Arizzoli's AH101 Final Exam STUDY GUIDE
Arizzoli's AH101 Final Exam STUDY GUIDE AH 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory McClurg on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AH 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Arizzoli, Louise in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Western Art in Art History at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 1 Louise Arizzoli Etruscan art – embracing because they are married; she is gesturing because she is speaking; influences Roman art, i.e. sculpture of a leader holding his hands out as though he’s speaking to his people Greek art – Classical Art – emphasizes rational simplicity, order, and retrained emotion; idealized; contrapposto Greek architecture – o Doric columns – plain, no extravagant decoration at the top o Ionic columns – fairly plain, incorporates the scroll pattern at the top o Corinthian columns – decorated in leaves and other organic shapes Roman art – Hellenistic Era (323-31 B.C.) – practical, less idealistic than the Greeks Copied and collected Greek art, but their art wasn’t all imitative o Civic leaders are primary subject matter for sculptures o Males wear Roman togas and are rarely nude o Figures are realistic in facial features and show age Greatest achievements in civil engineering, town planning, and architecture; built structures as evidence of imperial power; invention of concrete, which provided a strong and less costly construction material (huge vaulted rooms with no internal support) o Semi-circular arch o Barrel vaults o Domes less idealistic than Greek art; portrays an older man with a serious/unhappy look his face Early Imperial period; he is clothed and more realistic/less idealized; Augustus is the first emperor - brings back peace and prosperity to the empire AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 2 Louise Arizzoli comprised almost entirely of arches Early Christian art – Romans assumed Christianity was a strange cult and attempted to suppress it though law, so many Christians had to hide and worship in underground burial chambers called catacombs o Decorated in paintings to honor the dead popular themes – Jonah, Sacrifice of Isaac, Daniel, Adam and Eve; figures arms raised in prayer – stand for Christian family seeking the afterlife (Heaven). Medieval Art – Medieval period (500-1000 A.D.) – o Fusion of Celtic-Germanic culture, Christianity, and the Greco- Roman heritage. During the Middle Ages art has a didactic purpose: teach the Bible to people who do not know how to read. Churches will be used for pilgrimage. Chief characteristic is abstract decorative designs using zoomorphic elements. o Elaborate interlacing patterns are integrated with animal forms in the decoration of jewelry, manuscripts, stone sculptures, and wood carvings. o Gracefully elongated animals forms intertwine with flexible plant stalks, spiraling rhythm. Effect of natural growth, organic forms are subjected to a highly refined abstract sensibility. Romanesque Art – o (1000-1200 CE) o Churches made use of round arches and vaults with double aisles book cover decorated by hand probably by a monk; incorporated gold, silver, and other expensive materials Gothic Art – o Architecture – they wanted the buildings to create an illusion of its mass; revival of large scale sculpture AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 3 Louise Arizzoli Increased height Rib vaults Flying buttresses Rose windows o The Gothic cathedral was the product of an era of widespread economic prosperity, deep spirituality and extraordinary technological innovation. o Towering structures, illuminated by mystical light Art is very symbolic, not realistic; focuses on Christian symbols; art has the main purpose to be worshipped; Cult of Virgin Mary very important First cathedral (after fire) whose plan included flying buttresses – another high gothic norm; single aisle rather than double aisles of Romanesque churches; blue windows inside; designed for pilgrims head of roaring beast with protruding eyes and elaborate geometric pattern; animal form and interlace pattern are characteristic of warrior lord art Renaissance Art – Renaissance Period (1400-1600A.D) o Means “rebirth” o Refers to the time period and the style of art o A renewed interest in Classical thinking, mythology, and art Study of mathematics and science encouraged the systematic understanding of the world Humanism – Philosophical approach that stressed the intellectual and physical potential of human beings Religion – Reformation and counter-Reformation Catholic and Protestant beliefs were reflected in the art of the Italian Renaissance and the northern Renaissance Art was a balance of the real and ideal o Realistic depictions of three-dimensional space and perspective o Human experience was the central value. AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 4 Louise Arizzoli o Idealistic portrayal of mythological or religious subjects, and the nude figure o Emphasis on education o Paid careful attention to texture and fine detail o Developed oil painting techniques o Depicted everyday objects with religious symbolism o Were less comfortable with Classical forms than Italian artists Tribute of Money: miracle performed by Christ in Gospel of Saint Matthew, where Jesus directs Peter to retrieve a coin from the mouth of a fish in order to pay the temple tax; revolutionary use of atmospheric perspective and chiaroscuro High Renaissance – interest for classical culture, perspective, proportion, and human anatomy brought to an apex o Artists like Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo became international celebrities Leonardo Da Vinci – use sfumato (misty haze) technique; did psychological portraits and his paintings have an aura of mystery; was a painter and scientist that wanted to discover underlying processes of nature; focused on the human body, and contributed greatly to physiology and psychology Leonardo; similar to the School of Athens in perspective and focal point Leonardo; AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 5 Louise Arizzoli Leonardo; Raphael – School of Athens painting; had a successful career; worked for Pop Julius; influenced by Leonardo, but uses lighter tones; there is no mystery in his paintings; art portrays gracefulness and clarity Raphael; Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel ceiling/Creation of Adam/Last Judgement; he considered himself a sculptor but he also painted; was an architect and a poet; even though he looked at ancient art he did not believe in the ideal proportions and did not apply mathematics to his art; his paintings have a sculptural quality Michelangelo; representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of the dead Christ; Michelangelo; AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 6 Louise Arizzoli Mannerism – began to develop in the 1520s as a reaction to Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo’s style; mush more elaborate than Renaissance art, and more artificial religious turmoil; Baroque in Italy and outside of Italy – means oddly shaped pearls, or eventually bizarre, irregular, and eccentric; time of exploration and discovery; theory that the sun was the center of the universe was now accepted; birth of absolutism; post-reformation church Baroque art in Italy – o Emphasis on light o Diversity of approaches (Classicism/Realism) o Dramatic movement and theatrical compositions use of chiaroscuro (darkness and light); light source unknown; similar focal point to the Creation of Adam with the hand AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 7 Louise Arizzoli not displaying vanity because nothing is on the scale; may be pregnant; portrays religious; portrait of the king, queen, the princess and her maidservants, as well as himself; portrayed the artist life as that of a celebrity; Neoclassicism – Late 18 century art movement with roots in ancient Greece and Rome Neoclassical Art – o Exemplify civic responsibility o Convey a moral message o Stable compositions o Idealized bodies o Classical architecture o Heroic subject matter Romanticism – (1800-1840) reflects revolutionary beliefs in liberty, equality, and humanity Political and social freedom, freedom of thought; path to freedom through imagination Rooted in the Middle Ages Interested in mysterious, unexplained, and dangerous phenomena; importance of individual imagination and creativity AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 8 Louise Arizzoli Romantic art – o Emotional elements o Contain movement and drama o Often reflect individual opinions o Emergence of landscape painting as an independent genre Realism – Beginning around mid-nineteenth century The rise of the telephone, telegraph, and faster transportation, many people were becoming more socially-aware and directing their attention to society and nature Realists depicted modern-day subjects Realist art – o Figures realistic rather than idealized o Showed respect for working-class people o Artworks appear less finished, less concerned with illusionism than previous traditions of eighteenth- and nineteenth- century art Photography – Invented in the 19 century; struggled to become an art form in its own right; achieved great popularity for portraiture and journalism and eventually as an art Pronounced shift of patronage – away from the elite towards the middle class; photography is reproducible and more affordable Easy and accurate to reproduce, but challenged the traditional modes of pictorial representation originating in the Renaissance AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 9 Louise Arizzoli New medium with the power of documenting, also welcomes as am auxiliary to painting Allowed the artist to capture exactly the expression/emotion he wanted; capturing what was real, not artificial or idealized Impressionism – The impressionists exhibited together in 8 exhibitions fro 1874 to 1886 Depicted modern subject matter rejecting the formal approach, but each had very individual styles A development of Realism, but more concerned with optical Realism and the natural properties of light Avoided political subject matters and instead painted landscapes, cityscapes, entertainment, and leisure activities outdoors Impressionist Art- o Quick, sketch-like brushstrokes o Captured spontaneous moments o Depicted effects of light and atmosphere o Rejected varnish and finished look o Often painted en plein air (outdoors) painted outdoors, en plein air used pointillism (tiny dots) to create a huge picture Modernism – (1860s to 1970s) period of time when artists saw art as experimentation’ less narrative, more abstract rejected pointillism, bright colors and linear figures that came from artist’s imagination AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 10 Louise Arizzoli Abstract Expressionism – Pop Art – Minimalism – Doric columns – plain, no extravagant decoration at the top AH101 Final Exam Study Guide 11 Louise Arizzoli Ionic columns – fairly plain, incorporates the scroll pattern at the top Corinthian columns – decorated in leaves and other organic shapes Sfumato: misty haze in Italian. Leonardo’s trademark painterly effect, which unifies the composition by enveloping the figures and landscape in a diffuse, evanescent and poetic haze. Pieta’: A painted or sculpted representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of the dead Christ. th Reformation: Around the second decade of the 16 century, Roman Catholic Church underwent a Revolution known as the Reformation. This led to the emergence in large parts of Europe of the Protestant Church. It started with the preaching of Martin Luther in Germany, against the corruption of the Church. Mannerism: a style of the late Renaissance that is much more elaborate and artificial. Tenebrism: painting that uses violent contrast of light and dark, as in the work of Caravaggio. Genre: a kind of painting that realistically depicts scenes of the everyday life. Pointillism: a system of painting devised by Georges Seurat in which color is applied in tiny dots. The image becomes comprehensible only from a distance, when the viewer eye optically blends the pigments. Ready-made: ordinary manufactured objects that the artist selected and modified. By simply choosing the object and repositioning or joining, titling and signing it, the object became art.
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