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Musc205, Study Guide 3

by: Shira Clements

Musc205, Study Guide 3 MUSC205

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Shira Clements

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Expanded class notes, readings, and some discussions
History of Popular Music, 1950-Present
Richard King
Study Guide
Music, Videos, Musc205
50 ?




Popular in History of Popular Music, 1950-Present

Popular in Music

This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSC205 at University of Maryland taught by Richard King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History of Popular Music, 1950-Present in Music at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
Test 3 MTV and the New Romantics Apr 11, 2016 MTV - Launched on Aug 1, 1981 - American has become a video nation - Music videos had existed before, but never had a regular outlet - Music videos had existed before MTV o MGM musicals  Frank Sinatra o Scopitone Machines- looks like a juke box o “Paperback Writer”  Beatles song and they are popular worldwide, and they still had to promote their music- doesn’t add anything o “Bohemian Rhapsody”  Queen makes drama in a music video  Video adds value here  Point way for MTV Why music videos? - In short: marketing - A new radio o Everyone watches it o A good video can bump the song up the charts - Allows for another way to connect to bands o Can see and hear them o Gives audience a way to connect - But it has an unintended consequence o Sometimes it gets too close- not the prettiest of faces The New Romantics - MTV concentrates on visually appealing bands - Usually British (a second British invasion) - Synths mixed with disco (Synth-pop) o Need to be visually appealing also, not just musically Doran Doran - One of the most successful early MTV acts - Pop sensibility mixed with fashion - Ladies loved them - Come to define the synth pop-sound - “Hungry Like the Wolf”- released in 1982 o makes them who they are- not a huge hit yet o budget for $200,000 video budget- that’s huge!- if music video is a big hit, then band is a big hit, then that money is great! o First video to win a Grammy o Filmed in Sri Lanka  Go half way around world to film video and Beatles filmed to avoid that o Released one year after Indiana Jones and Raider of the Lost Ark o Video and song have nothing to do with each other  Just need to make video visually appearing  Then become in top 5 The Eurythmics - Annie Lennox and David A Stewart - Lennox’s androgynous image becomes a focal point - Woman can make it in synth-pop, too - First big hit: “Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This)”-1983 o Image is confusing Video Innovations - Rise in popularity spurs innovative push - The incentive was obvious: even a mediocre band could find huge success with a great video - But great bands took advantage as well - Dire Straits- “Money for Nothing” (1095) - A-ha- “Take On Me” (1985) - Rodoscoping Generation Gap - MTV becomes emblematic of the divides between parents and children - Videos seen as wasting time, too obscene, or various and sundry other problems - Plenty address this issue - “Girls Just Want to Have Fun” “I saw that song!” - MTV changes the musical culture - Served as a national radio station of sorts Michael Jackson, Madonna, and Whitney Houston April 13, 2016 1980s music is encapsulated by all of these Michael Jackson - Begins at Motown with Jackson 5 (all siblings) - A sort of novelty act, centered around Michael (he was 12) - Tight choreography and humor - “ABC” - Maturing Michael o Even while with the Jackson 5, it becomes apparent that Michael is a breakout star o Capable of soulful numbers o Steals the spotlight o In a Jackson 5 original that would later be a huge hit (“Never Can Say Goodbye”) - Off The Wall (1979) o 20 million copies sold o Fifth sol album, but first big success o Works with Quincy Jones- most important producer- panicle of what pop music is o “Don’t Stop Till You Get Enough” - Thriller and Jackson Videos o Best selling album of all time (about 65 million copies) o 32 times platinum in the US o all songs can be singles o collaborates with some of the biggest stars of the time- Paul McCartney and Eddie Van Halen  Pop star and black, so collaborates with the white people o but perhaps best known for the videos (use massive choreography- must see art form) o Jackson turns the video into art - Black videos on MTV o MTV aired a video with black artists on their first day (The Specials- “Rat Race”) o Nevertheless, black videos were exceedingly rare on the station o Rick James harshly criticized MTV o MTV responded by saying that they played “Rock and Roll” o Regardless, Jackson’s popularity kicks in the door for other black artists  Economic decision to start playing black music  He was responsible for breaking down the color barrier - Legacy o Breaks down racial barriers on MTV o Dance moves o Record sales o Questions of race: Vitiligo  Icon in black America, but looked white because he bleached skin because of the sickness o Decline into the 90s and beyond Madonna - Beings as disco diva - Uses video to make herself a star - Bowie-like Chameleon - Questions of feminism around the use of sexuality - Madonna (1983) o Her first album o Bright, synthesizer- driven disco style music o “Holiday” is the hit that still lasts, but “Lucky Star” reaches top 5 - “Vogue” o Released in 1990 o Demonstrates Madonna’s uncanny ability to assimilate o Takes “voguing” from the Harlem Ballroom Scene o Makes it mainstream and popular - Madonna and sexuality o Defined, in the eyes of many, by her sexuality o Either as over the top or liberated  (or icon of queerness) April 18, 2016 Continued- - Madonna didn’t make voguing classy- her video was classy o Ballroom scene-  Straight appropriation of gay culture  Works with Jose Guyierez Xtravaganza and Luis Xtravaganza  Willi Ninja explains voguing Elsewhere in the Eighties… Whitney Houston - The only artist with seven consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number 1 hits - Notes for brilliant vocal range - Queen of late 80s and early 90s - “I Wanna Dance with Somebody” (1987) - Appears in the movie The Bodyguard o Cements her fame o Stars opposite Kevin Costner o Film gets lukewarm reviews, the soundtrack on the other hand… o “I Will Always Love You” is perhaps her most famous song o Dolly Parton sang it first- she did a cover Pop Icons - Michael, Madonna, Whiteney, Prince - These figures are the dominant pop icons of the 80s o Videos truly help them become famous - Dominant dales the continue today Elsewhere in the 80s - Not just now romantics and pop megastars - Regonomics o Rich get richer, and poor get poorer - In rock, a return to the ideals of the 60s- to connect back with the middle class- not appealing to the super rich Bruce Springsteen - “The Boss” - Early records weren’t huge hits- record company threatened to drop him - Displays skill as a storyteller - NJ Everyman- loved everywhere, but god in NJ o Connects to average NJ citizen - Born in the USA (1984) o 7 top ten singles o songs about Americans in hard times o “Dancing in the Dark” o The frustration of getting no where despite constant work  Hit hard by Rageanomics - Influences so many people after him U2 - Leaders in 60s-style protest revival - Ethereal guitar sound - “Sunday Bloody Sunday” o Troubles in Ireland - Guitar sound - Every man wear Bon Jovi - Another NJ-blue collar rock band - A bit hair metal o great hair- outfit that looks glisty and glammy - Connected with the average worker - Provided escapism and optimism - “Living on a Prayer” o portrays the band in music video o makes ban accessible- every guy kind of people Hair Metal - images becomes premium - short and catchier than 70s metal- kind of like a pop song - virtuosity - image is greater than sound- looks like they came from salon - classical music as a source? - “Eruption”- Van Halen - “Dreams”- Van Halen - Poison- band o This is hair metal o Parents just shake their heads- inappropriate, but better than Satin o Promotion on MTV o Power ballads Thrash/ Speed Metal - Sought to maintain the “true” metal tradition- back to the 1970s metal - Underground - Faster tempos - Punk attitude - Metallica o Began in 1981 in LA o Distributed largely on cassettes o Made it to the top 10 without MTC airplay o Sped metal up to create a new style o “The Four Horsemen” - Megadeth o Formed in 1983 when Dave Mustaine was kicked out of MEtalicca o Took Metallica’s idea, and made it even faster o Created a progressive strain of metal, where chops and aggression were key o “Mechanix” The Origins of Hip Hop 4-20- 2016 The Problem with Disco - it everntually ets sold as the obtainablw dream of escapism for everyone o but its not really that obtainable - emerges in Manhattan Hip Hop- - started in the Bronx o not the best neighborhood, so some people cant even get the disco - economic hardship for African Americans - The Cross Bronx Expressway is formed o Cut Bronx in half- was linked before and now separated o Next to the highway- so people do not want to live there, so property values plummet- so poorer people live there and become poorer - Gangs, drugs, guns - Rap music arose from desperation, chronicled the plight of African Americans - What makes hip hop culture? o Turntablism (DJ-ing) o Rap (MC-ing) o Break dancing o Graffiti o Fashion- hip hop artist fashion labels The DJ - Record spinners from disco o Plays more than one song or just goes from one song smoothly into the next - Rap begins in NYC in the late 70s with DJS - DJ-ing is the basis of hip hop - DJ Kool Herc o First true turntablist- leads the way o Brought the Jamaican sound system and idea of toasting to rap o Use two turntables to create mixes o Emphasizes the break  The break  Just the drums  Often pulled from funk  All the other instruments drop  Usually short  “Funky Drummer”- James Brown - Scratching o Created by accident by Grand Wizard Theodore  Scratched the record and made it into the classic DJ sound o Grandmaster Flash turns it into art o “The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash”  collection of samples built on top of one another - Break Dancing o People start elaborate dance in the breaks o B-boys (break, Bronx, beat) o Battles become standard - Rap o Like Kool Herc’s toasting- just talking over the music o Rap became more elaborate when others did it while DJ spun o Others became- MCs o Becomes about competition and battle o A musical take on playing the dozens o Busy Bee vs Kool Mmoe Dee - Rap hits the radio- 1979 o Sugarhill Gang “Rapper’s Delight” o Rhythm/bass from Chic’s “Good Times” o First ho[ hop song in the top 40 o Rap arrives on the charts as disco ends - Afrika Bambaataa o Begins to expand the musical language of hip-hop o Enamored of groups like Kraftwerk  Least black music samples o New fashion, language o “Planet Rock” (1982) - Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five o “The Message” (1982) o offer a frank view of ghetto life o good luck finding Flash - Run DMC o A departure from party rap o Sparse, boomy beats o “Walk This Way” (1986)- combines rap and rock o Hit #4, first top ten rap hit - “Sucker M.C.’s” o released in 1983 o “marked the beginning of rap’s second generation” o battle rap brought to record o reimagines what rap can sound like “Where Rap and Heavy Metal Converge” - MTC helped popularize rap o Watched by suburbians, who were thought to be hostile towards rap - Rap artists projected volatile messages via mass cultural products- but others followed rap’s lead o Public Enemy and NWA- angier and more militant style- put down women, homosexuals, blacks (Gun and Roses calls them niggers), and Japanese- got much attention  Had no shame and continued to “bad mouth” the minorities - Ethnic stereotyping runs deep in American popular culture- can eve come in forms of minority jokes- but the movements are making the jokes less tolerable o Making ethinicty known is very important to people - “it shows a new acceptance, a license to say derogatory things about other people. People making these statements are being real and not covering anything up” o theme of “rebelling against authority” - Hompphobia is rekindled by fear of AIDS- all the songs flaunt homophobia o Whenever there is a group that tries to assert themselves, there will be backlash - Censorship of populr culture would not eleimiate predjucice- but still trying to control the prejudice statements on university campuses o Axl Rose: believes that :racial epithets represent artistic freedom” (Song: “One in a Million” o Racist and sexist statements are a byproduct of societal tensions and they belong well within constitutionally defined free speech- forbidding it would lead to much controversy and thin lines - Free Speech Allows Denunciation of Bigotry o Tolerance does not mean acceptance  Free speech allows people to denounce the disgust and prejudicial conduct, but Guns and Roses have not generated a peep from anyone  Art should make people question things and their effects on the world o Public Enemy vs Guns N Roses  Guns N Roses (rap group)= self determination for blacks  Public Enemy= rage and anger, but no anti-semetic lyrics in song, mostly against government and media  Torn publically and privately- does not want to be viewed as caving into pressure from whites- so should really just distance himself from all bigotry - Listeners have to reject the messages they dislike o They scapegoat the groups as weaker- the outbreaks are weak - “rock has a tradition of embracing (or exploiting) the contributions of racial ad sexual outsiders.” “The Rap Yearbook: ‘Rapper’s Delight’ by the Sugarhill Gang” - the song is about so many different things - first commercially successful rap song and the moment modern hip hop song (became a genre) - · What was the first rap song? “King Tim III” which was a disco song by Fatback Band in 1979- only because it is recorded and released and the version of rap that we all know of today o can say that rap dates back to the 19 century griots in West Africa - In the 70s, the predominant black music was disco. However, disco was not an appropriate representation of the lifestyle blacks were experiencing at the time; it was too fun and soft. - o DJ Kool Herc, from Jamaica, played in South Bronx- real creator of rap and considered the father of hip hop- replaced the disco music with this o first to take the break o a song (instruments only part of song) and blend that song with another part with similar instruments- breaks extended when he figured out how to use to turntables- now continuous rhythm  DJs needed to one-up the other and figured out scratching, then back spinning, then MCing (talking to crowd while DJ does his thing in background)- talk led to boasting and then rhyming, which then became hip hop and MCing is now integral  This was live, and on casettes, no one recorded properly, but then in 1979 Rapper’s Delight is released and it was HUGE - “Rapper’s Delight”- first tap that most of America would hear- it was appropriste and prophetic- rap narrative over three of the ten verses o 1 verse-telling what rap is and the song’s goal- to move their feet  rap is for everyone- all types of people  saying who you are (Wonder Mike), attaching to listers, creating a new language/ vernacular, and then passing it on to friend o 2 ndverse- much criticism- they rappers are considered outsiders to some people (they aren’t traditional or typical), but they started it, but how?- real rappers were mad  Hank BRAGS: establishes rap’s relationship with money and women and gives it to Master Gee for third verse- don’t have to be tall to rap o Verses 4-10- TELLS STORIES- don’t connect even when same person raps  Mike- Love of country, prefers breakfast toasts  Hank- reporter (Lois Lane) asks him some questions and just raps some rhymes to him (part of song) and reporter falls in love with him and calls Superman to break up with him- says not the nicest thing about Superman’s clothing  Mike- friends house for dinner  Hank- no one should steal his rhymes  Master Gee- Johnny Carson, Hank’s semen, his childhood, dies at seven and performs there, and Sugarhill Gang’s advocacy for dairy products - Won some awards- o 251/500 greatest songs of all time o 2/50 greatest hip hop sogs of all time o first “true” rap song- presented itself as a rap song (not song with rap), rap group, coined the term rapper, turned Sugar Hill Records into the premier record label for rappers o sold more than 2 million copies  CHANGED EVERYTHING FOREVER “Turntable as a Weapon”- Katz - DJ battle- DJs don’t say a word, but the crowd goes crazy and the MC is up there and based on crowd’s reaction, a DJ wins. No traditional instruments used to reproduce the music, not made to produce music. o DJs use the turntables to alter the existing sound and create a wide variety and new sounds o Could not exist without technology- intersection of technology and culture o Can be deemed as dangerous but is safe for people to develop skills and express themselves creatively and constructively - Turntableism- performative DJs that manipulate recordings in live performances and make a whole new sound out of a preexisting one - Livingston created it accidently in the Bronx and let the record rotate under the needle there to hold its place- created unpitched rasping sounds= scratching o Would use two turntables to repeat their favorite parts- looping- silencing one turntable and playing the favorite part on the other turntable, which would create breaks/DJ solos and break dancing would start o Grandmaster Flash- the rub- pushed record under the needle once and let it spin - DJing is part of hip hop (NYC’s black and latino community, and then multicultural) o DJing (turntableism is offset of this)- Only small amount of turntablists compete o MCing- rapping o Break dancing o Graffiti writing - Battle Gear o Need two turntables, a mixer, and records- need to adjust sliders and BPM (beats per minute) and a slipmat o Mixer is crucial in the DJ sound o Records- strong beats to scratch over and combine with novel sounds- compilation of discs  Breakbeat/ Battle records- variety of repeated fragments  Advantages- extract the most popular parts of the record, so don’t need to look through whole record, variety of sounds in one place- don’t try to depend on them because want to display creativity themselves o Equipment can get expensive o DJing arose wen turntables were the playback equipment, and like it that way- like the physical contact with the disc, but technology now has changed that and become easier to use and combine things- some like it and some are against it - The Battle- origins and demographics o Informal DJ contests were taking place in 1970s o 1981- one of first formal battle at music convention in NY, then the British DMC, and then international phenomenon o structure now varies between events  some have multiple rounds over several months (DMCs) and small battles last until evening- judged individually vs crowds- sometimes cash is awarded, but usually gear to a store or equipment  judges are symbolic role= usually honored guests and old rappers, so the new rappers try to get approval from them o DJs are all races/backgrounds and usually young- but usually male o Begin with wordplay- messages or dis for rival- very important to it  Dissing can go too far sometimes even though they aren’t personal o Baby is simplest form of scratching o Crab is most impressive form of scratching o DJs alter sound of disc, which makes turntablism different from mechanical production o Physical element of DJ is crucial- swift hand movement is crucial- makes it appreciable- body movements make it cool and do not alter sound (break dancing position on the turntable) – they don’t steal other people’s routines- makes it better when customized for that battle specifically (improve) o I Emerge- message to competitors at beg, then goes to beat juggling, then set-up-patterns (changes speed)- basically employs many different techniques in the one showing and knows how to impress - Gender and The DJ Battle o Overwhelmingly male audience and DJs- safe place for young men to express themselves o Young men are expected to be powerful but have little access to power, so available here for them o Battling provides ability to self express  Constructive tension is there o Playing the dozens- purely verbal, trade insults that demonstrate rhetorical skills and denigrating rival’s masculinity, intelligence, and heritage- purpose to to elevate oneself and draw laughs from audience- take things out of context to create o Cutting contest- take things out of context and crate- from jazz o Battles address similarities, not their differences because they are similar o Few women because rap is tainted scene for women, men and women socialize differently- men battle more than women do (it is frowned upon if women do), women do not have the most knowledge about turntableism/ technology Hip Hop in the 90s April 25, 2016 Compton and Gangsta Rap - Compton was a poor city ravaged by gang violence - In 1991- nearly 1 in every 1000 residents was killed there - That would be the equivalent of approximately 38 murders this year amongst UMD students - Rap responds to this and similar situations NWA - NWA- Niggaz With Attitude - Ice Cube, Easy E, Dr. Dre, MC Ren, DJ Yella - Straight Outta Compton (1988) - “Fuck Tha Police” o their mentality o going to kill people to get their way in order to survive o very communal for people in Compton and people in similar situations o A mock trial o Glorification of lifestyle that does not want to be glorified Public Enemy - Come from New York- east coast - Come from tradition of 1980s - Characterized by DENSE mazes of samples - Chuck D, Flavor Flav, The Bomb Squad - Issues from incarceration to more general power politics - “Fight the Power” Regionalism - if there is one big story in 90s his hop, it is this - the emergences of local scenes - East coast vs west coast - But also in places like Atlanta East Coast/ West Coast - Feud centered around Bad Boys (east) and Death Row (west) - 2Pac and the Notorious B.I/G were murdered within a year - The Feud largely quieted - West Coast o Dr. Dre  The Chronic (1992) introduces the G-funk sound  Slower, laid back, bottom heavy  Also introduces Snoop  “Nuthin’ but a ‘G’ Thang”  A different take on “gangsta” o The Notorious B.I.G  Biggie, biggie smalls  Released ONE ALBUM while he was alive  Ready to Die (1994)  “Who Shot Ya” comes immediately in wake of 2Pac being shot  able to put a pop sheen on his music  “Juicy”  like Dre, Biggie, can bring pop sheen to hip hop o 2Pac  Tupac Shakur  Born in Ny, but becomes the West Coast figurehead  “Hit ‘em UP” (1996) provides a response to “Who Shot Ya”  “California Love” 1996  Like biggie, Tupac could spin a pop hit  His first song with Death Row Records  First song post- jail  A weird fusion of G-funk, pop, and gangsta o 2Pac and Biggie were some of the best rappers that ever lived- would have talked about them without the feud - East coast is upset because they really created it - Outkast o There is more than just the coasts o Atlanta becomes a this center f hip hop o And Outkast comes the center of Atlanta o Andre 3000 and Big Boi o Aquemini (1998)  An album of duality- about two people- a lot of back and forth between two people  What it means to be two people in every situation  Recorded with a live band, one of the signatures of Atlanta sound  “spottieottiedopaliscious”  relates back to p-funk  makings sound that sound cool  Paints a picture- art of story telling - Lauryn Hill o The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill (1998) o a deep, introspective look at a woman’s role in like and hip hop o often called a neo-soul album o “Doo Wop (That Thing)”  lessons from someone who has “been there”  in two verses  first addresses women: careful of men who only want “that thing”  second addresses men: have some respect and care  issues of respectability politics Grunge and Grrrl Riot 4-27- 2016 Alternative- - music that arises in the late 80s/early 90s - less commercial, more authentic - independent record labels - regionalism becomes key here o Athens, GA o Minneapolis o Boston/ Amherst o Seattle  Distinct alternative scene in the 80s  Green River (popular band) and Sub Pop Records  Starts with making own music, and produces many small Seattle bands, but then becomes big  DIY culture, again- you start a label and you do it- everyone pitches in  Plays in bars for 50, and then big, you play in bars for 200  Gives birth to grunge Grunge Music - Green River o Limited commercial success, yet vitally influential to grunge o Set up sound of Seattle o Named for a serial killer o Dry as a Bone (1987)-  the first non-compilation on Sub Pop Records  first big album- their starting point o “ultra loose GRUNGE that destroyed the moral of a generation” o “Swallow My Pride”  simple, punk esque sound  slowed down a bit  HEAVY guitar sound, filled with fuzz  Originally on their first album, re-released on their third (1988) What is Grunge? - Blend of punk/metal/pop - Look- torn ripped jeans, flannel - Reaction against their hair bands o Hair bands are all about the gorgeous look, and not focus on the music, rather than the musician o Grunge- just want to hear the music - Disaffected youth- Generation X o Forgotten generation (in between baby boomers and us) - Nirvana o Nevermind (1991)- huge success o Spurs grunge to the national stage o Influenced by Led/ Beatles/Sabbath/etc o “Lithium”  stayed opening and then turn  can yell along with and monetize- catchy pop song o spoke to the teneragers and early 20s  “Smells Like Teen Spirit”  we’ve don’t our job, now entertain me o After Cobain  Cobain committed suicide in 1994  Dave Grohl went in to form the Foo Fighters  Grunge still remained big  Alternative sells o Pearl Jam, nirvana and other still dominate charts in early 90s o Grunge reflects anger, frustration, and disillusionment of a new generation o “Jeremy”- Pearl Jam, addresses violence in schools - Soundgarden- o Along with Nirvana and Pearl Jam, one of the seminal bands of grunge o Formed in 1984 o Superunknown (1994) becomes their biggest hit  Focuses on the music o “Black Hole Sun” o A more melodic grunge Riot Grrrl - One of the most impactful scenes of the 90s - Independent, feminist, initiative - Wanted to combat certain aspects - Developed in Olympia, WA and Washington Dc - Far more than music: poetry, zines, art, writing… - The ideology o Focused on female empowerment o Subverting patriarchal norms  Cat calling is not okay, women didn’t get dressed up for you men o Spread through local chapters o DIY aesthetic - The music o Sonically, much like other underground indie bands o Lyrically- a focus on gender politics  Message of female empowerment- flip gender norms on their head o Bikini Kill  Band that formed in Olympia, WA after meeting at Evergreen State College- most hippy and liberal/left college  Kathleen Hanna penned the Riot Grrrl Manifesto  “Rebel Girl”- 1993  a take no crap anthem for a movement o “Sleater Kinney”  yet another Oympia band  Perhaps the most commercially successful Riot Grrrl at  Corin Tucker (formerly of Heavens to Betsey) and Carrie Brownstein  “I Wanna be Your Joey Ramone” -1996 o Everyone wants to be the rock goddess- want to be the Joey Ramone, but in female version  Flip the gender script of the rock narrative o Bratmobile o Heavens to Betsey April 29, 2016 “Grunge’s Long Shadow”- Reynolds - Techno/house music arose after death of disco- but between the two prequel to grunge (80s)- nothing to really describe the music and too diverse- so history doesn’t focus on it/is biased- kind of humiliating for the time- not to have a name - Deemed as an aftermath is also humiliating- maybe a fallout even- attempt to challenge the perennial fixation on punk- so many new genres formed o Post disco- genre just mutated to other forms and more electronic, but the vocals and live dance floors still endured  This is better because it was created by and for people- and kept music moving forward o Post psychedelic (another post phase)-Bob Dylan and Rolling Stones  People still kept visions of psychedelia and trippiness  Even some singer songwriters and normal artists - After disco/funk- it is unified by values and infrastructure (clustered around certain key labels) - Post punk/disco/psychedelic- elusive but fertile regions of music o Fade, but never go away o Hard to perceive as eras- challenges the turning points o Post rock is different- early 90s that abandoned guitar- it didn’t evoke a sense of going beyong the strictures of the genres without abandoning the the legacy or attitudes “Riot Grrrl”- Bikini Kill - Developed from indie-punk and DIY attitudes in the post-punk hardcore scenes - Second wave of feminist critique- adopted the “in your face” approach to express femininity and confrontational attitudes toward presumed male intransigence- even though the musicians didn’t want to be seen part of any movement - This article proves background of band members in groups of Bikini Kill and Bratmobile - Men have tried to keep the unequal power distribution - Major critique of Riot Grrl is how it links gender oppression to operations of capitalism - Riot Grrl didn’t heighten awareness of how limited female participation in rock music had been until that time and of how these limits were linked to broader manifestation of patriarchal society - Two bratmobiles went to DC (to shake things up) and connected with Jen Smith who wanted to start a girl network- so that summer, in DC they (Olmypia women) did- they spread their ideas and events. o Weekly meetings- 20 females came and talked about the female scene input and how everyone can support each other- meetings still happened even when sme leaders went back to Olympia o Fanziness kept coming out with people people- promoting the franzines and they kept on coming out- just trying to network with grrrls all over and distributed  Whoever wanted to contribute, could o Just wanted to do something important and to network grrrls all over- NOT TO MAKE MONEY  Understand each other and to impct each other- sense of community  Don’t want to assimilate to the boys  You can do anything idea  Hate capitalism- sharing information and staying alove  Girls are strong  Women can change the world for the good Kolawole “Sisters Take the Rap… But Talk Back” - Gangsta rap, born on West Coast, changed the game musically and lyrically o Visual imagery from the Blaxploitation movies- vehicle for social comments o Violent street life led to deep expression of frustration of blacks, which was then replaced by the consumerism and materialism o Black power influenced East Coast outfits such as Public Enemy o Politicians and academics are critics- not even the females  When it is criticized- they respond back that they have freedom of expression- minorities getting anger out- except for women  Female rappers should talk about misogyny but don’t- females play their game so can’t be critical o Political- plight of a black man - The music degrades women- it is popular o They appear in videos as whores and men carry guns (sexuality and misogyny)  Misongyn and violence in rap is destroying girls’ souls - Both races are worried for their children listening to this o Face moral panic - Women demand respect - Gangsta rap bashin on rude - Gangsta rap is political­ish - LP9 - There’s a moral panic...violence, misogyny - Black women feel affected on a spiritual level, misogyny and violence ruining the soul - Kids listen to this shit and think it’s normal and do as they say - Female rappers who speak up against misogyny are seen as lesbians and alienated from  rap scene - Personal statements made o DJ does not necessarily agree with messages of songs, but have to play what is  requested o Girl at concert does not sing misogynistic lyrics o More about the music than lyrics - The Rise of EDM May 2, 2016 A timeline of Dance Music - 1970s- rise and fall of disco - late 70s- house takes off in Chicago - Early 80s- house inspires techno in Detroit - Mid 80s- mid 90s- peak of house popularity “Disco Sucks” - Reach against disco - Especially by metal fans - Disco demolition rights From the Shadows of Disco- - 3-4 miles nth of Chicago - The Warehouse- the club - Open in 1976 - Hires Frankie Knuckles in 1977 - Today it is primarily white, but it was black Frankie Knuckles - A NY DJ - Invited to Chicago by Robert Williams - Specialized in music that you wouldn’t hear anywhere else - He is the god father of music - Emphasis on base - Creates house music - “Move Your Body” o Begins with an acoustic piano and four on the floor o Eventually switched into electronic keyboards o An a capella breakdown later in the song o Can hear the drop a little bit House Music - Named after the WareHouse - But also because it is homemade quality - No standard verse chorus here- build it up and then drop it and everything will come right back in - Designed for dancing- o Four on the floor (disco) o Vocals as instruments (funk) o Most electronic instruments (new) o But also sampled acoustics (new) House Becomes Techno - Detroit DJs make the trip to Chicago - Bring the music back, add their own sound - Initially similar, but more emphasis on electronics (technology to techno) o More emphasis on synthesizer keyboards, less emphasis on the old instruments o More electronic samples- heavily processed voices o Making it as electronic as possible - Cybotron- “Clear” - Derrick May o The Frankie Knuckles of Techno, worked closely with him o “Strings of Life”- exemplary of the style o sectional form- built up slowly- many different sounds going on  electronic piano and string stabs  percussion drop in  another layer of percussion Early Reception - house and techno start at black clubs - eventually begin attracting a broad/diverse audience - not that much drug use - Note the similarity to disco - And when it expanded, where else would it go but… Europe- - By the late 1980s a rave scene develops in the UK - 1988-89- The Second Summer of Love - Fueled by ecstasy and house music - Very laid back - By the early 90s, outdoor raves with 30,000 people are common - Acid House o Known for its deep bass lines o Synthesized “squelching” noises  “Dream 17” by Annette demonstrates this quite well  low bass and then the squelching noise for melody Big Beat - bands take up the acid house sounds- acid house becomes mainstream - 90s electronic bands based on acid house aesthetics - The Prodigy, Fatboy Slim, Chemical Brothers - “Breathe”- The Prodigy Many differences of Electronic music- many subcategories Today- - and yet it still comes full circle - “Hold My Hand” – Jess Glynne o top 40 is blending with dance music- 4 on the floor is everywhere st The 21 Century 5-4- 2016 Time- - We tend to forget the bad music o We have forgotten the bad music, so the music of today is not necessarily worse than the music of the past Hip Hop - A few key figures stand out and will past the test of time - A splintering of styles - Technological innovation, driven by the Internet - Critical acceptance and investigation - Eminiem o Intenselve divisive o Frankly loathsome lyrics- misogynistic and homophobic o Also on of the best rappers of all times o Ignited a debate of authenticity o “The Real Slim Shady” provides a lesson in a life at the turn of the millennium - Jay Z o Approach him as a rapper? Producer? Mogul? o “99 Problems”  from 2004’s Black Album  tries to contrast his earlier life in the projects  with his new one as someone with plenty of money and fame  pays homage to some of the day in the life rap of before - Kanye West o Rapper, producer o And on-again off-again social outcast o Regan as a producer as Roc-A-Fella o College Dropout o Pushing the boundaries of hip hop o “Power” 2010  the ultimate stoking of Kanye’s ego  “Screams from the haters… superhero need his theme music”  gets into political issues  obscure samples  Lavish production  Video inspired by Renaissance painting Pop - The transition from bubble-gum boy bands to EDM/R&B fueled tracks - Women dominate (Britney Spears, Katy Perry, Rihanna, Lady Gaga, Beyonce) - Absolutely, stunningly massive sales - Britney Spears- o The top selling artist in the US o Number one Billboard Hot 100 hits in three decades o Growth from teen pop o more mature issues o “Womanizer” (2008)- a woman being taken advantage of turns out to have control - Ke$ha o A question of how we talk about this o An undeniable pop superstar o Bow how do we handle the legal battle with Dr. Luke (producer who she accuses of sexual abuse) o Think back to Phil Spector o Music? Issues? Both? - Beyonce o Went fro Destiny’s Child to her own HBO promo video o One of the greatest promoters alive o Manages to evade problems we accept with the Internet o Lemonade  Surprises us with “Formation” the day before she plays the Super Bowl  A brazen embrace of blackness in many forms  Includes this formula- my daddy Alabama, Momma Louisiana, you mix that negro with that Creole make a Texas bama o “Daddy Lessons”  Daddy Alabama- a song about the lessons her dad taught her  Momma Louisiana- begins with NOLA-style brass band, jazz influence carries throughout  She’s Texas- a country song with all the country stereotypes Hip Hop elements- - Written on the slide Themes- Issues of power in hop hop - Mark Katz- turntable is a weapon o Way of being empowered and can control music, so it gives people power o In the book- read it- straight forward  Will bring you through issues of turntableism- explains the process and what they are doing  Why turntableism? What is the difference of turntableism and DJ?  - Rapping is expression of power o Expression in it of itself is powerful o Many of the elements o Hip hop is from people who do not have power or money, so music is a way of feeling empowered- related to reality o Very realistic- expressing something that they are living through - Competitive nature- rap battle, DJ battles, Break dancing battles Rap- - Music element of hip hop - “Rapper’s delight”- Sugarhill gang song o first commercially successful rap song o what are the lyrics about? Themes?  Stereotypes of hip hop- emphasis on money, power, bragging about how good they are at rapping  Go through the verses - Salt-n Pepper- o Look through the slides o Emerge in late 80s and become imp in 90s o Because they are so good, they can get any woman that they want  Stereotypical of objectification of women  Female rappers address this issue- “Women take the rap” o Shoop- watch the music video  All about sex  Overtly sexual- perceiving it as women as sexual objects, but the women are being sexual in the video- comment on agency  They had the choice to do that- people shouldn’t make the decision for them- no reason why they cant be sexy  Role reversal- men are now being objectified to look pretty  This is why women usually appear in videos, but this addressed the reason why men are there- men were objectified- put the women in the position of power. Women are the key element- women are in the spot light singing and there is a purpose of them being there and are choosing to act that way, but men are being objectified here. o Can be viewed as feminist- showing their power, which could be sexy  Music video enhances the song itself- need the visual to help you Third article- - Issue of lyrics and messages in lyrics o Heavy metal and hip hop both have negative messages toward a group of people  Is one group of people being empowered while another is being put down? - Censorship- some of the songs themselves were censored Censorship - Negative messages - What are the different kinds of censorship? What is it? o Friends and government o Should it be censored even if we have free speech? Music videos and lyrics work together- visual add to the song - Madonna- “Like a Prayer”- google it and can understand better Discussion Week 13- Music video offers more meaning to the song- highlights what the song is about - Video can change the meaning, match the meaning, add more meaning to the song itself - Extra way to experience music - Madonna’s- Like a Prayer o Video has another meaning - Bon Jovi- Living on a Prayer o Goes from black to white- something meaningful - Jeremy- Pearl Jam o Meaning in video is clear in video, but in the lyrics, it isn’t  Video helps explain what the lyrics mean - Baby Got Back o Song and lyrics are very much related- they match each other  It acts out the words  New way to experience the music  Gives you a visual Censorship can be self censoring - Don’t have to listen to the music - Don’t have to listen to the words, but can just be there for the beat - How do they get around this? So many ways! It is personal.


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