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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Rachel Notetaker

Final Exam Study Guide EBIO 3080

Rachel Notetaker

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These notes cover the survivors of extinction, sexual selection, comparative studies of how to measure adaptation, social evolution and human evolution. It mentions all the vocabulary words and in...
Processes of Evolution
Heins and Sherry
Study Guide
Biology: Ecology and Evolution, sexualselection, humanevolution, sociality
50 ?




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Popular in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 3080 at Tulane University taught by Heins and Sherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Processes of Evolution in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 05/04/16
Study Guide for the Final! • Batesian mimicry-to mimic something that other things don’t like • Comparative study • Used to test explicit often alternative hypotheses • Testes size in bats- compare this with the other number of males with which each male competes with • aggressive mimicry- to mimic that thing in order to thwart attacks • The flies mimicked the spiders to avoid attack from them and their technique didn’t work on the other predators • Genotype X environment interaction -genetic basis exists for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity • Independent contrasts-contrasting how independent events (or speciations) might have occurred • Increase in group size among sister species was strongly associated with increase in relative testis size • Phenotypic plasticity-phenomenon in which the expression of the genotype depends on the environment where it is expressed • adaptation is not all rigidly fixed by the genotype. Adaptations involve trade-offs • most are negatively phototactic - movement away from light -but all lakes show genetic variation in their phenotypic plasticity • Lake Blankaart had the most plasticity meaning the fish smell had the largest effect on gene expression • This is adaptive and evolves as selection pressures change • Reaction norm- how one genotype responds to environment - the line that connects two points in a graph • Residual variation in a trait -most traits will still be somewhat represented in the population ev en after they have been selected against • Sperm competition- males are always competing with other males for a chance tto fertilize, so the males that have more sperm are more competitive • Sperm competition hypothesis: a group with more males will mean that the males in that group have larger testis • Strong inference- results are consistent with but one hypothesis - each one made a contrary prediction • Tradeoff-when a good thing has a constraint -a good thing can’t increase without decreasing another thing • This begonia flower can’t produce larger flowers without decreasing the size of the inflorescence and bees are attracted to both • Differential extinction - the fact that not everything goes extinct due to bad genes or bad luck • Alternating regimes of selection depending on intensity of environmental change • Edge drilling- organism (gastropod) gets into the shell (of bivalve) through drilling a hole in the edg, higher risk activity because proboscis is in grabbing reach of the bivalve - preferred when competitors are around • wall drilling (predation) -gastropod drills hole into shell in the center, low risk but takes more time • after the Pliocene extinction, when less competition was around, it showed through the fossilized shells that wall drilling happened 100% as apposed to before when it happened 94.3% of the time • Lecithotrophic- feeding from maternal material provided by larger eggs, tend to have more limited dispersal in marine environments • Planktotrophic- feeding as planktonic or floating organisms, the larbae feed on their own during development • This dispersal ability tends to contribute towards survival during ‘background’ extinctions • But these traits don’t matter during mass extinctions • Species level selection-evolutionary trends arise from two forms of this -ability to get systematic change in phenotype trait without any anagenetic change taking place within particular species • Differential speciation -species on the right of the phylogeny have higher s peciation rates than those on the left, so one morphology comes to dominate the clade • Differential extinction -most species give rise to both small and large species but larger species survive longer. The chart leans to the right by a lot, dramatic differen ce • Traits that promote extinction • Tropical distribution, endemism (species found in one locale), small geographic range, lecithotrophic larvae, island species, ecological specialization • Context of macroevolution • Can determine trends in evolution through extinction, differential survival and differential speciation • Bad genes v bad luck • Some species might be more susceptible to extinction (bad genes) but if everything went extinct then luck is a factor, because nothing could be done • Alternative male reproductive strategies-intrasexual selection can lead to this • Ways that non-dominant males achieve reproduction • Sneaky male strategy-coho salmon spawnes upstream from a dom. Males territory • Forming coalitions- supplanting dom individuals through cooperatio n and sharing of matings –powerful force for cooperation in chimps • Direct benefits hypothesis - choosy females may obtain direct benefits from males • Hanging flies: male captures prey and releases pheromones -offer nuptial gift (dowry) and copulates while female feeds • The larger the gift the longer copulation lasts, and the more sperm is transferred • Extra-pair copulation- females that are polyandrous- where they mate outside of their monogamous relationship • Good genes hypothesis - females are choosy because they are able to secure better genes for their kids • Females prefer long calling males (tree frogs) - took her eggs and combined with both kinds of males and measured offspring fitness • Long calling males produced offspring with higher fitness • Sensory bias hypothesis- males evolve traits that take advantage of female sensory systems • Sexy son hypothesis- select males with characteristics that will make th eir own sons attractive to females in the next generation • Harems and sea lions • Sexual dimorphism in pinnipeds is proportional to harem size • With more potential females to be inseminated, males compete more for access and have evolved larger body size wi th which to do so • Comparative study example! • Honest signaling- something that a mechanism can be - honestly showing what the condition is going to be, big horns= good health - best indicator to the female of male fitness • High sensitivity and high variabili ty are critical for this kind of mechanism because this way there is the selection element • Increased cellular sensitivity to Insulin and IGF hypothesis • Infanticide- a type of intrasexual selection • Killing the dom. Males offspring as a male is taking ove r the pride • Speeds up sexual receptivity of the females and secures paternity by t he newly dom males- females might fight back by aborting the pregnancy • Intrasexual selection-typically male-male competition • Would occur when males monopolize access to females, can be direct or indirect • Evolution of weaponry involved in combat among males • Intersexual selection-males compete for the attention of females • Barn swallow birds and the role of tail length in intersexual selection • Longer tails allowed for; less time to secure a mate, more possibility of raising a second clutch, and more fledglings • Bowerbirds • Females mate with males with enhanced bowers, young females were intimidated by the dance and chose based on bower, older females used dance ability as a deciding factor • Insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) • An increased cellular sensitivity to insulin and insulin growth factor signaling causes the exaggeration of many • Accounts for high variability am ong individuals • Certain body parts are more receptive to this whereas the testes for example probably aren’t • Example of a mechanism that has evolved for traits in diverse animals selecting evolutionarily for the same genetic pathway (parallel evolution_ • Polyandry- females with multiple male mates • Polygyny- male with more than one mate (pretty common) • Reproductive success • Males increase by competing with other males or appealing to females • Females increase by being choosy - choosing high quality males that provide access to resources • Cricket study- measured in subsequent year using microsatellite dna • Average number of mates and lifetime rep. success did not differ by sex • Natural selection (LRS) and sexual selection (mates) not the same in this species • Reproductive asymmetry- typically one sex invests more than the other in reproductive activities • Eggs are larger and therefore costlier even if the female doesn’t take care of offspring • Even greater in mammals because the females carry the fetus • Females have small lifetime success because of a limited number of eggs so they must be choosy (each offspring precious) – type of selection from asymmetry • Male reproductive success is female -limited and only depends on how many females he can find that will mate with him • Predictions of sex related differences in behavior • Variance in mating success • Should be greater in males than females • Variance in lifetime reproductive success did differ; males had greater variance in LRS whereas the average did not differ • Variance in number of mates did not differ by sex • Reversed sexual dimorphism - sometimes the female has the pretty colors • Show that the sex that is lim ited often is the one that competes more for mates and becomes sexually selected for • Secondary sexual characteristics - traits not directly involved with urogenital system -traits other than those associated with insemination, fertilization, birth • Body size, morphological traits such as the peacock feathers, behavior • May cause decreased survival of individuals carrying them - may oppose natural selection • primary sexual characteristics - genitalia and reproductive organs • Sexual cannibalism- during sperm transfer the female eats the male • Male contributes resources directly to the female this way • Sexual selection-differences among individuals in mating success, but not necessarily survival • Might act more strongly on females when • Phalaropes where males prov ide more than the females • Females mating with multiple males and females increase little size by mating with more males (Gunnisons prairie dogs) • Sexual dimorphism-any sex difference in secondary characteristics - results from the nature of sex • The result of selection favoring traits that helped individuals in the mating game • Male humans are larger in body size than females, height exceeds female height by about 10% in all societies • Sperm competition- a form of post-copulatory success • Contributes to differences between number of mates and number of offspring produced by individuals • Altruism- when an organism does something that harms them but benefits someone else • A bee sting-forgoes direct fitness benefit to enhance fitness of other individuals • Alarm calls, grooming-how could this evolve • Extreme in exploding ants - mandibular gland can rupture in a struggle, killing both • mutual benefit- when the action benefits bot h organisms • feeding, care of young, colonial roosts and rookeries • Greater anis form mated pairs but nest communally - share duties of builind, incubating, feeding, defending • Females pay a cost because eggs are dumped by later layers in the nest • Larger nesting is beneficial to all, regardless of order in which eggs are laid, all females do about the same reproductively • More nestlings per female when the groups are larger despite the slight tradeoff that the first female pays • spite- when the action harms both but may be beneficial to others in the population • selfish behavior- good for the actor, negative for the recipient • Coefficient of relationship - R, this is calculated using a pedigree and path analysis • Each link has probability .5 and raise to the power of how many occur • Eusociality-highly social organisms particularly dominant forces • Includes highly altruistic behaviors • Hymenoptera, termites, sponge dwelling shrimp, beetle species, rat species • Requirments: Reproductive division of labor (castes ), Cooperative care of offspring and overlapping generation within a nest • Ecological conditions as explanation • Nests, food abundant, adults exhibit parental care, mothers can manipulate, heroism is possible • Hamilton’s rule (B/C > 1/r) - gene will spread via kin selection if this rule is held, the more related you are, the stronger the selection • R=coefficient of relatedness, B=benefit C=offspring cost that altruist sacrifices • Haplodiploid-hymenoptera have this system where males are haploid and females ar e diploid • Sisters have .75 relationship, sister -brother is .25 and mother daughter is .5 • So there is more selection for you to help out your sister, the barrier to altruistic behavior is lower compared to that barrier in diploid organisms • Didn’t necessarily facilitate eusociality because many organisms are diploid • Hymenoptera also cannot discriminate kin from non -kin so don’t really favor one or the other • diplodiploid genetic system - in diploid organisms, you are half related to parents a nd siblings and offspring and less to grandsons and cousins • Inclusive fitness (direct, indirect fitness) • Direct fitness-pass genes via one’s offspring • Indirect fitness- pass genes via relatives sharing one’s genes (your nieces) • Kin selection- favors the reproductive success of an organisms relatives even at a cost the organisms own survival and reproduction • Selects for behaviors that increase the inclusive fitness of the donor • Can explain social behavior • Alarm calls in prairie dogs -gave most alarms when with kin : didn’t change if with offspring v parents or siblings • Different calls had different effects -trill v other one • Doesn’t explain eusociality but is an important explanation for many behaviors • Multilevel selection (= group selection) - differential survival of groups based on the genetic traits that proliferate with the groups • Can lead to extremes like stinging behavior • Cheaters don’t pass their genes as often and the cooperative frequency increases • Reciprocal altruism- individuals that are not necessarily related do good expecting that the other will do something good for them in the future • Must be able to recognize, have long term interactions, retaliate if individuals cheat • Accounts for human social behavior • Emotions evolve from reciproca l altruism • Aggression=feelings of injustice and hostility towards cheaters • Gratitude=emotional response form recipient to perceived altruism • Sympathy and kindness=emotional motivations to perform altruistic acts • Self guild=emotion engendered by cheating thereby helping maintain friendship • Ultimate- war over women, protection from predators, food sharing • Tit-for-tat strategy-the game that has been used extensively in pych studies of this • An equivalent action giv en in return • Describe how groups of animals have come to live in largely cooperative societies • Social behavior- widespread in nature -cooperative feeding, nesting, reproduction, defense • Sometimes difficult to understand • How did humans evolve cooperative behavior? • Nesting behavior! • Not all hymenoptera are eusocial but all eusocial hymenoptera nest • Confinement to a nest may predispose some species towards eusociality • Naked mole rat • Feeds on very rich food, are altruistic, mothers force smaller females to work using pheromones or force, inbreeding increases coefficient of relatedness • Scheme for eusociality • Groups, traits that make it more likely (nest construction), origin of alleles (mutation that causes females to stay home), defense of nest against enem ies (common enemy), between colony selection sahpes life -cycle and caste system • Gene tree vs. species tree • A gene tree shows genetically how things have diverged • A species tree shows a proposed way that species might have diverged • Gracile australopith ecines- slender build australopithecines from which we evolved • Hominin- a human like ancestor, ancestral to genus homo • Hyoid bone- bone that supports the tongue • Speech driving force in modern human evolution; based on shape of this bone, can see if spoke or not • Knuckle-walking- shared by both chimp species and gorilla • Humans evolved from knuckle walking • Leaky replacement theory- homo sapiens and Neanderthal groups had some mixing of genes • Multiregional theory for modern human origin - the idea that h. sapien evolved seperatly in each region of the world from h. erectus • Neanderthal – outcompeted, lived at the same time in Europe (& Denisovan) • Mosiac evolution - in skull shape, wrist, feet • Opposable thumb-ability to touch our thumb to all of our fingers • Facilitates manual dexterity and tool use • 3 new muscles in humans to use the thumb • Out of Africa theory - the idea that humans came out of apes from Africa and then went onto spread around the world • Most fossils from Africa • African replacement model -h. sapiens replaced local forms without hybridization • Thumb metacarpal head breadth/length ratio • Broader head of first metacarpal bone for firm articulation • Wide thumb closely associated with ability to make and use stone tools • Our fingers are more even in len gth • Tool use- ability to use tools overall shaped the brain and the capabilities of our ancestors • Wide thumb facilitates tool use • Cooperation evolved via reciprocal altruism • Promiscuity • How much sex an organism has • Related to testicle size in males - related to sperm competition? • Chimps have largest testes relative to body size, humans close behind • Brain size • Rapid growth of the homo genus • Divergence time • Between 5.7 and 9.6 MYA • Sequence divergence in entire genome is 4%


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