) during the transect activity, ID an animal from it’s photo Equations Equations will be listed on the exam. You must know the definition of each variable. Know what each one allows you to calculate, know what each variable is, recognize when to use each. ∆ N=rN ∆t ∆ N (K−N) =r×N× ∆t K (pA∗lnpA)+( pB∗lnpB)+(pC∗lnpC)+… H=−¿ Vocabulary 12 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Population: group of individuals of single species in the same area. Clumped dispersion: grouped in patches. Suitable habitat occurs in patches. Uniform dispersion: evenly spaced. Competition for a resource. Random dispersion: unpredictable. Each individual’s position is independent of others. Uniform habitat. Quadrat: count all organisms within a fixed area. Transect: count all organisms along a sampling path of fixed area. Mark-recapture: tag individuals repeatedly and recapture. Carrying capacity: the maximum number of individuals the environment can handle. Birth rate Death rate Community: Species richness: number of species Relative abundance: proportion each population represents of all individuals in the community. Shannon index: A numeric index to quantify community diversity Zoonotic disease Borrelia burgdorferi Ixodes scapularis Vector Pathogen Host Reservoir Nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) 13
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