Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide
Final Exam Chemistry 026 Study Guide Chem 026
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Wolfe on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 026 at University of Vermont taught by Steve Flemer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Outline of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry in Chemistry at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
Final Exam Study Guide Chemistry 026 Chapter 20 Biochemical structures o DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) Entire recipe for who we are Copy of entire DNA code in cellular nucleus Role: code proteins Contains: 5-carbon sugar: Deoxyribose Phosphate group Nucleotide (4 options): o A (adenine) o G (guanine) Purine o T (thymine) o C (cytosine) DNA base pairedine A – T C – G Double stranded // double helix structure Two strands are antiparallel Special stability o RNA (Ribose Nucleic Acid) Carries out transcription and translation Workhorse molecule which builds the proteins coded for in DNA 3 classes of RNA mRNA (messenger RNA) o informational role (a photocopy) o complimentary copy of gene in DNA o contains code for amino acid sequence of a protein tRNA (transfer RNA) o both structural and informational role o transfers amino acids to site of protein synthesis o translates from “nucleotide” language to “amino acid” language rRNA (ribosomal RNA) o structural role o functional architecture of the Ribosome o proteins are made in the rRNA single stranded consists of 3 components: 5-carbon sugar: Ribose Phosphate group Nucleotide (4 options): o A (adenine) o G (guanine) o U (Uracil) Purine Pyrmidine o C (cytosine) DNA Base Pairs A – U C – G uracil replaces thymine in nucleotide bases Polymerization of DNA o Sugar phosphate backbone Phosphate covalently bonded to 5 carbon of sugar 3 carbon on sugar covalently bonded to oxygen of phosphate o DNA Directionality 5’ (prime) 3’ (prime) direction – determined by numbering of the sugar DNA Replication (everytime cell divides) o Semi conservative o Leading strand: builds with the flow of the parent strand o Laggaing strand: builds towards replication fork o Important enxymes: Helicase Trodoisomerase Single-strand binging protein DNA Polymerase II DNA Ligase "DNA Replication." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 27 Apr. 2016. Transcription o Single strand of DNNA serves as template for creation of duplicate molecule (mRNA) o Catalyzed by RNA Polymerase o Occurs in nucleus o End product: mRNA o 3 stages: 1. Initiation: RNA Polyermase binds to Promoter Region @ start gene Methionine – AUG – start codon 2. Elongation: Forms a complementary copy Aminoacyl tRNA binds to A-site Peptide bond formation occurs Peptidyl tRNA transferred from A site to P site 3. Termination: Final step, newly formed RNA molecule is released At stop codon – a release factor binds to empty A site Complex dissolves – releasing completed protein Translation o Occurs at ribosome Two ribosomal subunits Large and small o Ribosomes read codon on mRNA o tRNA brings corresponding amino acids P site A site o Peptide bonds created between amino acids Chapter 21 ATP o AdenisineTrioPhosphate Comprised of: Nitrogenous base: Adenine 5-carbon sugar: Ribose One or more phosphate groups Phosphoester bond joins phosphate 1 to ribose Phosphoanyhdride bond phosphate 2 & 3 o Nucleotide o Energy – breaking phosphoanyhride bonds Kinase enzymes Catabolism – the degradation of a fuel molecule to produce energy o 3 stages 1. Hydrolysis 2. Glycolysis - Conversion of glucose monomers into pyruvates Anaerobic process Produces small amount of ATP 3. Citric Acid Cycle - Complete conversion of pyruvates into CO 2 Aerobic process Produces large amounts of ATP Glycolysis o Occurs in cellular cytoplasm o Breaks glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate o Series of 10 reactions First 5 reactions – STAGE 1 – break glucose into two 3 carbon molecules “energy investment” – uses 2 ATP s Second 5 reactions – STAGE 2 – connects the two 3 carbon molecules into two pyruvate molecules Total production: 4 ATP and 2 NADH Net product: 2 ATP and 2 NADH o The 2 pyruvate molecules will be used in the Citric Acid Cycle Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide o NAD+ = oxidized form o NADH = reduced form Fermentation o Lactate Pyruvate lactate dehydrogenase (NADH to NAD+) Lactate o Alcohol Pyruvate pyruvate decarboxylase (release CO2) Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde alcohol dehydrogenase (NADH to NAD+) Ethanol Gluconeogenesis o Synthesis of glucose by the body in response to elevated levels of lactae/pyruvate after strenuous exercise Glycogen o Glycogenesis Initiated by insulin o Glycogenolysis Initiation by glucagon and epinephrine Chapter 22 Structure/function of mitochondria Pyruvate + coenzyme A Pyruvate dehygrogenase complex (NAD+ to NADH) acetyl coenzyme A + CO2 ATP equivalents o NADH NAD+ = 3 ATP o FADH 2 FAD = 2 ATP When they are converted back to NAD+ and FAD – causes formation of ATP molecules form ADP Energy yield from one glucose Oxidative phosphorylation Electron transport chain o Forces hydrogen ions into intermembrane space ATP Synthase o ADP ATP Hydrogen ion gradient o Move hydrogen ions through ATP synthase to power ADP ATP
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