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Pace - OTH 20649 - Study Guide - Final

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Pace - OTH 20649 - Study Guide - Final

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background image Sarah Wisser  Public Speaking 200  Final Study Guide  CHAPTER 24 THE PERSUASIVE SPEECH  -controversy: any disagreement    resolve by… 1. violence 2. coercion (threat of violence) 3. chance (flip a coin) 4. persuasion  Two ways to deal with persuasion…  1st. argument    1. one proposition    2. reasons/logic    3. CLASH: ideas    4. GOALS: truth  2nd. Quarrel    1. no proposition/many    2. no reasons/personal    3. CLASH: people    4. GOALS: to win   -proposition: a claim  -general purpose of persuasive speech: to modify/reinforce audience attitudes/beliefs   -persuade: influence the attitude and behavior of others     Aristotle describes 3 types of proof:  1. LOGOS: logical proof…targets rationality through framework of argument  2. PATHOS: emotional proof… targets emotions using dramatic storytelling  3. ETHOS: ethical/personal credibility… targets feelings about speaker’s character, competence,  trustworthiness (Greek word for ‘character’)  LOGOS appeal… Reason  -syllogism: form of rational appeal defined as 3-part argument consisting of…    1. Major premise (general case; concept)    2. Minor premise ( specific case; evidence)    3. conclusion (logically following 1st two steps)  example… “All men are mortal. Therefore, Socrates is a mortal.”  -premise: foundational truth  -deductive reasoning: reasoning from general condition to specific instance (scientific method)  -inductive reasoning: moves from specific cases to a general conclusion  -hasty overgeneralization: fallacy of reasoning by assuming claims are true for all individuals or  conditions concerned   -Informed syllogism (enthymeme): states either a general case or a specific case by not both (how we  actually communicate)  PATHOS appeal…Emotions    identify 4 sets of paired emotions in listeners    1. anger and meekness    2. love and hatred    3. fear and boldness    4. shame and shamelessness 
background image ETHOS appeal…  -motive: predisposition to behave in certain ways  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  1. Self  Actualization  Needs  2. Self-esteem   Needs  3. Social                              Needs  4. Safety                                        Needs  5. Physiological                                              Needs  ELM (Elaboration likelihood Model of Persuasion)  1. Central Processing: focusing on content of message ***  2. Peripheral processing: focusing on secondary components (appearance, reputation, slogans,  manipulating emotions)  Expectancy Value Theory    persuasion through weighing costs and benefits  demigod: a person who speaks solely off of their emotions (Hitler, Trump, etc.)  fear appeal: engaging people’s fear and emotions  CHAPTER 25 ARGUMENT, CLAIM, EVIDENCE, WARRANT   Argument: stated position, for or against  evidence: supporting material that provides grounds for belief  warrant: core component of argument—justifying link between claim and evidence, shows wh the  evidence is valid for the claim   Three types of Claims…  1. Claims of Fact: focus on whether is or is not true (existence)  2. Claims of Value: address issues of judgement; evidence is more subjective that factual (worth)  3. Claims of Policy: recommend that specific course of action be taken, or approved (action)  Five types of Warrants…  1. Motivational warrant: use needs, desires, emotions, & values as bases for accepting evidence  2. Authoritative warrant: appeal to credibility audience assigns to source of evidence  3. Substantive warrant: rely on facts to link claim to evidence  4. Warrants by Cause: offer cause and effect relationship as proof  5. Warrants by Analogy: compare 2 similar cases to infer that what is true in one case is true in the  other  Nine (of over 100) Fallacies of Reasoning… (Do NOT)  1. Begging the question: ex. War kills  2. Band wagoning: ex. Nikes are better because everyone wears them  3. Either-or: ex. if you don’t go to private school, you won’t go to college  4. Ad Hominem: ex. I’m better than you because I work for a living 

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School: Pace University
Department: OTHER
Course: Public Speaking
Professor: Eric Frederick
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: public speaking, speeches, Frederick, final study guide, and definitions
Name: Final Study Guide (Final: 5/9/16) for Public Speaking 200
Description: This is a compilation of everything that will be on Eric Frederick's Final Exam on May 9th, 2016. Included are many definitions, concepts, theories, and a few questions that WILL be on the final exam. Happy finals! :)
Uploaded: 05/04/2016
5 Pages 67 Views 53 Unlocks
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