New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and Physiology 020 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Olivia Wolfe

Anatomy and Physiology 020 Final Exam Study Guide ANPS 020

Marketplace > University of Vermont > ANPS 020 > Anatomy and Physiology 020 Final Exam Study Guide
Olivia Wolfe
GPA 3.75

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

urinary system and human reproductive systems and pregnancy
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Sean Flynn
Study Guide
anatomy, Urinary, Pregnancy, reproduction
50 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology

Popular in Department

This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Wolfe on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANPS 020 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Flynn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology 020 Final Exam Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 05/04/16
Anatomy & Physiology Exam 4 Study Guide  Kidney Functions o Regulation of water and inorganic ion balance o Filters blood o Maintenance of body pH o Removes drugs, toxins etc. o Gluconeogenesis o Secretion of hormones  Erythropoietin  Renin  If kidneys don’t work o Metabolic acidosis o Dialysis required o Or death in 1-2 weeks  Basic Principles of Urinary System o Homeostasis – adjust composition of body fluids o Water moves passively by osmosis o Body content of water or electrolytes will rise or fall depending on gains/losses  Sweating, drinking, vomiting, etc. o NO receptors to monitor fluid  Hormone signals  Renin – angiotension  Aldosterone  ADH  ANP  Rhabdomyolsis o Damages skeletal muscle leads to less filtration in kidneys – electrolyte Imbalance Kidney anatomy The Nephron Glomerulus  Flow of blood : o Renal artery o Segmental artery o Interlobar artery o Arcuate artery o Cortical radiate artery o Afferent arteriole o GLOMERULAR capillaries o Efferent arteriole o Pertubular artery (cortex: cortical nephron) OR o Vasa recta (medulla: juxtamedullary nephron) o Venous  Functions of Nephron o Glomerular Filtration  movement of substances from blood w/in the glomerulus into the capsular space o Tubular Reabsorbtion  Movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood o Tubular secretion  Movement of substances from the blood into the tubular fluid o Excretion  Voiding urine out of the body  Tubular epithelium o Lots of mitochondria o Cuboidal cells o Microvilli on apical surface of transporters  Counter current Multiplier o PCT and DCT  Counter Current Exchanger o Vasa Recta Glomerular Filtration  Cell types in Glomerulus o 1. Endothelial  Fenestrated//small holes o 2. Podocytes (visceral layer)  Part of blood-kidney barrier  Small slits containing a diaphragm o 3. Mesangial Cells  Specialized cells  In between glomerular capillary loops  Phagocytic and contractile properties  Filter layers within renal corpuscle o 1. Endotherlium  Fenestrated  Innermost  Allows plasma and dissolved substances to be filtered o 2. Basal Lamina  Porous middle layer – (-) charge – glycoproteins and proteoglycans  Restrict passage of large plasma proteins on basis of charge o 3. Visceral layer  Outermost layer  Podocytes and pedicels  Restrict passage of most larger proteins  Pressures for filtration: o Glomerular pressure – due to blood in the capillaries o Oncotic pressure / Blood colloid osmotic pressure (Og )– due to proteins in the plasma  Attracts fluids/electrolytes back into capillaries o Capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc)– due to ultrafiltrate in capsule  Pushes fluids/electrolytes back into capillaries o Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)  HP gc– (OPgc HP cs= NFP Tubular Reabsorption  Active ion transport – Sodium o Na/K ATPase pump o Reabsorption of NA in lumen of PCT  Mediated Transport: Na and Glucose o Sodium – glucose symporter  What’s reabsorbed in PCT o Ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca 2+, Mg2+) o Water o Glucose o Amino acids Concentration Gradient in nephron  Renal Clearance o The volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidney in a given time RC = conc. in urine X volume of urine per unit time conc. in plasma o Insulin and Creatinine importance in this process o Glucosuria o Compounds secreted:  Urea – byproduct of protein breakdown  Potassium  Drugs o Diuretics  Coffee  Alcohol  Tubular secretion: movement INTO tubules o Get rid of waste and maintain pH o Hyperkalemia  Urinary control mechanisms: o Homeostasis: fluids and electrolytes  Thirst  Isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic  Renal system  Intrinsic – renal auto regulation o Myogenic mechanism – arteriole smooth muscle // blood pressure o Tubulo-glomerular feedback mechanism – macula densa cells //NaCl in filtrate  Extrinsic – neural and hormonal o Renin – angiotensin system  Angiotensin II o Aldosterone o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH – vasopressin) o Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)  Inhibits release of Renin, ADH and aldosterone  Urinary anatomy o Transitional epithelium = Urothelium  Dome shaped cells on top  Squamous shaped cells on surface o Male urethra o Female Urethra HUMAN REDPRODUCTION Primary sex organs (gonads) o Testes and ovaries Physiology of MALE reproductive system  Spermatogenesis ~ 70 days  Role of Sertoli cells – protect sperm as they develop o Blood-testis barrier o Nourishment for spermatozoa o Secrete luminal fluid o Site of hormonal (FSH, testosterone) control o Produce/secrete inhibin o Produce/secrete antigen binding protein o Phagocytize shed spermatid components  Semen o Prostaglandins o Hormone relaxin o ATP for energy o Suppress female immune response o Antibiotic chemicals destroy some bacteria o Clotting factors  Physiology of erection o Descending CNS Pahways ( + input from penis mechanoreceptors)  Emotions – sensory input – sight and smell o Neurons in penis  Increase parasympathetic activity  Decrease sympathetic activity o Penis  Dilation of arterioles  erection  compression of veins  Retrograde ejaculation: Ejaculate into bladder  Reproductive endocrinology of the human male:  Androgen actions o Development of male repro tract in utero o Modulation of spermatogenesis o Growth/differentiation of accessory organs o Expression of secondary sexual characteristics o Protein anabolism and bone growth o Erythropoiesis o Increase in basal metabolic rate  Impotence – Erectile dysfunction o Neurogenic – endocinolgic – psychogenic – vasculogenic – drug induced  Phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5) Repro of FEMALE  Oogenesis o 7 millio oogonia in utero by 20-24 weeks o At birth 1-2 million primar oocytes o At puberty 400,000 o Maybe 500 of these ovulated durin 40 years o Attrition leads to menopause  Menstrual cycle o Hypothalamo-pituitary axis  Hormone secretion o Ovarian Phases  Follicular phase  Ovulatory phase  Luteal phase o Uterine Phases  Menstrual phase  Proliferative phase  Secretory phase  Follicular phase  Importance of estrogen o Prime GnRH action on LH secretion to evoke ovulatory phase o Prepare endometrium for progesterone to evoke secretory response o Affect fallopian tube to favor transport of ovum and zygote o Alter cervical mucus to enhance sperm transport o (+ inhibin) inhibit growth of cohort follicles Gonadotropins Ovarian events Sex steroids Uterine events  Actions of estrogen o Simulation of growth of ovaries and follicles o Maintenance of smooth muscle and epithelium o Growth of external genitalia @ puberty o Growth of breasts // ducts o Development of female appearance o Stimulation of watery sebaceous gland secretions o Retention of fluid o Closure of epiphyses of bone  Actions of progesterone o Stimulation of secretions by endometrial glands o Induction of thick, sticky cervical secretions o Stimulation of myometrial growth (pregnancy) o Decrease in motility of uterine smooth muscle o Stimulation of breast growth o Inhibition of prolactin effects during pregnancy o Feedback effects on hypothalamus Physiology of PREGNANCY  Fertilization: o Allows for procreation o Blocks interspecies fertilization o Blocks multiple fertilization o Allows for genetic recombination – create new individual  Oocyte transport  Sperm transport  Capacitated sperm: o Acquires ability to undergo acrosome reaction/bind to zona pellucida o Becomes hypermotile o Washing off of membrane lipids in epididymis  The Zona Pellucida o Composed of proteins and carbohydrates (oligosaccharides):  ZP-1: structural  ZP-2 Sperm binging, block to polyspermy  ZP – 3 sperm binding  Twins o Identical  One placenta  One egg o Faternal  Two placentas  Two eggs  Structure of human placenta  Placenta as endocrine organ Human Sex Chromosomes  Crossover and genetic recombination o Crossover – one chromatin segment exchanges positions with a homologous chromatid segment  Forms chiasm o Genetic recombination – chromatids forming chiasm break an broken off ends join corresponding homologues o These create 4 different gametes – 2 are recombinant (carry new combinations of genes)  Down Syndrome: Trisomy 21  Maternal cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations during pregnancy: o Increased plasma volume (40-60%) o Increased red blood cell volume (15-30%) o Increased cardiac output (10-15%) o Decreased or unchanged blood pressure o Activation of renin-angiotensin system o Increased minute volume  Milk let down reflex  Milks immunobeneficial effects: o Immunoglobulins (IgA, etc.; esp in colostrum) o Antibacterial and antiviral factors o Cytokines, including interleukins o Immune cells  Benefits of breast feeding for infant o Immunologic (less allergies, ear infections, pneumonia, etc.) o Better GI health (reduced gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, diarrhea) o Reduced incidence of diabetes and obesity later in life o Reduced incidence of SIDS o Possible cognitive benefits  Benefits of breast feeding for mother o Promotes uterine involution after birth o Reduces the risk of postpartum hemorrhage o Lowers risk of ovarian and breast cancer o Facilitates earlier return to pre-pregnancy weight o May decrease risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis o Increases bonding with infant (oxytocin?)  Placenta previa o Placenta covering cervix preventing proper birth  Phases of Human sexual response o 1. Desire o 2. Excitement o 3. Plateau o 4. Orgasmic o 5. Resolution Aging and the Human Repro System’ Birth Control  Puberty in males o Facial hair o Broad shoulders o Increased body hair o Pubic hair o Mature genital organs o Body more muscular  Puberty in females o Mature breasts o Broader hips o Pubic hair


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.