ARTS 2050 Final Study Guide
ARTS 2050 Final Study Guide ARTS 2050
Popular in Cultural Diversity in American Art
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This 39 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan King on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTS 2050 at University of Georgia taught by Rebecca R. Brantley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in American Art in Arts at University of Georgia.
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ARTS2050 Brantley 1 Study Guide 2 Final Exam: 8:00 AM on Thursday, May 5 Works of art (slide IDs): 1. Souls Awaiting a Future. 2003-2009. JOHN FEODOROV. 2. The Office Shaman. 2000-2005. JOHN FEODOROV. ARTS2050 Brantley 2 3. Telling Many Magpies, Telling Black Wolf, Telling Hachivi. 1989. HACHIVI EDGAR HEAP OF BIRDS. 4. Building Minnesota, Walker Art Center. 1990. HACHIVI EDGAR HEAP OF BIRDS. ARTS2050 Brantley 3 5. American Leagues. 1996. HACHIVI EDGAR HEAP OF BIRDS. 6. Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People). 1992. JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH. ARTS2050 Brantley 4 7. Bible Quilt. c. 1886. HARRIET POWERS. 8. Pictorial quilt. 1895–98. HARRIET POWERS. ARTS2050 Brantley 5 9. "Lazy Gal" -- "Bars," ca. 1965. LORETTA PETTWAY. 10. "Logcabin" -- single-block "Courthouse Steps" variation (local name: "Bricklayer"), ca. 1970. LORETTA PETTWAY. ARTS2050 Brantley 6 11. Work-clothes quilt with center medallion of corduroy strips, 1976. ANNIE MAE YOUNG. 12. Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred b'tween the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart, 1994, KARA WALKER. ARTS2050 Brantley 7 13. A Subtlety. 2014. KARA WALKER. Domino Sugar Factory, Williamsburg, Brooklyn (Summer 2014). ARTS2050 Brantley 8 14. Passing/Posing # 13. 2002. KEHINDE WILEY. 15. Napoleon Leading the Army over the Alps. 2005 KEHINDE WILEY. ARTS2050 Brantley 9 16. Miss Susanna Gale, 2009. KEHINDE WILEY ARTS2050 Brantley 10 17. El Capitan: Yosemite National Park, California, 1930. CHIURA OBATA. ARTS2050 Brantley 11 18. A Sad Plight. Oct. 1942, CHIURA OBATA . 19. Hatsuki Wakasa Shot by M.P., April 1943, CHIURA OBATA. ARTS2050 Brantley 12 20. Topaz, March 10, 1943. CHIURA OBATA. 21. Topaz War Relocation Center by Moonlight, 1943, CHIURA OBATA. 22. Self-Portrait, c. 1927. YUN GEE. ARTS2050 Brantley 13 23. Nude. 1926. YUN GEE. 24. Chinatown, San Francisco. 1927. YUN GEE. ARTS2050 Brantley 14 25. The Flute Player (Self-Portrait), 1928. YUN GEE. 26. Wheel: Industrial New York, 1932. YUN GEE. 27. Cut Piece, photo of performance, July 20, 1964 (Kyoto, Yamaichi Hall). YOKO ONO. ARTS2050 Brantley 15 28. MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington D.C., 1981-1983 29. Untitled (Free/Still), 1992, 1995, 2007, 2011. RIRKRIT TIRAVANIJA. ARTS2050 Brantley 16 30. The Scroll, 1991-1992. SHAHZIA SIKANDER. 31. Perilous Order, 1994-1997. SHAHZIA SIKANDER. 32. Fleshy Weapons. 1997. SHAHZIA SIKANDER. ARTS2050 Brantley 17 33. Stills from SpiNN (digital Animation with sound), 2003. SHAHZIA SIKANDER. 34. Offered Eyes. 1993. SHIRIN NESHAT. ARTS2050 Brantley 18 35. Speechless, 1996, SHIRIN NESHAT. 36. Turbulent, 1998, SHIRIN NESHAT. Readings: ARTS2050 Brantley 19 1. Delacruz, E. M. (2003). Racism American Style and Resistance to Change: Art Education’s Role in the Indian Mascot Issue. Art Education, 56(3), 13-20. Four cases of Native American commodification where explained: 1. Florida State University – Mascot “Chief Osceola”. This 20- year-old spectacle/performance during sports events continues despite Native American objections. For many Native Americans, the bigger insult is not the slurs, the name of an NFL team, the true insult comes when their objections are met with indifference. 2. Issaquah High School Indian Mascot. The school board moved foreword to adopt a new policy that mascots be free from racial stereotyping after focusing on the effects of the mascot. 3. Washington Redskins. The term “redskins: was originally used by white settlers as a way to count the Indian scalps collected by trappers. Native Americans dealing with this issue refer to “Redskins” as the “R-word”. The attorney for Football Inc (who owns the redskins) says it is not a slur and called the opponents of the name a “militant group trying to further their own personal and political agendas” 4. Urbana-Champaign campus – “Chief Illiniwek”. Central to the arguments and counter arguments are contested definitions of what constitutes honor, tradition, and racism. Arguments in favor of the mascot reference his presence as tradition, and that it “honors” Native American culture, and that the mascot is an emotional attachment for alumni. Opponents argue that the mascot misrepresents Native American culture, hurts the self image of NA children, and mocks sacred NA beliefs and rituals. Currently, authenticity and actual historical evidence are forsaken in favor of commercial and entertainment interests. In reality, Anglo-Americans know very little (if anything) about the beliefs and values of any Native American, past or present. Native-based mascots teach and perpetuate stereotypes which directly undermine the self-determination, dignity, and well- being of Native people, as well as create a hostile school, ARTS2050 Brantley 20 social, economic, and work environment. Our silence of this issue is a form of racism itself. 2. McWillie, J.  Another Face of The Diamond. In The Clarion, 12, 42-52. 3. Wallach, A. [2006, October]. Fabric of Their Lives. In Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved online from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/fabric-of-their- lives-132757004/?no-ist The quilts made by those in Gee’s Bend, Alabama, are featured in the Museum of Fine Arts in Houson. The director says the quilts “expand the sense of what art can be.” Many quilts were made during the Civil Rights movement. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. visited Gee’s Bend and urged them to come march with him, but they all got thrown in jail. Many African americans who tried to march or register to vote lost their jobs and even their homes. Collector William Arnett discovered the quilts, and traveled to Gee’s Bend to buy some for a few thousand dollars from Annie Mae Young, a quilt maker. These quilts are literally made of whatever fabric the women could find, and they are seen as “the most miraculous works of modern art America has produced”. The exhibitions of the quilts revived quilt making in Gee’s Bend, and the Gee’s Bend Quilters Collective was found in 2003 as a way to market the quilts, some of which sell for $20,000. 4. Hughes, K.  Southern discomfort: artist Kara Walker continues to shock and awe. In The Telegraph. Retrieved on August 13, 2015 from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/10314794/Southern- discomfort-artist-Kara-Walker-continues-to-shock-and- awe.html She was born in 1969 in California quite “color blind” and protected from the considerations of race. She was middle class in a multi cultural environment. It is when she moved to Atlanta, GA that she became aware of the long shadow cast by decades of racial segregation. “Even though Jim Crow was over, you could still feel oppression everywhere”, she says. ARTS2050 Brantley 21 The cut-outs she makes comprise a deeply racist depiction of plantation life in America’s antebellum South. The figures are like the inhabitants of some nightmarish Freudian dream world, groping, sucking, ejaculating, defecating and doing terrible things both to themselves and to one another. Half of you wants to look away from the gallery wall in disgust, while the other part feels compelled to stand and stare. She is hoping to bring the audience face to face with their own fantasies about race, sex and power. She is now a professor at Columbia University and is in Time magazine as one of the top 100 most influential people in the country. She get’s criticized for her obscene depictions of sex, violence, and racial tension, but she is okay with that. 4. Art21. (2011) Kara Walker: The melodrama of “Gone with the Wind.” Retrieved online August 13, 2015 from http://www.art21.org/texts/kara-walker/interview-kara- walker-the-melodrama-of-gone-with-the-wind Kara Walker creates an image filled from silhouettes inspired by the book “Gone With the Wind”. She describes her silhouettes as lending “itself to avoidance of the subject—of not being able to look at it directly—yet there it is, all the time, staring you in the face. There it is, the whole world of Gone with the Wind and its legacy and the way that affects people’s everyday encounters.” (Talking about racism in the book as well). The silhouettes are used by Walker to focus the viewer’s eye on crude symbols of racial identity – black characters are picked out by their thick lips and flat noses while the white characters all have chiseled features. “The silhouette says a lot with very little information,” Walker has said, “but that’s also what stereotype does.” She challenges people who think racism is strictly overt and a thing of the past by saying “The public assumes the gross, brutal manhandling of one group of people, dominant with one kind of ARTS2050 Brantley 22 skin color and one kind of perception of themselves, versus another group of people with a different kind of skin color and a different social standing is not so important. And the assumption would be that, well, times changed and we’ve moved on. But this is the underlying mythology, I think, of the American project. The history of America is built on this inequality, this foundation of a racial inequality and a social inequality. And we buy into it. I mean, whiteness is just as artificial a construct as blackness is.” The term “Negress” is something Kara Walker applies to herself. She enjoys history paintings and examining what it is to be an African American woman artist. She labels the humor in her work as “giddy”. “Giddy humor, giddy. I think I described this kind of turbulence that drives most of the work, and it’s a turbulence that’s not unlike melodrama, or the kind of dredging up of every feeling one could possibly have about a situation that is all about feeling. And it’s difficult not to laugh off that behavior—that sense of being overloaded, out of control, unable to contain even the horror of being able to think about something that you know you shouldn’t be thinking about, or that you know isn’t going to resolve itself just by thinking about it. It might not resolve itself by talking about it. It might not resolve itself by enacting laws about it. Or writing about it. And it’s that feeling of needing to make this offering as a form of truth telling, no matter how awful it is, and then—ugh, you know —being flabbergasted at even having to do that! Why should that even have to be done? And then, sometimes the work is just ridiculous and silly and weird.” 5. Shaw, G. D. (2004). Tracing race and representation. In Seeing the unspeakable: The art of Kara Walker (pp. 11-36). Durham, NC: Duke Kara Walker moved from California to Stone Mountain, GA, birth place of the KKK. In GA, she became a loner amongst white and blacks. She felt her racial identity was something she lived and preformed. At the Rhode Island School of Design, where she gained her artistic freedom, she was able to experiment freely ARTS2050 Brantley 23 with the psychosexual legacy of southern racism. “Silhouettes kind of saved me. Simplified the frenzy I was working myself into”, says Walker. From this point, the worlds Walker created and exhibited often had the epic scale of history painting with a bite of political satire and even a little pornography. There is a tragic/comical grotesqueness in her work, with a carnivalesque attitude that may be viewed as a way of looking at the world that subverts the dominant oppressive vision into one that can be laughed at and ridiculed. These silhouette caricatures insert laughter where it s most forbidden, and therefore most meaningful. While most of the exhibitions Walker participated in during the 1990’s featured large-scale silhouette wall installations, she continued to experiment with form and size issues, occasionally submitting smaller drawings or individual silhouettes. Through silhouettes, Walker could reshape and manipulate racist icons of white supremacy such as the nigger wench, the mammy, etc. In this way, she is able to exert a certain amount of control over the stereotypical images that had shaped the way others so often viewed her. She creates new characters, new clusters of fixations, with which to tap the guilt reservoirs that lie within her spectators. Swiss/German Johann Lavater’s physiognomic theory treated facial features as indicators of moral code in that person. This helps us understand the racialized precedence for Walker’s postmodern work by illuminating the oppressive uses to which the silhouette form had been put during the antebellum period. Kara Walker engages the long history of blacks in America and strains against African American attempts to control negative images of blacks for the sake of assimilation in the dominant, white culture. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, African American artists and cultural critics said that a assimilation approach was the best way to overcome high saturation level of negative imagery. However, there have always been African American artists who have chosen to sacrifice communal approval for their work in favor of the freedom to pursue an independent vision (Kara Walker). Kara walker has seemed to insert herself into the pageant of blackface, and using blackface has become a way for African ARTS2050 Brantley 24 American artists to examine the complexity of their commodification in the market and the public sphere. African American artists have chosen to draw upon stereotypical images of African Americans that were created as part of the racist onslaught against blacks to critique the racist impulses that manifested themselves in heinous representations. Kara Walker participates in an African American tradition of questioning and signifying on the dominant visual culture, of bucking convention and conservatism, and of challenging hegemonic codes of repression and representation. 6. Harris, M.D. (2003). Aunt Jemima, the fantasy Black mammy/servant. In Colored pictures: Race & visual representations (pp. 83-124). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. “Aunt Jemima” has become the ultimate symbol and personification of the black cook, servant, and mammy. “Aunt Jemima” was not a real black woman but rather an invented persona based on the ways whites wished to perceive their black servants and on misinterpretation of a character devised by blacks to critique their treatment by whites. She began her public career as a minstrel and entered as a product trademark in 1889. It is said the name “Jemima” is a biblical reference as whites also used the name for their children. Whites ultimately identified black cooks with southern cooking in 1889 when Charles Rutt was searching for a symbol for his self-rising pancake flour. Aunt Jemima became an advertising icon that announced the arrival of slave shops to ads for runaway slaves, to an entertainment industry of minstrel performance. All of these forms silenced the black voice and controlled the black body. Blackness was prescribed in ways comfortable to whites, and it required that black people act out those prescriptions. Aunt Jemima was projected the way white perceived a black cook – the servile, devoted mammy, which itself is a fantasy. The mammy construction was useful for the maintenance of white patriarchal authority over both white and black women while allowing sexual access to and domination over them. However, the idealized female was white, slender, young, girlish, innocent, well- mannered, domestic, and submissive. The mammy/Aunt Jemima ARTS2050 Brantley 25 was black, older, usually overweight, worldly wise, and a bit aggressive (a masculine characteristic), and was perceived as asexual. 7. Kim, E. H., Machida, M. & Mizota, S. (2003). Interstitial subjects: Asian American visual art as a site for new cultural conversations. In Fresh talk daring gazes (pp. 1-50). Berkley, CA: University of California Press. Chiura Obata: One of the most important early immigrant artist. Studied ink painting in Japan before immigrating to the US in 1903. He had been recognized for his lifelong interest in bringing together Eastern and Western art traditions. He deployed techniques of modern Japanese, not “ancient oriental”, by combining traditional Japanese brush and ink painting with Western naturalism and perspective for his landscape paintings of California. Obata set up a makeshift art school at the Tanforan Race Track assembly center in California, eventually offering 90 classes a week. His students had no formal art training but Obata was astonished at their creative talent. They made various art and objects from found object such as grass, tree roots, old fence posts, fruit boxes, and auto parts. Obata was relocated to the Topaz Internment camp in Utah. There, he set up the Topaz Art School where 3,250 people enrolled in art classes. He himself produced a series of annotated drawings that constitute an understated visual diary of every day life in the camp, as well as a group of drawings and paintings of the landscape and sky that evoke a profound sense of isolation, alienation, and determination. Not only did Japanese Americans lose their livelihoods because of internment, but racial barriers locked them out of many occupations for years after their release. However, Obata was able to return to his teaching post. Yun Gee: He immigrated to California from a Cantonese village when he was 15 years old. He studied at the California School of Fine Arts in the 1920’s and was exposed to a tradition of romantic landscape painting saturated with impressionism. He encountered futurism, fauvism, and expressionism. He had realist inclinations ARTS2050 Brantley 26 and tended to use his colors to express dynamic subject matter. Gee was interested in social genre and democratic ideals and the subjects of Western modernism and the revolutionary Chinese republic of his youth. Gee founded the San Francisco based Chinese Revolutionary Artist Club, later called the Chinese Academy of Art in 1926. His goal was to teach modern art theory and painting. In the mid- 1920’s, he went to Paris, where he was taken seriously and was received very kindly and well, but could not escape orientalist expectations, and was treated as an exotic novelty. He moved to New York and was met with indifference, and after dragging on for 5 years, he moved back to Paris. Ultimately, he was unable to successfully accommodate the East-West synthesis that seemed to be expected of him by the people of Paris. Gee returned to New York, where his work was received negatively and he suffered from depression, financial difficulties, and alcoholism. America at this time had resistance to artists of Asian origin. 8. Sikander, S. (2014) Artist Statement, Lahore Literary Festival 2014. Retrieved online from: http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5517/12645370855_f2cf9ce885_ h.jpg Shahzia Shikander was born and raised in Lahore, Pakistan. She has been invited to be a part of the Lahore Literary Festival, and she is elated! She gets to exhibit her work in her country and she has a platform to engage with people who share her passion about art and culture. She studied at the National College of Arts with support from family and friends, and dove into miniature painting at a time where there was little interest at NCA. She basically started a movement that won her many awards and inspired others to dive into miniature paintings. She was supported by communities in Pakistan and was inspired to keep taking risks and worked in many different mediums. Her process is driven by her interest in exploring and re-discovering cultural and political boundaries, and opening up new frameworks for dialogue and visual narrative. The Lahore Literary Festival serves as an important platform for cross-cultural and interdisciplinary exchange across all ARTS2050 Brantley 27 generations by bringing together participants form all over the larger region. Shikander urges us to critically think and have ethical values that are essential for these crazy times. The cohesion and creative capital drawn from diverse communities will help us be able to address current and future challenges. 9. Danto, A. (2000). Shirin Neshat. BOMB, 73. Retrieved online on August 13, 2015 from: http://bombmagazine.org/article/2332/shirin-neshat Shirin has been away from her homeland, Iran, since the Islamic Revolution. Her focus, after working at Storefront for Art and Architecture with her husband for 10 years, was the subject of women in relation to the Iranian society and the revolution, and she produced a series of photographic images that explored that topic. Turbulent was her first cinematic film. Prior to that, she had made a few video installations that were very sculptural, with no specific narrative, beginning or end. Sound has always been an important part of her work. Work shifted from Islamic political issues to more poetic and philosophical work regarding a more universal human nature. In Turbulent, the woman singing is free, while the man has a compassionate and envious gaze. Does he wish to be freer? The typical Islamic sexual hierarchy is inevitably outside of his control at this point. Perhaps he himself is a type of prisoner. Rapture followed the same framework. Once again, the women are the unpredictable force, they are the ones who break free. The men, from the beginning to the end, stay within the confinement of the fortress. This all ties back to what I believe is a type of feminism that comes from such a culture; on a daily basis the resistance you sense from the women is far higher than that of the men. Why? Because the women are the ones who are under extreme pressure; they are repressed and therefore they are more likely to resist and ultimately to break free. Western feminism is about reaching a certain level of equality between men and women. In Iran, women feel that men and ARTS2050 Brantley 28 women have their own distinct roles and places, they are not competitive. Their struggle is to reach an equilibrium necessary in a just and healthy society. They want the domestic responsibility —which actually gives them a lot of power. Where they suffer is in their inability to maintain their rights as women, for example in the areas of divorce, child custody, voting, etcetera. Shirin Neshat tries to convey the Iranian woman’s power through her work. The titles “Turbulent”, “Fervor”, and “Rapture” point toward the clash between sexual and carnal desire versus social control. In “Fervor”, Shirin Neshat points out the norm of restraining to make eye contact with the opposite sex. Every Iranian man and woman understands the dilemma, the problematics, and yet there is the joy of a simple exchange in a gaze. This type of social and religious control tends to heighten desire and the sexual atmosphere. Therefore, when there is a modest exchange it is the most magical, sexual experience. In Fervor, the issues are not about opposites, but about the commonality between the man and woman. The taboo surrounding sexuality concerns both men and women, but of course it is the woman who takes most of the heat. “I think the music intensifies the emotional quality. Music becomes the soul, the personal, the intuitive and neutralizes the sociopolitical aspects of the work. This combination of image and music is meant to create an experience that moves the audience. It is an expectation that I have as an artist and I want that intensity from any work of art; I want to be deeply affected, almost like asking to have a religious experience. Beauty is important in relation to my work. It is a concept that is most universal, it goes beyond our cultural differences.” – Shirin Neshat Quiz Questions 1. Yoko Ono's "Cut Piece" is considered part of ____________. Performance art ARTS2050 Brantley 29 Fluxus Feminist art All of these 2. Which of the following art movements influenced Maya Lin’s work most? Neo-classical art War Memorials from the Greco-Roman tradition Abstract Expressionism Earthworks and minimalism 3. Rirkrit Tiravanija's work belongs most to which category? Modernism Minimalism Identity Politics Social practice or relational aesthetics ARTS2050 Brantley 30 4. Rirkrit Tiravanija's "Untitled/Free Still" was an event in which: the artist served a Thai curry dish to gallery visitors. None of these. a performance in which the artist had people cut away parts of his clothing. An installation of paintings and sculptures. 5. In the painting "Fleshy Weapons," Shahzia Sikander combines ________ and _________ iconography—perhaps to suggest the relationship of India and Pakistan. Islamic; Christian Hindu; Buddhist Hindu; Islamic Christian; Buddhist 6. Which of the following most influenced Shahzia Sikander's "The Scroll"? Baroque oil painting ARTS2050 Brantley 31 Modern cubist painting Chinese landscape painting Indo-Persian miniature painting 7. Shirin Neshat’s black-and-white series “The Women of Allah” often shows a female figure and text in order to: Reveal the absence of women in Iranian art and literature. Suggest the roles and voices of Iranian women in art, literature and political discourse. Document the day-to-day lives of Iranian women in natural, un-staged circumstances. Tell the stories of individual Iranian-born women living outside of Iran. 8. In her interview with Arthur Danto, Neshat makes the argument that feminism in the Islamic world is: The same as Western feminism in its philosophical stance. Differs from Western feminism in that men and women seek different societal roles. 9. In the film "Turbulent" (1998), Neshat juxtaposes two screens. On one a woman sings; on the opposite a man sings. What are the two songs (pick the two that apply). ARTS2050 Brantley 32 An Italian opera from the 17th century A Western pop song An unconventional and intuitive song A song featuring the lyrics of the 13th-century Iranian mystical poet Rumi 10. According to her statements in an interview with Danto, Shirin Neshat's intention is to deal with: "the role of men in a religious government." "the relationship of democracy to theocracy." "the relationship of women to men in Western culture." "the subject of women in relation to the Iranian society and the revolution." 1. Kara Walker's "A Subtly, Or the Marvelous Sugar Baby" (2014) is made of: marble sugar clay ARTS2050 Brantley 33 wood 2. Kara Walker's "A Subtly, Or the Marvelous Sugar Baby" is a monumental nude woman. The form references: Stereotypical representations of black women from the 19th and 20th centuries Ancient Egyptian statuary Sugar sculptures of the 18th century All of these 3. For "Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred b'tween the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart" (1994) Walker made: black silhouettes from paper that were adhered to a wall. Large-scale paintings in the style of 17th and 18th century history painters. small prints. naturalistic ceramic sculptures. ARTS2050 Brantley 34 4. The content of "Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred b'tween the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart" is best summarized as: None of these. Sugar production and the transatlantic slave trade. Slavery in the antebellum South and racial stereotypes. Protest and racial strife in the Jim Crow South. 5. Kerry James Marshall's signature stylistic attribute is: The use of cut-out paper forms to show figures. The use of jet-black pigment to represent skin color. The exclusive use of abstraction. The appropriation of religious painting from the past. 6. Marshall paints black historical figures and scenes missing from Western art history as an act of historical revisionism. True False ARTS2050 Brantley 35 7. Marshall completely rejects the painting styles of the 17th-19th centuries. Instead, he paints in abstract in non-objective styles only so as to disassociate himself from the past. True False 8. Which of the following authors was most influential on Marshall's work and concepts regarding blackness, visibility, and invisibility? Ernest Hemingway Zora Neale Hurston Lorraine Hansberry Ralph Ellison 9. In "Napoleon Crossing the Alps," Kehinde Wiley borrows elements from the painter_______________. Jacques-Louis David Thomas Gainsborough Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun Francois Boucher 10. Wiley's paintings most often depict: ARTS2050 Brantley 36 Prominent European aristocrats or leaders of the past Religious figures such as saints from the Christian tradition Anonymous men that the artist met on the street Wealthy men and women who commissioned him to paint their portrait 1. Edgar Heap of Birds makes abstract images that never include text. Thus, his work is linked to traditional Native American forms of art. True False 2. During the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, quilt production was limited to enslaved women and women of lower socioeconomic class. Middle- and upper-class women did not make quilts. True False 3. Through her use of abstracted figures and narrative, Harriet Powers broke conventions of quilt making in the 19th century. True False 4. Which of the following best describes John Fedorov's work? ARTS2050 Brantley 37 The artist exclusively makes conventional paintings and prints that deal with his heritage and upbringing. Playing on stereotypes associated with American Indians-- especially those concerning spirituality--the artist makes satirical images, installations and videos. The artist makes large scale "history" paintings. The compositions are appropriated from the past but modifications are made by the artist. The artist uses signage and text to communicate to a large audience. His posters and billboard offer commentary on issues surrounding Native American history. 5. Jaune Quick-to-See Smith uses found objects such as _______________ to comment on negative and reductive portrayals of American Indians in the 20th and 21st centuries. baseball caps costumes children's toys all of these 6. 18th- and 19th-century quilts made by female slaves in the United States often drew inspiration from: The textile work of West African men. ARTS2050 Brantley 38 Coverlets made in industrial workshops in the England. Western painting and drawing. There was no outside influence. 7. Quilt maker Harriet Powers was born into slavery in or near ___________ in the antebellum era. Athens, Georgia Savannah, Georgia Augusta, Georgia Atlanta, Georgia 8. Which of the following describes the quilts of Harriet Powers? They show abstract designs and have no relationship to narrative. They are albums quilts made to commemorate a life event. They are based on established patterns popular in New England They feature pictorial scenes and often depict Biblical events. 9. The quilts of Gee's Bend were made by women living in _______________. ARTS2050 Brantley 39 Georgia Florida Mississippi Alabama 10. In "Another Face of the Diamond," Judy McWillie argues that most Southern Black folk art should be: influenced only by Western art of the past. understood as both a spiritual and artistic object. viewed for aesthetic merit alone. completely unrelated to religious influence.
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