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exam 2

by: sarah Notetaker
sarah Notetaker

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note for chapter 8
Intro to Human Communication
Study Guide
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Popular in Intro to Human Communication

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by sarah Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 100 at Arizona State University taught by Roberto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Communication in Communication Studies at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
Chapter 8: Intercultural communication: communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different Culture: learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people Border dwellers: people who live between cultures and often experience contradictory cultural patterns Power distance: a value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power Culture shock/reverse culture shock or reentry shock: culture shock experienced by travelers on returning to their home country. Individualist orientation: a value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals Collectivist orientation: a value orientation that stresses the needs of the group. Face-negotiation theory: *self-image or identity is important in interpersonal interactions. *individual negotiate their identity differently across cultures GENERAL MOUDLE: 1- type of culture: Individualist or collectivist 2- type of self-construal: how you perceive or comprehend and interrupt something The degree to which people perceive themselves as autonomous from or connected 3- type of face maintenance: Self-image: the way we want others to see us and treat us Face: a metaphor for the public image people display Face-work: face-giving/face-saving: other-concerned: message that help maintain face (before) Face restoration: self-concerned: message that help restore face loss (after) Conflict: unexpressed struggle between at least 2 interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from others in achieving their goals Constructive: consider all ideas and information Vs. Destructive conflict: ignore other ideas and information Conflict management styles: consistent orientations people take toward conflict Assertiveness: regarding your own goals Cooperativeness: regarding other persons concern and goals Conflict management styles: (Avoiding: withdrawing from or refusing to deal with the conflict Obliging: satisfying the other persons goals at your expense Dominating: pursing your own goals at the other persons expense Integrating: attempting to find a solution that fully satisfies both parties concerns Compromising: finding a solutions that partly satisfies both parties) Dual-concern model: (graph) Principled negotiation: hard on issue soft in the people People: separate the people from the problem Insert in substance vs relationships Work side by side attack the problems not each other Interests: focus on interest not positions \ what motivates you to pick a position \ most interest can be satisfied by several positions Vs. Positions: ST you decide upon Options: generate a variety of possibilities b4 deciding what to do. Brain storming invent 1 decide later Criteria: insist that the result be based on some objects standard - use fair procedures - use fair standards Chapter 6: Nonverbal communication: nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning Kinesics: nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior Gestures: nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people’s attention Illustrators: signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal message Emblems: gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning Adaptors: gestures used to manage emotions Regulators: gestures used to control conversations Paralinguistic: all aspects of spoken language except for the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, and stress Chronemics: the study of the way people use time as a message. Proxemics: the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate. Monophonically: engaging in one task or behavior at a time Polyphonically: engaging in multiple activities simultaneously , Four distances: Intimate: zero to eighteen inches - the space used when interacting with those with whom one is very close Personal: (eighteen inches to four feet) the space used when interacting with friends and acquaintances Social: (four to twelve feet) the distance most U.S. Americans use when they interact with unfamiliar others Public: (twelve to twenty-five feet) the distance used for public ceremonies such as lectures and performances Haptics: the study of the communicative function of touch Six types of touch: Professional: type of touch used by certain workers, such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as functional touch Functional: the least intimate type of touch; used by certain workers such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as professional touch Social-polite: touch that is part of daily interaction in the United States; it is more intimate than professional touch but is still impersonal Friendship: touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys warmth, closeness, and caring Love-intimate: the touch most often used with one’s romantic partners and family Demand: a type of touch used to establish dominance and power. Non-verbal messages can interact with verbal messages in at least five ways: Repeating: you node and say yes (t2keed) Highlighting: emphasis how the message take) Complementing/reinforcing: the verbal messages doesn’t make since without the nonverbal messages Contradicting: ana mw m39ba ( w ana a9ar5 ) Substituting: using nonverbal messages instead of the verbal Expectancy violations theory (including expectations): people hold expectations about behaviors, what happens when our expectations are not met. Communicator reward valance: degree of attraction, the + or – assessment of the communicator Violation valance: Deception: a message knowingly transmitted by a sender to foster a false believe or conclusion by the receiver (Falsification -> not telling the truth Omission: tell part of the truth Equivocation -> you could be intentionally vague) Four factor model: explains why people behave differently when lying than when telling the truth (Arousal: people are more anxious when telling lie Attempted control: people try to regulate their behavior when lying Felt emotions: deception is associated with negative feelings Cognitive effort: lying requires to think a lot harder) Reliable: smiling, eye contact, hurried speech, other facial expressions And unreliable indicators of deception. Chapter 9: Proximity: how physically close one is to others Attractiveness: the appeal one person has for another, based on physical appearance, personalities, or behavior Matching hypothesis: the tendency to develop relationships with people who are approximately as attractive as we are Similarity: degree to which people share the same values, interests, and background Uncertainty reduction theory: theory that argues relationship development is facilitated or derailed by participants’ efforts to reduce their uncertainty about each other Knapp’s stage model: model of relationship development that views relationships as occurring in “stages” and that focuses on how people communicate as relationships develop and decline (Including 5 coming together and 5 coming apart stages) Social exchange theory : uses and economics marketplace metaphor : People assess their relationship in terms of cost and rewards. Funnel of Love: (field of availables, desirables, and reciprocals) field of availables: proximity field of desirablesAttractiveness “matching hypothesis”, similarity field of reciprocals: when you like someone and you’re not sure if he is like you back Social Penetration Theory (SPT): the process of bonding that moves a relationship from superficial to more intimate Self-disclosure: the process of revealing inf. about oneself (breadth: the number of inf. discussed in a relationship. vs. depth: the degree of intimacy that guides topic de ) relational dialects theory: individuals in relationship experience on going tensions between contradictory impulses (autonomy—connection: we want independence and intimacy distance and closeness , openness—protection: we want to be valuable and protective (open closed) , novelty—predictability: we want the excitement of change and the comfort of stibilty) six types of love (Storgic: friendship love based on shared values. Agapic: all giving unconditional selfless live, get more pleasure from giving than receiving Manic: passive dependent love, like attention, affection and togetherness Pragmatic: logical, realistic and sensible Ludic: game playing or uncommitted love Erotic: romantic, passionate love) Unrequited love:


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