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FNFC 275 Notes for Final

by: Danielle Notetaker

FNFC 275 Notes for Final FCFN 275

Danielle Notetaker
GPA 3.8

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Personal Nutrition
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FCFN 275 at Ball State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Nutrition and Dietetics at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 05/04/16
 Nutrient Classes 1. Carbohydrates – 6 kcal/gram 2. Proteins – 4 kcal/gram 3. Fats & Oils – 9 kcal/gram 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water  Alcohol – 7 kcals/gram  Diseases linked to diet: o Heart disease o Cancer o Stroke o Diabetes  Fact vs. Fiction o Listen to Registered Dietician, LD, or CD o NOT certified nutritionist b/c you can get a certification online  ADMR recommendations: o 20­35% Fat o 45­65% CHO o 10­35% Protein  A healthy diet has… o Balance – enough energy (calories), nutrients, fiber, and vitamins o Moderation o Variety   DRI – dietary reference intake, tells you how much of each nutrient you need to  consume to prevent chronic diseases, maintain good health, avoid unhealthy  excess  EAR – average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50% of  individuals  RDA – based on EAR, set two standard deviations above the EAR, meets the  needs of nearly all individuals (97­98%)  AI – used when RDA is not yet, established  UL – highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily,  top level of nutrient that you should take in  EER – average dietary energy intake (calories) needed to maintain energy balance  5 components that must be on food label: 1. statement of identity/common name 2. net content 3. ingredient list 4. manufacture’s name & address 5. nutrition & facts panel Chapter 3  hormonal system that regulates blood sugar (insulin, glucagon)  Carbohydrates = digestion begins in the small intestine  All monosaccharides are converted to glucose by the liver  Glucose circulating in the blood is our primary energy source  Excess glucose is converted to glycogen   Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to high blood pressure  Glucagon released when blood pressure is low  Bile made in liver, stored in gall bladder  Most nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine o Villi are folds in the lining of the GI tract that help with absorption Chapter 4  20­35 grams of fiber needed daily  simple CHO = fruits, veggies, dairy products  Complex CHO = whole grain breads, cereals  Simple Sugars: contain one or two molecules o Monosaccharaides – one molecule  Glucose  Fructose  Galactose o Disaccharides – two molecules linked together  Lactose  Maltose  Sucrose  Refined Grains (white bread) – removes bran & germ, some B vitamins, iron,  fiber lost as a result  Enriched Grains –folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and iron added back to  restore some lost nutrition  Whole Grains – contain all three parts of kernel: bran, endosperm, germ Chapter 5  Usefulness of Fats: o Source of energy o Insulation o Shock absorbers o Unlimited storage of energy o Transport of proteins in blood o Cell membrane structure  Essential fatty acids = linoleic acid & alpha­linolenic acid (omega­3)– needed to  make eicosanoids and to help keep cell membranes healthy  Hydrogenation – converts liquid fats into more solid form, used to create  margarine, often creates trans fatty acids which is UNHEALTHY  Saturated fats – from animal products  Unsaturated Fats: (plants) o Monounsaturated fats – want more! o Polyunsaturated fats – increased risk of cancer  Fat enters the small intestine, bile is secreted from the gall bladder and helps  break down the fat Transport fat through the lymph/blood 1. Chylomicrons – carry fat through lymph to bloodstream, large blobs of fat 2. VLDL­ deliver fat made in liver to cells 3. LDL – “bad” cholesterol, deposits cholesterol on walls of arteries, high levels  increase risk for CHD 4. HDL – “good” cholesterol, removes cholesterol from body and deliver to liver for excretion  Canola oil is the healthiest! Chapter 6  Proteins are structured with 20 different amino acids o 9 amino acids are ESSENTIAL, they cannot be made in the body & must  be eaten (animal protein)  Amino Acids contain: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen  Denaturation – unfolding of protein shape by heat, acid bases, or salts o Ex: cooking meat  Plant foods are incomplete proteins – missing one or more essential amino acid,  you must make a complete acid o Must combine two or these four:  Grains  Legumes (dried peas/beans, lentils,, soy, peanuts)  Seeds/nuts  Vegetables  Vegetarians can meet protein needs by consuming… o Variety of plant foods o Protein­rich meat alternatives: soy, dried beans, nuts, eggs, dairy  Protein is necessary for building and repairing body tissue Chapter 7  Fat Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K  Water Soluble Vitamins: Bs, C o Not stored in body  Vitamins involved in energy metabolism regulation: B­complex, thiamin,  riboflavin, niacin,   Vitamins involved in blood formation: folic acid, B6, B12  Antioxidants: A, C, E  Antioxidants prevents free radical formation, prevent cancer, enhance health Chapter 8  Electrolytes – minerals that help maintain fluid balance o Sodium, potassium, chloride, & phosphorous  Water­ acts as universal solvent and a transport medium o Helps maintain body temperature o Protective cushion for brain, organs, fetus o Lubricant for joints  Sodium – role is regulation of fluid balance  Minerals involved in blood formation: o Iron, zinc, copper  Minerals that function as antioxidants: o Selenium, copper, iron  Minerals involved in bone health: o Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, fluoride   Iodine – needed by thyroid to make essential hormones, thyroid hormones  regulate metabolic rate Chapter 10  3,500 calories in one pound of fat  calories needed to expend in physical activity or reduce (don’t eat) to lose one  pound of fat per week = 3500 kcals/7 = 500 calories per day  being overweight increases risk of: o hypertension, stroke, heart disease, gallbladder disease, type 2 diabetes,  osteopathic, some cancers, sleep apnea  To calculate total energy need: o BMR o TEF o PA


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