SOC 100 Final Exam Study Guide
SOC 100 Final Exam Study Guide SOC 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by luke koppa on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at Colorado State University taught by John Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Behavioral Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
SOC 100 Final Study Guide Chapters 911 & 14 th There will be 60 multiplechoice questions on the final exam. As I said in class, you should view the exam as a 4 midterm, not as a comprehensive final. All of the articles posted on Canvas are excellent and you may find them very useful and interesting. However, you will be held responsible for just the three listed in the study guide below. Good luck to you. Ch. 10 Gender (Sex?) Stratification Difference between sex and gender o Sex= physical/genetic differences that determine male or female o Gender= social construction that varies across cultures, over time, within a given culture, and in relation to the other gender Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex How do the sexes differ? Biological, psychological and crosscultural evidence? o Biological Men stronger in short term exertion (think lifting/fighting) Men and women equal in long term exertion Female have 2 X chromosomes, men have X & Y Women tend to live longer/ be healthier o Psychological Uncertain how much of our identity is due to biology versus psychology o Crosscultural examples Arapesh People feminine society where both men and women exhibit gentle, sensitive, cooperative habit Mundugumor – Canabalistic tribe where no nurturing, motherly traits are displayed by either sex Tchambuli Role reversal where women take on traditional masculine roles Define sexism. Possible areas of sexism? Evidence? o Sexism= subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex o Possible areas: Power ability to mobilize collective resources, to accomplish things, to overcome opposition, to dominate others Jobs/income – women earn $0.78 for every $1 earned by men Image how men and women are portrayed Who does the housework? o Clicker 90% said that in a dual career marriage they plan to share it equally o However, national study finds that females do more housework than males Approaches—functionalist, conflict, feminist o Functionalist Current relationship between males and females has helped us and will continue to help us o Conflict Males have more power and want to keep it o Feminist Conflict oriented Demand for equality Support tends to be stronger on coasts, less so in Midwest and South I’m Glad I’m a Boy, I’m Glad I’m a Girl o Children’s book that instills very traditional gender stereotypes Ch. 9 Global Stratification Relative vs. absolute poverty o Absolute poverty= deprivation of resources to the point of life threatening consequences More common worldwide o Relative poverty= deprivation of some people in relation to those with more More common in US Which are the rich countries? Poor ones? What’s happened to the gap between the rich and poor countries over the past 100 years? o Industrial/post industrial countries are the richest o Worldwide – 77% of global income earned by richest 20% and 93.6% of the wealth o Since 1990, the gap has increased dramatically Starvation o Someone dies from starvation every 2 seconds Correlates of 3 world poverty? (i.e., explanations of global poverty (p. 292) o Inadequate technology o Population growth o Traditional cultural patterns o Social stratification o Gender inequality o Global power relationships Rich nations taking resources from poor countries Theories—modernization vs. dependency. What is the role of the rich nations according to each theory? o Modernization More responsibility on poor countries Focus on: Inadequate technology Population growth Traditional cultural patterns o Dependency theory More global responsibility Colonized countries were not selfsufficient when colonizers left Worst in Africa, Middle East, S. America Who are the new colonists (i.e., neocolonialism)? o Traditional colonization= direct exploitation of poor nations by rich nations Not common today o Neocolonization = new form of global power relationships that involves economic exploitation by multinational corporations Ch. 11 Race and Ethnicity (Majorities/Minorities) Definition/characteristics of minorities/majorities? o Minority category of people distinguished by physical or cultural traits and are socially disadvantaged Visible difference Does NOT have to do with numbers Don’t exist “out there”, we create them – Thomas Theorem Difference between prejudice and discrimination. Should we discriminate? o Prejudice= negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about minorities o Discrimination= any action that involves treating various categories of people unequally We discriminate on daily basis, natural action But we need to realize the results/consequences Forms of majority/minority relationships (i.e., A+B+C=) o Pluralism A+B+C= A+B+C “cultural mosaic” Let everyone celebrate individual culture/background o Assimilation A+B+C= A Comprised of a diverse population but force all to become/act like majority Can be positive (unity) Can also be negative (lack of individuality) o Melting Pot A+B+C = D o Segregation A+B+C= A / B / C o Genocide/deportation A+B+C= A B and C gone completely Institutional discrimination o Unintended discrimination; it’s built into the normal operation of society o Majority may not even notice, but minorities will o Ex: buildings without ramps for handicapped Article on Canvas, “White Privilege” What are microaggressions? o Usually unintended verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward people o Hardest to be cognizant of because it requires viewing actions from someone else’s perspective In what important way are the elderly NOT a minority? o Poverty are least likely to be in poverty Theories of aging. Which is best for society? Which one do the aged prefer? o Disengagement (functionalist): idea that society enhances its orderly operation by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age o Activity Theory (symbolic interaction): idea that higher level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age Supported by the elderly o Conflict : as people grow older their power tends to diminish unless they are able to maintain wealth Myths of aging.(not true) o Elderly are dangerous drivers o Elderly are inefficient employees o Elderly are not politically active o Elderly are always sick and in nursing homes Ch. 14 Education and Medicine Define institution. Why are institutions important? o Everything it takes to meet the major needs of society o Without institutions society would not be able to function Two differing views: functionalists and conflict approaches (we will spell out in detail the case made for the conflict theorist—cultural capital, tracking, hidden curriculum, . . .) UCLA freshman study Not Covered What will education be like in the future? Not Covered What is the purpose of the institution of health/medicine? Its relation to culture and society. o Purpose= to diagnose and cure illness and promotes health What is health according to the traditional medical model? According to the more recent definitions of health? o Traditional= absence of disease; not sick o Modern= state of physical, mental, and social well being How have the causes of death changed in typical industrial societies in the past 100 years? o Shifted from communicable diseases to diseases of lifestyle Holistic medicine? o Involves education for lifestyle changes and selfcare, complementary alternatives, and conventional drugs and surgery o Tenets of holistic medicine: You are responsible for the state of your own health Health is a state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not simply the absence of disease Mind and body are an interdependent unit; disease results when stress disrupts the balance of this unit Most disease is at least partly a result of your own behavior, and therefore within your control Illness provides an opportunity to learn more about yourself A physician is only a guide, not a miracle worker; it’s up to you Who pays for medical care in capitalistic countries? Socialistic societies? o Nearly all post industrial countries have universal health care, except US o UK has highest % paid by Govt (84%) o US has 53% paid by govt The sick role o The sick role is a functionalist perspective o People who fit the sick role are: Not responsible for their condition are temporarily exempt from their normal roles/obligations must want to get well must seek competent help from medical professionals to hasten their recovery Inequality in the distribution of health care in the U.S. o Conflict perspective o Most uninsured people are poor, but have jobs (not just homeless bums) Health/medicine in the U.S. compared to other postindustrial countries. o US is only postindustrial country without universal health care The medicalization of health care o Symbolic interactionist perspective o Process whereby nonmedical problems become more defined and treated as illnesses or disorders Two articles from Canvas: “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update” and “Principles of Holistic Medicine” Big Ideas (from the last lecture of the semester) Last class why is sociology important Sociological imagination o Problems may not always be individual, but rather sociological o When problems arise who’s to blame? Could be society’s fault rather than individual It’s the perspective that counts o Different answers w/ different perspectives Cultural relativism o In order to understand cultures, we have to view the world from their perspective o Doesn’t necessarily demand that we agree Ethnocentrism o Viewing one’s own perspective as the right one Limited rationality of people Culture patterning of personality o Everyone is differently influenced by surroundings o We make our own choices yet we are always influenced The endlessness of cultural change People’s propensity to live by myth Marketable skills o Being more human Labeling know how the process works o Programmed within us at a young age Social sciences as a threat o Humans often see differences as a threat Making a difference o It is very hard to when the issues are so large
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