GEOL 101 Study Guide (4)
GEOL 101 Study Guide (4) GEOL 101
Popular in Introductory Geology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Geology
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 at George Mason University taught by Mark Uhen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geology in Geology at George Mason University.
Reviews for GEOL 101 Study Guide (4)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/04/16
Test 4 Page 1 Test 4 Study Guide Glaciers and Glaciation How high will sea level rise is the Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf collapses? Ice shelves are large pieces of ice attached to a mass of ice on a continent. Where are ice shelves most commonly seen? Glaciers o How much of earth’s fresh water is contained in glaciers? o How do glaciers form? o How much would the ocean rise if ALL masses of ice melted? o Earth has been around for a long time, how much of that time has Earth had naturally occurring ice? Types of Glaciers – Become familiar with each type, where they form, and how they form o Alpine – Forms in a mountain valley o Ice Sheet – Forms over broad region o Ice Cap – Ice covering an upland area o Outlet Glacier – Tongue of ice extending from ice cap or sheet o Piedmont Glacier – Covers broad lowlands at the bases of mountains Formation of Glacial Ice o It all starts with snowflakes, how do snowflakes form? o What is firn? Hint: it’s snow Glacial Movement o Glaciers tend to move ‘plastically’ explain this type of movement. o How does the top part of the glacier move? How about the ice down to 50m below? o Glaciers can move up to 2 meters in a day, what progresses this movement? (fun hint: think about putting soap on a slip n’ slide) Glacial Budget o Glaciers are constantly gaining and losing ice. Name the location where ice is gained Name the location where ice is lost, what is this process called? o Describe what the process of calving is. o What happens when the glacial budget is negative? What about positive? Glacial Erosion o Which substance has the largest capacity and competence? Water, ice, or air? Look back on lectures about moving water and wind. o Main terms of glacial erosion, define each Test 4 Page 2 Plucking Abrasion Glacial Erratic Glacial Grooves Glacial Polish Glacial Land Forms o Alpine Glaciers form unique structures in mountain ranges Horn Arête Cirque Truncated Spur Medial Moraine o PostGlacial Landforms Pater Noster Lakes Tarn Glacial Troughs Hanging Valley Fjord Roches Moutonnées Glacial Deposit o Define the process of glacial drift o Till is basically sediment dropped by a glacier. They can pile together into moraines, which come in different types. Lateral Moraines Medial Moraines End Moraines Ground Moraines o The type of moraine is determined by the placement of the till. Define where the till is deposited in each type and how it gets there. o What part of the US is particularly covered in these moraines? Other Glacial Landforms Test 4 Page 3 o Esker o Drumlin o Kame o Kettle Lake o Glacial Fluvial o Basal Till o Stratified Drift https://youtu.be/2QhlVuF9xQg https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=aIAd7erc2YU Coasts Which country has the longest coastline? Are coasts stationary or dynamic? What determines where the shoreline begins? (hint: it’s mobile) Coastal Zone – Organize the levels of the coast from closest to the ocean to furthest away o Foreshore o Coastline o Low Tide Shoreline o Backshore o High Tide Shoreline Waves o Have cyclical movements https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yPTa8qi5X8 o How far do waves reach under the surface? o What are the three main factors of wave size? o Define what the Wave Period is. o o Using the graphic, describe what happens to the waves once they come in contact with the sand bar. Wave Behavior o Wave Refraction Test 4 Page 4 o Beach Drift/Longshore Current https://youtu.be/U9EhVa4MmEs o Rip Currents https://youtu.be/WzDv8aRpWA Erosion Features – Formed with moving water eroding sediment away over time o Wavecut Platforms o Marine Terrace Emergent Coast Submergent Coast o Sea Arches o Sea Stacks Depositional Features – Evolving Shore o Spits o Sand Bars o Barrier Islands o Tombolo o Baymouth Bar Hard Stabilization – Humans like the beach, and we want it to stay there. So we have artificial ways to keep the beach where it is. o Jetties o Groins o Breakwater Walls These walls eventually become like Tombolo, why? Soft Stabilization – Instead of building hard structures to keep the beach, humans also use other methods to adapt to eroding shorelines o Beach Nourishment o Relocation Tides – What are they? o Normally occur twice a day. o Influenced by the sun/moon cycle o There are a few key terms in regards to tides: Spring Tides Neap Tides Tide Currents o To define the tides, look at the angle the moon is positioned in in relation to the sun. Geologic Time How old is the oldest rock ever found? Approximately 4 billion years old. Relative Dating Test 4 Page 5 o Superposition – in a nondeformed sequence of rocks. Oldest rock is at the bottom, youngest on top. o Original Horizontality – Layers always form horizontally o CrossCutting Relationships – Features cutting across older geologic features are younger. Imagine a cake. Ex. Dike B is older than the Batholith it is cutting through. o Inclusions – chunks of different rock within another body of rock. Using the image, determine which is older, pink or brown? o Lateral Continuity – Rock layers extended laterally in all directions exposed by erosion are the same age. Principle of Fossil or Faunal Succession – Fossils occur in a definitive order that can help identify age. See the image below o Key Fossil/Index Fossil helps define the time period. What is the index fossil in this diagram? Relative Dating Review Test 4 Page 6 Unconformities – Buried Erosion Surface – Can indicate lost time o Angular Unconformity o Disconformity o Nonconformity Use image to describe each Radiometric Dating o Dating by measuring the rate at which an atomic nuclei breaks apart/decays o Key Terms: Alpha Emission – releasing alpha particle (two protons, two neutrons). What does this do to the atomic number and mass? Beta Emission – releasing beta particle (electron). What does this do to the atomic number and mass? Electron Capture – Opposite of Beta Emission What does this do to the atomic number and mass? Parent Particle – Original, unstable particle Daughter Products – Any product of a parent particle decaying o Deterioration of particles can occur at a set rate called the particle’s ‘halflife.’ Define the process of determining halflife. Test 4 Page 7 o What particle is most often used to date organic items? Why? Relative Dating Review from Lecture Historical Geology How old is the oldest species of turtle? Earth is extremely unique, we live in the socalled “Goldilocks Zone” of our planetary system. Review how each of these factors (increasing/decreasing or presence/lack thereof) would affect our planet. o Size o Plate Tectonics Test 4 Page 8 o Liquid Outer Core o Location Origin of Atmosphere and Oceans o What brought most of the volatile components to earth? Volatile components being liquid and gases. o What brought most solid metals to earth? o Our atmosphere didn’t always have this much oxygen. What was the atmosphere composed of near the beginning? Early Oceans o What happened to the atmosphere that allowed oceans to form? Banded Iron Formation o How long ago did oxygen start accumulating? o Excessive iron on the planet absorbed all the oxygen, preventing it from going into the atmosphere. o When did oxygen levels finally stabilize and begin to join the atmosphere? Why did this begin to happen? First Continents o Earth was mainly composed of oceanic crust o Subduction and Volcanism caused arcs of islands through the ocean and to the surface. These arcs on the plates crashed/moved together to form the first continents o There are three main supercontinents that formed over earth’s history. Put them in order from oldest to youngest. Gondwana Pangea Rodinia Precambrian Fossils o Stromatolites – ancestors of these creatures were present near the beginning. Where are they mainly found now? o Cellular Life began with Prokaryotes Eukaryotes o Define each and what separates the two. o Precambrian Animals – Edicaran Biota Cambrian Geography o Mostly water, very few pieces of land o Cambrian Explosion – Aquatic creatures with skeletal bodies and new abilities like being able to burrow into sediment. Test 4 Page 9 o Examples of these animals: Marella, Anomalocaris, Halucigenia, Trilobite, Archeocyathids, brachiopods, Sponges, annelid worms, and Pikaia. Devonian Geography o More land, but planet is still majority water. o Also known as the Age of the Fishes o Development of dorsal hollow nerve cords and the notochord (aka spinal cord) in animals o Invasion of Land – What kinds of creatures began coming onto land first? (Other than plants) PermoTriassic Mass Extinction – What percentage of marine species were wiped out in this event? Triassic Geography o Pangea is formed o Dinosaurs thrive in tropical environments o Mammals evolve, but stay relatively small o End of Mesozoic Period, Pangea begins to break apart Cretaceous Animals o End of the Dinosaurs, Avian creatures evolved, flying reptiles evolved, and flowering plants first formed. o CretaceousPaleogene Mass Extinction – Asteroid hit the place we call the Gulf of Mexico. The asteroid impact isn’t exactly what killed the dinosaurs, what really did? What did mammals eat that helped them survive through the aftermath of the impact? Paleogene Geography o Similar to today’s map but oceans still divide Europe and Asia. Antarctica and Australia are still touching. o Climate was warm, gave rise to kinds of modern animal species Neogene Geography o Formation of ice on the South Pole o Continents in Place o Most animals are similar to those we recognize today. Holocene Geography o Modern Day What continents might form a new supercontinent in the future? Test 4 Page 10 Fossils Fossils are any evidence of ancient life, some examples are: o Petrified Wood o Amber o Animal Bone o Impressions o Coprolites What is the correct definition of evolution? o Survival of the fittest o Dissent with modification o The weak die, the strong survive Natural selection, a three step process: Heritable Variation, Differential Reproduction, Inheritance. Answer the following: o A colony of beetles live on the bark of a tree. There are three color types: full green, full brown, and mixed. Which of these are most likely to reproduce? Important Vocabulary o Taxa o Speciation o Extinction Background Extinction Mass Extinction Ancient Organisms – Modern Organisms – I assume you do not have to memorize each one of these but just generally know what the creature is, most are marine! o Cnidaria Coral o Arthropods Trilobites Crustacea Incecta o Mollusca Gastropoda Monoplacophora Cephlapoda o Hyolitha o Brachiopoda o Bryozoa o Echinodermata o Plantae Seed Ferns Flowering Plants o Chordata Test 4 Page 11 Fish Amphibians Reptilia Dinosauria Aves Mammalia Global Climate Change When was the last time Earth had no permanent ice? Climate is the term used to define longterm weather patterns. Climate system: o Atmosphere o Hydrosphere o Geosphere o Biosphere o Cryosphere Methods Detecting Climate Change o Proxy Data Sea Floor Sediments (CaCO 3rganism skeletons) Glacial Ice Fossil Pollen Tree Growth Rings Research of past climate is called paleoclimatology Oxygen Isotope Analysis o O (Lighter Oxygen) O (Heavier Oxygen) o Which oxygen isotope evaporates easier? o During times when ice is naturally forming, the oxygen isotope that evaporates is rained down and frozen. The ocean is abundant in the other oxygen isotope. How does this affect the creatures in the ocean? Think about what they make their shells out of. Ice Core Analysis – What advantage is there to sampling gas/air trapped in ancient ice? Tree Ring Analysis: Dendrochronology o View the image provided, dark and light rings show periods of growth. Some are thinner than others, why? Also, what is the advantage to analyzing logs from ruins? Test 4 Page 12 o o Coral grows in a similar fashion, how can you analyze the health of the sea with coral skeletons? Fossil Pollen o Certain trees grow in certain climates o If you take a vertical sample of earth in one spot and find different types of pollen occur at different levels, what can you delineate? Atmospheric Composition o What is the atmosphere mainly comprised of? o How much water vapor makes up the atmosphere? o What are aerosols? What can they do to light waves? Solar Energy – Electromagnetic Spectrum Incoming Solar Energy o Solar energy is absorbed by different sections of our planet, the following are in order of most to least in regards to absorbing. Sea Land Atmosphere/Clouds o Some of these also reflect light as well. Albedo Effect o Light colored objects have ______ Albedo (More likely to reflect) o Dark colored objects have ______ Albedo (More likely to absorb) o The total radiation that is reflected by a surface is its Albedo Greenhouse Effect o Is this a good or a bad thing? o See the image, the CO is b2 king heat from escaping the atmosphere. This causes heat to be trapped on Earth and warm the planet. Test 4 Page 13 o Imagine you microwave a potato, you take it out and let it cool in the open air. That is the natural effect with heat being dispersed into ‘space’ (the air). o But if you wrap the potato in tinfoil, the heat doesn’t escape and the potato stays warm. That is the human enhanced greenhouse effect, imagine the tinfoil as the layer of2CO Human Impacts on Climate o Carbon Dioxide Concentration o Deforestation Volcanic Activity o How can large volcanic eruptions disrupt the flow of solar energy to earth? Solar Variability o Is the sun stable? o The sun has ‘sun spot cycles’, how long does each cycle last in earth years? Climate Feedback Mechanisms o Decline in the perennial ice > Reduced Reflectivity > Increased absorption of solar radiation > Warmer Ocean > Longer Melt Period > Decline in the perennial ice… (repeats) o Consequences: Sea Level Rise Ice Melt
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'