Exam 4 Study Guide!
Exam 4 Study Guide! PSY 3280
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Billings on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3280 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Tamra Cater Ph.D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
Exam 4 Study Guide Abnormal Psych - Chapters 11, 14, and 16 *Questions Dr. Cater specifically said will be on the exam 1) Know the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia. *Symptoms of Anorexia: Weight drops significantly, starve themselves, and preoccupied with food. Refusing to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight, intense fears of weight gain, distorted view of body weight and shape, amenorrhea (loss of menstrual cycle) *Anorexia can be brought on by stressful events, or by following a diet and seeing the reactions they got from it and taking it too far. *Symptoms of Bulimia: Weight within normal range, binge/purge. Eating more than a normal person at a faster pace (little chewing involved), then getting rid of it before body and process it. 2) Peak age range for the development of anorexia. *14-20 years old *90-95% of those with eating disorders are females 3) Examples of compensatory behaviors that are involved in bulimia. Feel the need to “un-do” what binge they just did. *Vomit: Creates greater hunger which leads to another binge. Then more guilt, more vomiting, more bingeing, more guilt, more vomiting, etc, etc. *Use laxatives, diuretics, or excessive exercising 4) What happens during an eating binge? How many calories could be consumed? How does it make a person feel? What effect does a binge have on getting rid of calories? *Binge: Uncontrollable eating, eating as 10,000 calories in one binge, very pleasurable – followed by guilt, shame, self-blame, depression, and fears of weight gain or being discovered. *-Food: Eat lots of sweets (so when it comes back up it won’t be as bad), high in calories, ice cream, cookies Purging after this fails to prevent absorption of only half the calories just consumed *Bulimia is always characterized by having uncontrollable eating followed by a binge. 5) Medical problems associated with anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia: Amenorrhea (loss of menstrual cycle), low body temperature, low blood pressure, lanugo (long hairs all over body), body swelling, dry skin, brittle nails, reduced bone density, poor circulation Bulimia: damage in mouth from purging, decaying teeth 6) Hilde Bruch’s perspective on eating disorders. What do ineffective parents do that may contribute to the disorder? Hilde Bruch: psychodynamic perspective – Focused on mother-child relationships, whether they are effective or ineffective parents. Ineffective parents: can’t interpret what child needs – when a child is hungry, they wrap them in a blanket. When child is sad, they feed them. This interaction shows the person with a disorder’s poor ability to interpret themselves, little control over body, they seek help outside their ineffective parents – they find control over eating habits. 7) Understand the downward drift theory with regard to schizophrenia. *Downward drift theory: when a person starts at a high socioeconomic status, develops schizophrenia, can’t work, and falls to lower status due to the disorder and remains there. 8) Understand the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (know what symptoms fit under each and what those symptoms are). Positive: pathological excesses – bizarre additions to a person’s behavior. Symptoms: Delusions – faulty interpretation of reality that they truly believe Disordered thinking and speech Loose associations – derailment, talk about one thing and jump to completely different subject Hallucinations – talking to self, most common is auditory, can feel/smell/see things that aren’t there, brain activity occurs even without external stimuli Inappropriate affect – emotions unsuited for situation, laughing at news of death, may be linked to hallucinations Delusions of control – believe that radio (or object) told them to do something so they MUST do it. Neologisms – made up words, they put them in conversation unknowingly Perseveration – repeating words and statements Clang – rhymes, answer or talk in rhyming that doesn’t make sense, “well, hell, it’s well to tell” Heightened perceptions – schizophrenics cannot pick out a certain syllable in a room while there is a lot of background noise, too much going on, trouble with smooth eye movement Negative: pathological deficits – characteristics that are lacking in an individual Symptoms: *Poverty of speech – alogia, doesn’t talk at all or much at all *Restricted affect – showing no emotions, may feel it but they just don’t show it on their face *Loss of Volition – loss of motivation or directedness, feeling drained of energy and interest in normal goals, show no ambivalence Social Withdrawal – loss of contact with reality, attend to own fantasies and ideas, leads to a breakdown of social skills 9) What is the difference between hallucinations and delusions? *Hallucination: perception isn’t really there *Delusion: involves a belief – they think they’re Jesus Christ 10)Be able to distinguish between the different types of hallucinations. Auditory: hearing something that isn’t there Tactile: feeling something that isn’t actually there, sensation of physical contact with an imaginary object Somatic: sensation of something happening in or on the body – common is feeling something crawling under or on the skin Visual: seeing something that isn’t there Gustatory: Tasting something that isn’t there – usually an unpleasant flavor Olfactory: a phantom smell may always be present or may come and go, can occur in one or both nostrils. 11)Know examples of the different types of catatonia. Catatonia: rigid posture for hours, some bizarre positions for many hours – sitting with arms straight out or above head, doing odd gestures, moving arms or legs in weird positions 12)The phases of schizophrenia (prodromal, active, residual). 1. *Prodromal: before full blown schizophrenic, speaking in odd ways, withdraw from society, unexpressed emotions 2. Active: triggered by stress/trauma – loss of job or death 3. Residual: treatment with medications and counseling, still suffering with emotions and social functioning, many don’t fully recover, show the symptoms throughout their lives 13)Is there such a thing as a schizophrenic gene? Know what the research says as far as what genes may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. *Different kinds of schizophrenia are linked to different genes *Polygenic disorder: disorder caused by a combination of gene defects Family Pedigree: schizophrenia is more common among relatives of people with the disorder, more closely related the more likely for developing the disorder Other factors could be environment Twins: identical – 48% of risk Adoptions studies: adopted children with schizophrenia have more in common with biological parents schizophrenic history than adopted parents. 14)Which type of schizophrenia has a worse prognosis (chance of recovery)? Is it Type I or Type II? Type I: linked to neurotransmitter deficiency (high levels of dopamine), positive symptoms, higher chance of recovery Type II: linked to structural abnormalities – fluid filled spaces (enlarged ventricles) in brain are bigger, negative symptoms, lower chance of recovery *Enlarged Ventricles: linked to negative symptoms 15)Know the evidence that supports the link between dopamine and schizophrenia. *Dopamine Hypothesis: high levels of dopamine produce schizophrenic symptoms. Neurons are firing too often. -When there is a decrease in levels of dopamine, it helps reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia -Too many dopamine receptors (mainly D-2 receptor) that are overly active *Phenothiazines: first antipsychotics to reduce dopamine and reduce schizophrenic symtpoms – caused Parkinson tremors as a side effect *L-Dopa: People with Parkinson’s disease were given this to increase their dopamine levels – when they increased dopamine too much, they showed symptoms of schizophrenia 16)What does the behavioral perspective say in regards to how schizophrenia develops? *Behavioral: Think reinforcement – attention for unusual/bizarre behaviors increases those certain behaviors. Or inattention for good behaviors causes them to do the opposite. -Partial explanation for schizophrenia development! 17)Know Freud’s view of how schizophrenia develops. Freud: believed schizophrenia happens when a person is in a harsh environment they regress to the earliest points in their development – leads to self-centered symptoms *Regress back to pre-Ego state and act like Id which is very self-centered 18)How do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of normal people? *Personality disorder: Maladaptive and inflexible. Personality characteristics: a set of uniquely expressed characteristics that influence our behaviors, emotions, thoughts, and interactions – flexible 19)How does schizoid personality disorder differ from paranoid personality disorder? *Schizoid Personality Disorder: They want to be alone *Paranoid Personality Disorder: distressful of others, alone due to suspicion of others *Ex: husband thinks wife is unfaithful, even with no evidence 20) Why are personality disorders difficult to treat? A person with a personality disorder does not think they have a problem, so they don’t try to fix it. *Binge-eating Disorder: bingeing without compensatory behaviors *DSM-5 now categorical approach for Personality Disorders – thinking about doing dimensional later. *What is the middle name of Dr. Cater’s daughter, and where did it come from? Harleen, from Batman (Harley Quinn).
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