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Theatre History II Review II

by: Samantha Notetaker

Theatre History II Review II TH 3321.251

Marketplace > Texas State University > TH 3321.251 > Theatre History II Review II
Samantha Notetaker
Texas State
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Texas State University, Kevin Gates class. Beginnings of Modern Theatre all the way through European Theater. Covers everything from the powerpoints. Very detailed!
Theatre History II
Kevin Tyson Gates
Study Guide
theater, history, Theater History II, Theatre History II
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TH 3321.251 at Texas State University taught by Kevin Tyson Gates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 05/04/16
Theatre History II  Review for Exam #2    Spring 2016 Beginnings of Modern Theatre  Wagner­           Cesamtkunstwerk  Artist as mythmaker  Unity of productions  All­powerful director  “mystic chasm” complete illusions   Total empathetic response  opera  Bayreuth Festpielhaus (1876) o Orchestra covered1` o Democratic seating Saxe­Meiningen­  powerful director   attention to detail   increased historical accuracy and research   director determines costume  Costumes and props made of authentic material  Avoided symmetry and lines in blocking Ibsen (career, influence/style, Doll’s House)­  “Father of modern drama”  Wrote 25 plays  Art should provide insight and create discussions  Major traits: o Themes duty to self vs others struggle for integrity o Influence of heredity and environment o Refines well­made play o More natural exposition, eliminates soliloquies and asides o Contemporary issues, shocking subject matter Zola­  Therese Raquin (first performance of play) about aunt who has stroke and  daughter and man cheat her out of a ton of money, not real time  GOAL: “put a natural man onstage, taken from reality, analyzed  scientifically, and described without on lie. Let him act according to his  race (hereditary dispositions), moment (acquired momentum created by  race and milieu when the play begins), and the milieu (external  surroundings)  Characters are predestined towards the ending of the play  Action isn’t the plot­ it is in the resolution of the inner conflicts of  characters o Psychology of the character, still and experiment, scientifically  examine social problems  o Freudian influence, Darwin Naturalism (drama + staging)­  Calls for freedom from one place and wants sets. That way characters can  actually live in the play instead of just acting in it  Problem with costuming: fear of simplicity in costumes. Costumes very  much inform the character so they need to be more realistic to the people  of that social class.  Everything is linked, realistic sets, costumes, diction (rather than  declamation)  Conscious artistic movement  ‘slice of life’ as opposed to Realism which is an illusion of life  Setting is the environment which helps determine character G.B. Shaw  Subverted melodrama  Uses comedy to challenge traditional values  Prop up popular view and then undermine it  Major Barbara, Mrs. Warren’s Profession, Saint Joan Independent Theatre Movement (France, Germany, London, + legacy)  “private performances” on a subscription basis  Evades censorship  France­Antoine and the Theatre Liber o Antoine founded in 1887 to stage Therese Raquin o Linked drama to new staging o Controversial plays with naturalistic acting and design o Comedies rosses o Darkening lights making theatre like the laboratory  Germany­Feie Buhne o Founded in 1889 by group of writers and critics including Otto  Brahm o First play Ghosts o Vehicle for new plays but not new staging (think the photo of  painted drop) o Leads to “people’s theatre” for working class o Hauptmann: the Weavers, which features group protagonist and  won the Nobel Prize for Literature   England­Independent theatre Society o Kate Santley­became manager of Royalty Theatre in 1877 o Allowed for theatre society to use her stage o Storms of protest after Ghosts and people called for her license to  be revoked o Legacy:  Develops non­mainstream audience  Encourages new playwrights   Links new drama with new staging  Leads to ‘art’ theatres  Establishes precedent of little theatres launching innovation ________________________________________________________________________ Non­Realism Symbolism (philosophy + staging)   “word creates the décor” (vague, minimal scenery and scrim)  Exaggerated unnatural gestures  Colors evoke mood not accuracy  Dialogue often chanted  Non­realistic subject matter  Characters are mysterious Maeterlinck  Most important symbolist playwright  Believed Realism’s interest in the accidental was an obstacle to deeper  expression  A “drama of silence” Jarry  Ubu Roi   Yeats in audience  Prefigures surrealism and theatre of the absurd  Later wrote an essay on “petaphysics’ (imaginary solutions) Freud  Basic human instincts are aggression and sexuality  Socially unacceptable instincts/feelings are buried in subconscious  Emphasis on dreams Strindberg  Portrays humans are tortured and alienated  First to make extensive use of subconscious  Complicated characters subtext meandering dialogue  Later moves form psychological realism to reshaping reality according to  subjective vision  “Father of Expressionism”  THREE PHASES; 1. r/n Plays: The Father, Miss Julie 2. INFERNO 3. Dream and Chamber plays: A Dream Play, The Ghost Sonata Wedekind  Critically bourgeois attitudes especially towards sexuality  Spring’s Awakening  The Lulu Plays (The Earth Spirit and Pandora’s Box)  Highly influential on symbolism, Expressionism, and Brecht English Aestheticism  Realism didn’t come to England until the 1890s  Art doesn’t have to be useful it is valuable itself, art for art’s sake Wilde  wrote Salome & Importance of Being Earnest  very symbolist in plays Irish Renaissance  (Abbey Theatre,   Yeats o Interested in preserving Irish myths, legends, culture o Irish Literary Theatre­ sought an ‘imaginative audience trained to  listen by its passion for oratory0 and freedom to experiment o First Irish person to win Nobel Prize for literature   Lady Gregory o Organized Irish language studies in 1893 and collected stories and  myths o Wrote 19 plays o Usually realistic with a domestic theme  Synge o Bridges realistic and nonrealistic  o Makes mythic familiar and familiar mythic o Playboy of the Western World o Riders to the Sea  Horniman­  o met Yeats at the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn o Provided funding for the Abbey Theatre o Required English Director (B. Iden Payne) Appia & C  Appia aig Influence: o Originator of modern lighting theory  Pushed designers toward o Used light to unify productions a simplified, flexible  o Stressed importance of rhythm of the text décor o Identified 3 elements:  Directional lighting  Horizontal floor  Vertical scenery  Evocation rather than  representation  Actors (light is equally important)  Craig o Stressed visuals (popularized Appia’s ideas) o Experiments with mobile settings o Power, rather than realism o Height and grandeur o Radical ideas  Eliminate the text/playwright  Replace actors with ubermarionettes The "­isms" Realism/naturalism Symbolism Expressionism(1910­1930)  Materialism and industrialization dehumanize the individual  Truth is subjective  Truth is located within each person’s soul  We must externalize the internal subjective truth  After WWI sought regeneration of humanity  Staging: o Distortion o Lighting sharp contrasts with extreme angles o Nightmare visions  Drama: o Message centered o Christ­like protagonist on quest o Other characters are ‘type’ o Episodic o Telegraphic dialogue (everything inessential pared away. Phrases or  repeated words) U.S. expressionist plays  o The Hairy Ape (O’Neill) o The Adding Machine ( Rice) o Machinal (Treadwell) Futurism ­(1909­1930)  Marinetti was a key figure  Break with past, ‘destroy museums, the libraries, every type of academy”   “we will glorify war­ the world’s only hygiene, militarism, patriotism and scorn  for woman.”  Staging: o Provoke audience o Variety shows o Extremely short plays o Simultaneity o Other form of theatre­ touch, smell, aerial o Influenced movements in the ‘60s Dadaism   Began in Switzerland  Anti­art  Replace logic and reason with madness, irrationality, and chance  Sound poems, chance poems, hoaxes  Tristan Tzara, The Gas Heart Surrealism  Truth is located in subconscious  We find truth through illogical associations metaphorical thinking and dreams  Models are madmen, primitive, and children  Dada was total rejection of logic, Surrealism is targeted attack  Familiar characters in unfamiliar situations  Emphasize associations, not logic  Seemingly unrelated scenes juxtaposed  Use dreams and automatic writing  Guillaume Apollinaire o The Breasts of Tiresias o Coined term “surrealism” to describe this play o Therese decides to become a man o Is gender a construct? Make love not war? Cocteau­  Reworked mythological stories  Orphee Directors + Russian Theatre  From 1700­1800­ mostly imitates European practices on a small scale  1750 first ‘professional’ acting company  Strict censorship  Nikolai Gogal (The Government Inspector) Leo Tolstoy (The Power of  Darkness)­production forbidden until 1902 Moscow Art Theatre  Founded 1898  To stage naturalistic theatre instead of melodrama­high quality, but for common  people  Venue for Stanislavsky’s experiments  Leading playwright: Anton Chekhov  (1896 performance complete disaster, Chekhov hid backstage and Vladmir  Nemirovisch­Danchenko convinced Stanislavksi to produced Seagul at Moscow  Art Theatre) Copeau­  Wanted to get rid of overly­ornamented deisng and ham acting on French  stage to stage classic and modern works  “director’s primary task is to be faithful to the text”  “Twelfth Night”  Dominates Western staging between WWI & WWII Reinhardt  Director, believed in no single approach to the appropriate­suit it to the  play, audience, and production Stanislavsky  Actor/director  Formed Moscow Art Theatre in 1898 with Vladimir Nemorovich­Danchenko  Psychologically based approach to acting with inner justification  Methods: o ‘magic if’ o ‘emotion memory’ o ‘given circumstances’ through detailed textual analysis o ‘objectives o ‘through­line’ o Ensemble acting o Illusion of the first time o Most influential approach to acting in 20  century  Meyerhold  Director/actor/producer  Left MAT in 1902, worked with symbolism  Staged classical plays in innovative ways  Explored commedia archetypes  Avant­garde, experimental  1926: The Inspector General  Methods: o Theatre should not mirror reality but transcend it o Non­naturalistic o Grotesque o Mask o Rhythm o Formalism (purely visual) o Denied pirmacy of the text  Chekhov  Studied Medicine  The Seagull  Uncle Vanya  Three Sisters  The Cherry Orchard  Pattern: o Monotonous life of landowners in rural Russia o Aspire to but don’t achieve a better life o Stripped of illusions, anxieties revealed o Indirect action (details of daily life) o Unifying mood and sharp characterization Komissarzhevskaya  Nina in disastrous opening of Seagull  Opened her own theatre in St. Petersburg in 1904  Employed Meyerhold  Hedda, characters had stylized poses Ballet Russes  Formed by Sergei Diaghilev in Paris around 1909   Never performed in Russia  Designers include: Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, Coco Chanel, and  Matisse  Music by Stravinski, Debussy  Stylized scenery and costumes enormously influential Stalin European Theatre Between the Wars Pirandello­  Plays, Six Characters In Search of An Author, Henry IV,  Appearance vs. reality  Perceptions is relative, unstable nature of reality Giradoux  Often uses myths and legends  Tries to reconcile antithesis  The Madwoman of Chaillot Anouilh  Conflict between integrity and compromise  Antigone in 40’s France Lorca  Love vs. honor, poetic and passionate  Blood Wedding, Yerma, House of Bernarda Alba Ghelderode  Witkiewicz British theatres + staging practices  End of actor/manager system  Old Vic starts doing English Classics Tyrone Guthrie  Director, famous for new interpretations of plays John Gielgud  Top actor/director, faithful to text Coward   Sophisticated, witty comedies  Private Lives Eliot  Poet/playwright  Murder in Cathedral (symbolic Beckett murder) O’Casey  Writes about Dublin working class  Early plays for Abby Theatre Artaud­  Theatre like a surgeon, ‘drain abscesses collectively’  Problems lie in subconscious, so a visceral response is necessary  The Theatre and it’s Double  Theatre of Cruelty­ violent , physical determination to shatter the false  reality Theatre of Cruelty:  Non­traditional spaces  Donut theatre  Sound: great variety  Language: addressed to sense rather than mind  Lights; Strobes  Costumes: symbolic, not realistic  Scenery: symbolic  Actors: 20ft puppets  Spectacle and gesture more important than work  Myth as subject matter  Psychic cruelty Brecht:  Against illusionistic theatre  All is constructed, thus changeable  Realism resolves problems superficially  Empathy creates passive, uncritical spectators  Only offers passive escapism  Perpetuates myth that human nature is unchangeable  statusque


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