FNFC 275 Notes for Final
FNFC 275 Notes for Final FCFN 275
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FCFN 275 at Ball State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Nutrition and Dietetics at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
Nutrient Classes 1. Carbohydrates – 6 kcal/gram 2. Proteins – 4 kcal/gram 3. Fats & Oils – 9 kcal/gram 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water Alcohol – 7 kcals/gram Diseases linked to diet: o Heart disease o Cancer o Stroke o Diabetes Fact vs. Fiction o Listen to Registered Dietician, LD, or CD o NOT certified nutritionist b/c you can get a certification online ADMR recommendations: o 2035% Fat o 4565% CHO o 1035% Protein A healthy diet has… o Balance – enough energy (calories), nutrients, fiber, and vitamins o Moderation o Variety DRI – dietary reference intake, tells you how much of each nutrient you need to consume to prevent chronic diseases, maintain good health, avoid unhealthy excess EAR – average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50% of individuals RDA – based on EAR, set two standard deviations above the EAR, meets the needs of nearly all individuals (9798%) AI – used when RDA is not yet, established UL – highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily, top level of nutrient that you should take in EER – average dietary energy intake (calories) needed to maintain energy balance 5 components that must be on food label: 1. statement of identity/common name 2. net content 3. ingredient list 4. manufacture’s name & address 5. nutrition & facts panel Chapter 3 hormonal system that regulates blood sugar (insulin, glucagon) Carbohydrates = digestion begins in the small intestine All monosaccharides are converted to glucose by the liver Glucose circulating in the blood is our primary energy source Excess glucose is converted to glycogen Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to high blood pressure Glucagon released when blood pressure is low Bile made in liver, stored in gall bladder Most nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine o Villi are folds in the lining of the GI tract that help with absorption Chapter 4 2035 grams of fiber needed daily simple CHO = fruits, veggies, dairy products Complex CHO = whole grain breads, cereals Simple Sugars: contain one or two molecules o Monosaccharaides – one molecule Glucose Fructose Galactose o Disaccharides – two molecules linked together Lactose Maltose Sucrose Refined Grains (white bread) – removes bran & germ, some B vitamins, iron, fiber lost as a result Enriched Grains –folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and iron added back to restore some lost nutrition Whole Grains – contain all three parts of kernel: bran, endosperm, germ Chapter 5 Usefulness of Fats: o Source of energy o Insulation o Shock absorbers o Unlimited storage of energy o Transport of proteins in blood o Cell membrane structure Essential fatty acids = linoleic acid & alphalinolenic acid (omega3)– needed to make eicosanoids and to help keep cell membranes healthy Hydrogenation – converts liquid fats into more solid form, used to create margarine, often creates trans fatty acids which is UNHEALTHY Saturated fats – from animal products Unsaturated Fats: (plants) o Monounsaturated fats – want more! o Polyunsaturated fats – increased risk of cancer Fat enters the small intestine, bile is secreted from the gall bladder and helps break down the fat Transport fat through the lymph/blood 1. Chylomicrons – carry fat through lymph to bloodstream, large blobs of fat 2. VLDL deliver fat made in liver to cells 3. LDL – “bad” cholesterol, deposits cholesterol on walls of arteries, high levels increase risk for CHD 4. HDL – “good” cholesterol, removes cholesterol from body and deliver to liver for excretion Canola oil is the healthiest! Chapter 6 Proteins are structured with 20 different amino acids o 9 amino acids are ESSENTIAL, they cannot be made in the body & must be eaten (animal protein) Amino Acids contain: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen Denaturation – unfolding of protein shape by heat, acid bases, or salts o Ex: cooking meat Plant foods are incomplete proteins – missing one or more essential amino acid, you must make a complete acid o Must combine two or these four: Grains Legumes (dried peas/beans, lentils,, soy, peanuts) Seeds/nuts Vegetables Vegetarians can meet protein needs by consuming… o Variety of plant foods o Proteinrich meat alternatives: soy, dried beans, nuts, eggs, dairy Protein is necessary for building and repairing body tissue Chapter 7 Fat Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K Water Soluble Vitamins: Bs, C o Not stored in body Vitamins involved in energy metabolism regulation: Bcomplex, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamins involved in blood formation: folic acid, B6, B12 Antioxidants: A, C, E Antioxidants prevents free radical formation, prevent cancer, enhance health Chapter 8 Electrolytes – minerals that help maintain fluid balance o Sodium, potassium, chloride, & phosphorous Water acts as universal solvent and a transport medium o Helps maintain body temperature o Protective cushion for brain, organs, fetus o Lubricant for joints Sodium – role is regulation of fluid balance Minerals involved in blood formation: o Iron, zinc, copper Minerals that function as antioxidants: o Selenium, copper, iron Minerals involved in bone health: o Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, fluoride Iodine – needed by thyroid to make essential hormones, thyroid hormones regulate metabolic rate Chapter 10 3,500 calories in one pound of fat calories needed to expend in physical activity or reduce (don’t eat) to lose one pound of fat per week = 3500 kcals/7 = 500 calories per day being overweight increases risk of: o hypertension, stroke, heart disease, gallbladder disease, type 2 diabetes, osteopathic, some cancers, sleep apnea To calculate total energy need: o BMR o TEF o PA
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