Criminology Study Guide
Criminology Study Guide 1300
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amelia Hernandez on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
Amelia Hernandez CRIMIN STUDY GUIDE 3 CHAPTER 11 AN INTERNATIONAL PROBLEM Genital Mutilation: 140 girls and women worldwide are affected by this. in the middle east it is common practice to sexually assault women. Dowry Deaths: If the bride doesn’t pay her husband the dowry, she gets beaten or murdered. To hide their crime they burn the women and bribe police. in the UK one call reporting sexual abuse comes in every min. wartime rape is common. Femicide: the murder of women. They’ve compared this to lynchings. These acts are motivated by hatred, contempt, pleasure or ownership of the woman. Rape: Sexual intercourse without the consent of the victim Sexual Assault: sexual contact without the consent that doesn’t include intercourse. In both of these force is common. When someone is under the influence they are unable to give consent and so this is sexual assault and rape. Domestic Violence/ Battering: physical sexual attacks committed by intimates: spouses or exspouses, boyfriends, girlfriends, or ex bfs and gfs. this is called intimate partner violence or intimate violence IPV The problem with this definition is it doesn’t account for psychological abuse. IPV includes aggravated assault in which a weapon is used or serious injury The woman’s movement started focusing on sexual assault in the early 1970s. 18% of women reported being raped in their lifetime. 1/5 of US women have been raped and ¼ have been sexually assaulted. intimates commit 1/5 AT LEAST of all rapes and sexual assaults on women. Domestic violence is even more common than rape. Young women are more likely to experience IPV Poor women are more likely to experience IPV African American women are more likely to experience it than whites or Hispanic women 5% of women in college experience sexual assault Women of color have a hard time finding shelters or crisis centers to help them. some women don’t seek help because of the culture they come from that makes it hard, or they can’t translate their concerns. Also fear of police is a big concern Rape Myths that women like to be raped and ask for it that women ask to or deserve to be raped Domestic Violence Myths blaming the woman that was hit and saying she must have angered the man that battering cant be bad because women stay with their partners Difference between Male and Female Violence. female violence is usually out of self defense and male violence is usually to show dominance. Women tend to commit more minor acts of violence. Men commit more serious acts and are more likely to repeat their violence. Stalking: persistant following, observing and/or harassment of an individual. Unwanted phone calls, letters, emails, showing up places, unwanted presents. changing the way boys are raised can help reduce sexual violence. Changing the criminal justice system is also a way to do it. Deterrence theory says arresting batterers will keep them from battering again but labeling theory says it will increase their likihood of doing it again. CHAPTER 12 PROPERTY CRIME AND FRAUD 16 billion in property stolen annually 4 TYPES OF PROPERTY CRIME: 1) burglary 2)larcenytheft 3)motor vehicle theft 4)arson Burglary: attempted or completed unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. Most burgralized structures are homes or businesses. Larceny Theft: attempted or completed unlawful taking, carrying, leading or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. It involves stealth, but doesn’t include force or threat of force, or deception. Includes shoplifting, pickpocketing, purse snatching, theft of contents of auto and bike theft. Motor Vehicle Theft: attempted or completed theft of a motor vehicle. It excludes boats, farming equiptment, airplanes and construction equipment. Arson: any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft , personal property, etc. arson is very shadily recorded and reported. To be a part one crime it has to be proven completely. Forgery and counterfeiting involve making,altering, uttering or possessing with intent to defraud, anything flase in the semblance of the true. FRAUD: Includes obtaining money or property by false pretenses. property crime has declined in the US and other western nations. Possibly due to target hardening, better alarm systems and other measure as well as greater use of credit and debit cards and people staying at home to watch TV. Property crime is lowest in rural areas. PC is a young person’s offense. People under 25 account for 51% of all property crime arrests. Males are more likely than females to commit the various property crimes. The typical offender is white, but African americans are overrepresented. Amateur Criminals: also called opportunistic or occasional criminals. Are the vast majorty of offenders. Their illegal profit is relatively small. Snitches: amateur shoplifters. They steal merch with little value and they keep it for themselves. Boosters: are skilled professionals who sell their stolen goods to fences or pawnshops. Joyriding: is committed mostly by teen boys working in groups as amateur motor vehicle thefts. They steal cars for a lark, take them on a short ride and then dump them often before the owner knows the car is gone. They target unlocked cars with the key in the ignition or break into cars and hotwire them. because they abandon the car soon it is hard to find them and arrest them. Professional car thieves are older and more skilled. They secure cars, drive away in them and dismantle them to sell the parts. They are rarely discovered and arrested. Burglary: many work in groups. Low level: adolescents and young adults who get together to commit spontaneous, unskilled burgalries as a lark. They spend only a few min in the residence they enter and steal only small amounts. They don’t think of themselves as criminals and don’t have a burglary support system. Middle Range: tend to be older and are more apt to spend time searching for their targets. They act alone and often choose suburban areas with wealthy isolated homes. Theyre more skilled and able to defeat home security systems. They spend time in their residences in order to find valuable items. High Level: the most skilled and they act in groups of two or more. They spend a lot of time planning their burglaries and are ready and willing to travel long distances to their targets. They plan how to dispose of the items they steal through a burglary support network and through fences. female and male burglars were similar in their substance use and their degree of specialization in burglary. Females start their crime at a later age and were more likely to work in groups and less likely to have been convicted. Tipsters: et burglars know of safe and attractive targets. They come from the criminal world and from legit occupations. (attorneys, repair people, police, bartenders, etc.). No one knows how many of them exist or how much of a role they play in burglary. Fences: people who dispose of stolen goods and give them money in return. They sell the stolen goods to customers who are often legit occupationals and know the shade that’s going on, but want a good deal. 1/3 of burglary victims become depressed, lose sleep or suffer other similar problems. Property crime happens because in the US there is a value on economic success over everything else. Rationalizations: 1) A store is ripping us off, so we’re going to rip them off. 2) the business is so big and rich so it won’t miss what I take. There is an inconclusive connection between property crime and areas of high unemployment rates. People who leave their houses empty for periods of time are at high risk of burglary. Sneaky Thrill Crimes: offenders commit the crime because they are excited by the idea of stealing and the prospect of getting objects they want. There is an effort to reduce property crime by making prison sentences for it longer, but most property crime committers think about that when they are doing it and they think they wont get caught because a lot of them aren’t. Situational Prevention: includes things like more cameras at street intersections and better lighting and requiring exact change on buses. Target Hardening: efforts to make residences and businesses more difficult to burglarize and motor vehicles less vulnerable to theft. This includes better alarm systems, keyless locks and other things. This seems to work. This lowering of rates is really true for car theft. Dogs are a really effective burglary deterrent. FRAUD: Deceit or trickery used for some financial gain or some material advantage. many fraud cases can be considere white collar crime. Identity Theft: involves acquiring someone else’s credit card number, social security number, bank account info or other information that is then used for illegal economic gain. The internet has made ID crime worse. 89 million americans a year experience ID theft Check Fraud and Credit Card Fraud: is a type of ID theft that has gotten worse with scanning devices existing. Tax Fraud: the intentional failure to pay all taxes owned. The IRS calls it tax gap. The most money is lost here Insurance Fraud: happen through 1) paper accidents 2) minor accidents (things collected to get insurance) 3)staged accidents 4) exaggeration of whiplash and other injuries after real accidents 5)abandoning or hiding a car and pretending it was stolen 6) arriving at the scene of an accident and pretending one has been injured. Computer Crime: involves hacking and phishing which uses email or IM to gain sensitive info. This also includes plagiarism WHITE COLLAR CRIME Muckrakers: typically journalists. They criticized business and political corruption and condemned the cruel treatment of workers. often big corporate leaders use not so great methods in building their businesses. Edwin Sutherland: coined the term white collar crime. He looked at 70 of the US’s largest corporations and found that they had violated antitrust, false advertising, bribery and other laws. Their crimes were deliberate and harmful. He says that profits are more important to large corporations that patriotism. White Collar Crime: is a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. Sutherland’s definition focuses on crime done by the individual, but he talks a lot about corporate crime. Occupational Crime: is committed by someone in the course of their occupation for personal gain. Corporate Crime: is done by corporations for their financial gain. Some people like to call this organizational crime. Pilferage: involves the theft of merchandise, tools, stationary and other items. The most common reason for this is employee’s dissatisfaction with pay or working conditions or treatment. In some workplaces it’s the culture to steal. Embezzlement: involves the theft of cash and the misappropriation or misuse of funds. Embezzlers have financial problems that they want to hide. They often rationalize that they are just taking a loan collective embezzlement: stealing of company funds by top executives who often worked in groups of two or more and conspired with outsiders such as real estate developers and stock brokers. There was the practice of land flips by selling each other back and forth. Professional Fraud: most professionals practice self regulation by establishing rules for their members behavior. They rationalize their crimes. Health care fraud has received the most attention of professional fraud. 1)exaggerating charges 2)billing for services not rendered 3)billing for fake or dead patients 4) sending patients to other doctors for no reason. 5) examining all members of a family 6) asking patients to come in for unnecessary visits 7) billing a medical procedure or piece of equipment as many different ones. 8) providing inferior products to patients 9) paying kickbacks and bribes for referrals of patients. 10) falsifying medical records to make someone individual for benefits. 11) billing for inferior products or for items never provided. 12) falsifying prescriptions. 13) inflating charges for ambulance services. Financial Fraud: insider trading: stockbroker or investment banker with special knowledge of a company’s economic fortunes buys or sells stock in that company before the info is shared with the public. Price Fixing and Restraint of Trade: antitrust violation. Anticompetitive argeementsin which a manufacturer sells its products only to retailers who agree not to sell rival manufacturers’ products. False Advertising: claiming false and illegal claims. Corporate Violence: actions by corporations that cause injury, illness and even death. Both white collar and street crime involve stealing and violence. Both break the law when they have the opportunity and motivation to do so. They both use tehniques of neutralization to justify their crimes.they might both have a lack of self control. Lenient treatment is given to white collar criminals. The regulations around corporate misconduct are weak or nonexistent. Much corporate crime is undetected. Corporate crime is hard to prove. There is weak punishment and lack of media news coverage. Wealthy white men. Piracy: is the earliest example of organized crime Alien Conspiracy Model and Myth: whether its controlled by a highly organized hierachal group of some 24 italian families. Things organized crime exists because of immigrant families. To reduce organized crime’s influence we have to reduce the public’s desire for goods and services.
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