New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide

by: Olivia Wolfe

Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide Chem 026

Marketplace > University of Vermont > Chemistry > Chem 026 > Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide
Olivia Wolfe
GPA 3.75

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

study guide for the last portion of notes for the final exam
Outline of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
Steve Flemer
Study Guide
glycolysis, ATP, NADH, fadh2, Energy, Cell, Biology, Chemistry
50 ?




Popular in Outline of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Wolfe on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 026 at University of Vermont taught by Steve Flemer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Outline of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry in Chemistry at University of Vermont.

Similar to Chem 026 at UVM


Reviews for Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 05/04/16
Final Exam Study Guide Chemistry 026 Chapter 20  Biochemical structures o DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid)  Entire recipe for who we are  Copy of entire DNA code in cellular nucleus  Role: code proteins  Contains:  5-carbon sugar: Deoxyribose  Phosphate group  Nucleotide (4 options): o A (adenine) o G (guanine) Purine o T (thymine) o C (cytosine)  DNA base pairedine  A – T  C – G  Double stranded // double helix structure  Two strands are antiparallel  Special stability o RNA (Ribose Nucleic Acid)  Carries out transcription and translation  Workhorse molecule which builds the proteins coded for in DNA  3 classes of RNA  mRNA (messenger RNA) o informational role (a photocopy) o complimentary copy of gene in DNA o contains code for amino acid sequence of a protein  tRNA (transfer RNA) o both structural and informational role o transfers amino acids to site of protein synthesis o translates from “nucleotide” language to “amino acid” language  rRNA (ribosomal RNA) o structural role o functional architecture of the Ribosome o proteins are made in the rRNA  single stranded  consists of 3 components:  5-carbon sugar: Ribose  Phosphate group  Nucleotide (4 options): o A (adenine) o G (guanine) o U (Uracil) Purine Pyrmidine o C (cytosine)  DNA Base Pairs  A – U  C – G  uracil replaces thymine in nucleotide bases  Polymerization of DNA o Sugar phosphate backbone  Phosphate covalently bonded to 5 carbon of sugar  3 carbon on sugar covalently bonded to oxygen of phosphate o DNA Directionality  5’ (prime)  3’ (prime) direction – determined by numbering of the sugar  DNA Replication (everytime cell divides) o Semi conservative o Leading strand: builds with the flow of the parent strand o Laggaing strand: builds towards replication fork o Important enxymes:  Helicase  Trodoisomerase  Single-strand binging protein  DNA Polymerase II  DNA Ligase "DNA Replication." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.   Transcription o Single strand of DNNA serves as template for creation of duplicate molecule (mRNA) o Catalyzed by RNA Polymerase o Occurs in nucleus o End product: mRNA o 3 stages:  1. Initiation: RNA Polyermase binds to Promoter Region @ start gene  Methionine – AUG – start codon  2. Elongation: Forms a complementary copy  Aminoacyl tRNA binds to A-site  Peptide bond formation occurs  Peptidyl tRNA transferred from A site to P site  3. Termination: Final step, newly formed RNA molecule is released  At stop codon – a release factor binds to empty A site  Complex dissolves – releasing completed protein  Translation o Occurs at ribosome  Two ribosomal subunits  Large and small o Ribosomes read codon on mRNA o tRNA brings corresponding amino acids  P site  A site o Peptide bonds created between amino acids Chapter 21 ATP o AdenisineTrioPhosphate  Comprised of: Nitrogenous base: Adenine 5-carbon sugar: Ribose One or more phosphate groups  Phosphoester bond joins phosphate 1 to ribose  Phosphoanyhdride bond phosphate 2 & 3 o Nucleotide o Energy – breaking phosphoanyhride bonds  Kinase enzymes Catabolism – the degradation of a fuel molecule to produce energy o 3 stages  1. Hydrolysis  2. Glycolysis - Conversion of glucose monomers into pyruvates Anaerobic process Produces small amount of ATP  3. Citric Acid Cycle - Complete conversion of pyruvates into CO 2 Aerobic process Produces large amounts of ATP Glycolysis o Occurs in cellular cytoplasm o Breaks glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate o Series of 10 reactions  First 5 reactions – STAGE 1 – break glucose into two 3 carbon molecules “energy investment” – uses 2 ATP s  Second 5 reactions – STAGE 2 – connects the two 3 carbon molecules into two pyruvate molecules  Total production: 4 ATP and 2 NADH  Net product: 2 ATP and 2 NADH o The 2 pyruvate molecules will be used in the Citric Acid Cycle Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide o NAD+ = oxidized form o NADH = reduced form Fermentation o Lactate  Pyruvate  lactate dehydrogenase (NADH to NAD+)  Lactate o Alcohol  Pyruvate  pyruvate decarboxylase (release CO2)  Acetaldehyde  Acetaldehyde  alcohol dehydrogenase (NADH to NAD+)  Ethanol Gluconeogenesis o Synthesis of glucose by the body in response to elevated levels of lactae/pyruvate after strenuous exercise Glycogen o Glycogenesis  Initiated by insulin o Glycogenolysis  Initiation by glucagon and epinephrine Chapter 22  Structure/function of mitochondria  Pyruvate + coenzyme A  Pyruvate dehygrogenase complex (NAD+ to NADH)  acetyl coenzyme A + CO2  ATP equivalents o NADH  NAD+ = 3 ATP o FADH 2 FAD = 2 ATP  When they are converted back to NAD+ and FAD – causes formation of ATP molecules form ADP  Energy yield from one glucose  Oxidative phosphorylation  Electron transport chain o Forces hydrogen ions into intermembrane space  ATP Synthase o ADP  ATP  Hydrogen ion gradient o Move hydrogen ions through ATP synthase to power ADP  ATP


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.