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BSC242 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Alexandra

BSC242 Final Exam Study Guide BSC 242

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 242 > BSC242 Final Exam Study Guide
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final study guide
Microbiology and Man
Daryl W. Lam
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 242 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Microbiology and Man in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 05/05/16
Ch 20 Selective toxicity Selectively finding and destroying pathogens without damaging the host Chemotherapy Use of chemicals to treat a disease Antibiotic Substance produced by microbe that inhibits another microbe Antimicrobial drugs Synthetic substances that interfere with the growth of microbes Penicillin  Contains a Beta-lactam ring  Species source: Penicillium chrysogenum o Kingdom: Fungi Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic  -cidal: kill microbes directly  -static: prevent microbes from growing Major Action Modes of Antibacterial drugs 1. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 2. Inhibition of protein synthesis 3. Inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription 4. Injury to plasma membrane 5. Inhibition of essential metabolite synthesis Penicillinase  Helps bacteria resist Penicillin  Changes Beta-lactam ring  an acid Sulfonamides  Inhibit folic acid synthesis needed for nucleic acid and protein synthesis  Competitively bind to enzyme for PABA production, a folic acid precursor  Synergism: combo of 2 or more substances to produce combined effect greater than their individual effects  Folic Acid  Vitamin, helps make new healthy cells  Humans get it from food  Bacteria synthesizes it Antifungal drugs  Fungi= eukaryotes, like humans  Use same mechanisms to synthesis proteins and nucleic acids  More difficult to find point of selective toxicity in Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes Antiviral drugs  Few because viruses replicate in host’s cells therefore cannot target virus without damaging host’s cells Acyclovir  Stops viral replication by inhibiting RNA or DNA synthesis  Resembles deoxyguanosine nucleoside Kirby-Bauer test  Disk-diffusion method  Tests effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents  Uses zone of inhibition Bacteria resisting antibiotics 1. Blocking entry 2. Inactivation by enzymes 3. Alteration of target molecules 4. Efflux of antibiotic Antibiotic misuse  Outdated/weakened  Used for common cold  Used in animal feed  Incomplete prescription  Someone else’s Synergism vs. Antagonism  Synergism: drug1 effect + drug2 effect = great than alone  Antagonism: drug1 effect + drug2 effect = less than alone Ch 21 Microbial growth limitation  Salt, dryness, low pH on skin Lysozyme  Hydrolyzes peptidoglycan o Breaks cell walls Exanthem vs. Enanthem  Exanthem: skin rash from disease conditions  Enanthem: rash on mucous membranes (like inside mouth) Folliculitis Infections of hair follicles Sty (stye) Folliculitis of eyelash Furuncle Abscess (boil) Localized region of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue Carbuncle Inflammation of tissue under skin MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus HA-MRSA (hospital acquired) very serious CA-MRSA (community acquired) more deadly strain lots of peptides that destroy neutrophils GAS  Group A Streptococcal  Necrotizing fasciitis: flesh eating bacteria Acne  Cause: Propionibacterium acnes genus  Sebum: oil secretion from glands  Treatment o Antibiotics o Benzoyl peroxide (loosens clogged follicles) o Visible blue light (kills P. acnes) Warts  Virus that causes: Papillomavirus Smallpox  Caused by virus  Transmitted: respiratory route Shingles  Reactivation of latent HHV-3  Releases viruses that move along peripheral nerves  Latent in dorsal root ganglia of peripheral nerve MMR Vaccination  Covers measles  Mumps  Rubella Fungal infections  Ringworm  Athletes foot Thrush  Yeast infection of mouth  Cause: Candida albicans genus of Fungus kingdom Pediculosis  Lice  From: Pediculus humanus capitis  Kingdom: Animalia Silver Nitrate  Given to newborns to prevent eye disease  Ophthalmia Neonatorum o Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) Ch 22 Central nervous system (CNS)  Brain + spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Nerves from CNS Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  Fluid in spine  In subarachnoid space Meningitis Inflammation of meninges Encephalitis Inflammation of brain Meningoencephalitis Inflammation of both Spinal tap  Lumbar puncture  Between 4 and 5 lumbar vertebrae  Gets sample of cerebrospinal fluid Tetanus  Cause: Clostridium tetani species  Affect on human o Enters CNS o Blocks relaxation pathway in muscle  Causes muscle spasms  Death Botulism  Cause: Clostridium botulinum species  Exotoxin  Relation to food from can: ingestion from bad canning procedures  Medical treatments with botox injection o Headaches Polio  Cause: poliovirus  Entrance into human: ingesting water containing feces containing virus o Enters CNS  Cause of drop in 1950s: vaccine Rabies virus  Entrance into human: saliva of an animal bite  Affect on human o Muscle spasms of mouth and pharynx o Travels through PNS causing encephalitis Cryptococcus neoformans  Kingdom: Fungi  Entrance into human: respiratory route through dried contaminated droppings Trypanosoma brucei  Kingdom: Protozoan  Entrance into human: tsetse fly bites Naegleria fowleri  Kingdom: Protozoan  Entrance into human body: nasal mucosa from swimming water  Affect: feeds on brain tissues, primary amebic meningoencephalitis  Sterile water in Neti pot because: could contain brain eating amoeba Ch 23 Septicemia Acute illness due to presence of pathogens or their toxins in blood Sepsis Systemic inflammatory response system (SIRS) Lymphangitis Inflamed lymph vessel Septic shock Sepsis and uncontrolled decreased blood pressure Gram-neg. sepsis vs. Gram-pos. sepsis  Gram-neg o Endotoxin shock o Cause severe drop in blood pressure  Gram-pos. o Exotoxin causes toxic shock syndrome o Hospital-acquired infections Endocarditis  Inflammation of endocardium o Inner wall layer of heart Pericarditis  Inflammation of sac around heart  From Streptococci Brucellosis (Undulant Fever)  Brucella: bacterial genus  Transmitted: milk/contact from infected animal  “Undulant fever” o Night sweats o Muscle aches o Rising and falling fever Anthrax  Bacterial species: Bacillus anthracis  Transmitted: soil, spores introduced into the body through cut, food, inhalation Gas gangrene  Caused: Clostridium perfringens bacterial species Cat-scratch disease  Caused: Bartonella henselae bacterial species Black Death (plague)  Cause: Yersinia pestis  Transmitted: flea biting host o Blood is regurgitated into host o Bacteria enters bloodstream  lymph tissue Lyme Disease  Cause: Borrelia burgdorferi  Carried by ticks, ticks feed on animals  Most common in Northeast o New York o Wisconsin Mononucleosis (mono)  Cause: Epstein-Barr virus  Transmitted: saliva Ebolavirus  Ebola hemorrhagic fever  Spread by contact with infected body fluids  Damages blood vessel walls and interferes with coagulation o Internal and external bleeding Toxoplasmosis  Cause: Toxoplasma gondii o Kingdom: Protozoan  Contact with cat feces introduces oocytes to intestines Malaria  Cause: Plasmodium parasite o Kingdom: Protozoan  Transmitted: Anopheles mosquitoes Ch 24 Upper Respiratory tract  Nose, pharynx, middle ear, Eustachian tubes Lower respiratory tract  Larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, alveoli Pharyngitis (sore throat) inflammation of throat mucus membranes Laryngitis Affects ability to speak Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinus mucus membranes Epiglottitis Life-threatening disease of upper respiratory system Strep throat  Cause: group A streptococci (GAS) Scarlet fever  Cause: S. pyogenes Antibiotics vs. Common cold  Antibiotics cannot fight viruses  Common cold comes from 200 different viruses Pertussis (Whooping Cough)  Cause: Bordetella pertussis bacterial species  Vaccine: DTaP vaccine o Babies and small children haven’t received it Tuberculosis  Cause: Mycobacterium tuberculosis  Skin test: += current or previous infection o T cells react with purified protein derivative from bacterium  Secondary tests o X-ray or CT exam o Acid-fast staining of sputum o Culturing of bacteria Influenza  Cause: Influenzavirus  Genome: 8 RNA segments and an outer lipid bilayer  Symptoms: chills, fever, headache, muscle aches  Hemagglutinin (HA) spikes o Recognize and attach to host cells  Neuraminidase (NA) spikes o Help the virus separate from the infected cell Fungal infections cause  Histoplasmosis o Caused: Histoplasma capsulatum  Coccidioidomycosis o Caused: Coccidioides immitis  Pneumocystis Pneumonia o Caused: Pneumocystis jirovecii Ch 25 Gastrointestinal tract (GI) or alimentary canal  Mouth  Pharynx (throat)  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Large intestine Accessory structures  Teeth and tongue  Salivary glands  Liver  Gallbladder  Pancreas HCl production  In stomach  Few microorganisms can survive Large intestine bacteria  Anaerobes  Facultative anaerobes 100 billion bacteria per gram of feces Dental cavities  Streptococcus mutans  Table sugar is correlated with level of dental caries Staphylococcal intoxication by food poisoning 1. Food containing protein is cooked (bacteria usually killed) 2. Then food is contaminated by worker with staphylococci on hands (competing bacteria have been eliminated) 3. Food is left at rm temp. organisms incubate in food (temp. abuse) long enough to form and release toxins. (reheating will eliminate staphylococci but not the toxins) 4. Food containing toxins is eaten 5. 1-6 hrs, staphylococcal intoxication occurs Shigellosis  Bacillary Dysentery  Caused: Shigella genus Salmonellosis  Salmonella Gastroenteritis  Caused: Salmonella enterica  Affects: invades intestinal mucosa and multiplies o Fever, nausea, pain and cramps, diarrhea  Chicken eggs o Bacteria survive in the albumin Cholera  Caused: Vibrio cholera  Affects: toxin causes cells to lose electrolytes and water o Lose 12-20 liters of fluid per day o Shock, collapse, organ failure, death Helicobacter Peptic Ulcer Disease  Caused: Helicobacter pylori  Ulcer o Helicobacter pylori grows in stomach acid by producing urease  Converts urea  alkaline ammonia o Disrupts stomach mucosa, causing inflammation Clostridium difficile (Associated Diarrhea)  Causes more deaths than all other intestinal infections combined  Obtained in health care settings Hepatitis  Inflammation of liver  Caused: o Drug or chemical toxicity o Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) o Cytomegalovirus (CMV) o Hepatitis viruses Aflatoxin poisoning  Cause: mycotoxins from Aspergillus flavus  Food associated: peanuts Giardiasis  Cause: Giardia intestinalis Cryptosporidiosis  Cause: Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis Amebiasis  Cause: Entamoeba histolytica Ophtalmic cysticercosis  Cause: Tapeworm of the animal kingdom Life cycle of Tapeworm Echinococcus spp.  Asexual reproduction 1. Adult tapeworm releases eggs 2. Intermediate hosts a. Human intermediate host ingests eggs. Dead end. b. Intermediate host ingests eggs 3. Eggs hatch, and larvae migrate to liver or lungs 4. Larvae develop into hydatid cysts  Sexual reproduction 5. Definitive host eats intermediate host, ingesting cysts 6. Scoleces from cyst attach to intestine and grow into adults Life cycle of Trichinella spiralis  Causes trichinellosis 1. Ingested cysts develop into Trichinella spiralis adults in the pig’s intestinal wall 2. Adult worms produce larvae that encyst in the pig’s muscles 3. Human eats undercooked pork containing cysts that are infective to humans or animals that ingest it 4. Trichinellosis in humans: ingested cysts develop into T. spiralis adults. Adults produce larvae that encyst in muscles Ch 26 Urinary system  Kidneys  Ureters  Urinary bladder  Urethra Reproductive system  Female o 2 ovaries o 2 uterine (fallopian) tubes o Uterus, including cervix o Vagina o External genitals (vulva)  Male o 2 testes o System of ducts  Epididymis  Ductus (vas) deferens  Ejaculatory duct  Urethra o Accessory glands o Penis  Sterile o Urinary bladder o Upper urinary tract o (Male urethra is usually sterile) Common bacteria of Vagina o Lactobacilli o Streptococci, anaerobes, some gram-negatives o Yeast: Candida albicans Urethritis Inflammation of urethra Cystitis Inflammation of urinary bladder Ureteritis Infection of ureters Pyelonephritis Inflammation of 1 or both kidneys Gonorrhea o Cause: Neisseria gonorrhoeae o Symptoms o Men: painful urination, discharge of pus, epididymitis o Women: few symptoms, pelvic inflammatory disease o Left untreated o Disseminate and become systemic  Endocarditis  Meningitis  Arthritis Genital Herpes o Cause: Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) o Symptoms o Painful vesicles on genitals o Painful urination o 25% of people over 30 are infected


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