Third Writing Assessment notes (with pictures)
Third Writing Assessment notes (with pictures) ARHI 3100
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verified elite notetaker
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This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique N. on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
Neolithic China (10,000 2,000 BCE) (Primarily China, Korea, and Japan) ● The Three Dynasties Period ○ Xia (ca. 20001766 BCE) ■ Very little material culture is attributed to this dynasty ○ Shang (ca. 17661111 BCE) ○ Zhou (1111221 BCE) ● A lot of extensive literary documentation helps document dynastic periods of China with incredible precision (chronological progression) ● The Shang Dynasty (ca. 17661111 BCE) ○ More than a half dozen archaeological sites from this dynasty ■ They are very different from what we have looked at because a lot of the material comes from under the ground ■ Burial sites (Burials associated with the Elite) ■ Don’t have structural sites (secular structures, building foundations) ■ There are primarily tombs ■ Associated with the disposal and care of the dead ■ Religion & Spirituality ● Heaven (celestial realm infused with positive, permanent experiences), Earth (terrestrial world), and the Underworld (not great; lonely experience, not necessarily an experience of pain; souls are cast adrift; permanent state of being lost) ○ Cosmological components ● Ancestor Worship ○ Honoring and respecting family members ○ Deceased body was very carefully tended to ■ By attending to the body, the celestial residence is forever taken care of ■ If you feed the ancestors (literally), then they will be fed and have health in the afterlife ■ Puts pressure on the living (familial responsibility) ● Two Souls ○ Hun (rises to heaven) ■ In death, if everything goes right, you go to heaven ○ Po (remains as a ghost) ● Shamans & Divination ○ Divination means the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means. This practice is taken care of by Shamans (ritual specialists) ○ Shamans ■ Keep the world in balance ■ To understand the supernatural world ■ To help make decisions ■ Oracle bones ○ Tortoise Plastron: det.: front with inscription; Anyang circa 1400 BCE ○ Square Ding, from the Tomb of Fu Hao, Henan, ca. 12th BCE Bronze ■ Has some distinctive animal forms ● Not a great deal of naturalism ○ Square Ding, Zhengzhou, Henan, Early Shang Period ○ Drawing of the Taotie Motif ■ Motif is pervasive because it is represented so commonly ○ Guang, Henan, ca. 12th century BCE Bronze ■ Hybrid creature ○ Yu Vessel, Henan ca. 11th century BCE Bronze ■ Holding a human ■ Brown color ■ Donkey on its back ○ Vessels = not easy to determine specific contents, but some things have been found inside (i.e. rice, barley, hops, etc.); mostly dry and uncooked goods; in some cases, tombs may have been frequently reaccessed on a regular basis to replenish vessels. ● Zhou Dynasty (1111221 BCE) ○ Formed with some higher ups from the Shang Dynasty ○ Early (Western) Zhou (1045 770 BCE) ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou (770 256 BCE) ○ Largely occupied former territory of the Shang ○ Uncommon for dynasties to secure power for immense periods of time ○ You, Anhui, ca. 10th 9th century BCE, Bronze ■ Animal described as a Phoenix ○ Ceremonial Food Vessel; bronze Early Zhou Period ■ Non descriptive body ○ Mirror, Henan, Late Eastern Zhou Period, bronze inlaid with Gold and Silver ■ Not sure why this is in a tomb ■ Highly valued, vanity object ■ Might be relevant to the person buried (special item to them used to keep looks up) ■ Mirrors still have the ability to reflect/catch the smallest amount of light in a room of darkness ■ Feline creature (perhaps a leopard or jaguar) with a horse w/ a rider yielding a sword ● Fits naturalism ● Hunting ● Exerting control over the forces of nature ● Feline animal is being subjugated/controlled/oppressed which is different from Shang Dynasty ■ Circular forms ● Represented as a snake ● Don’t know particular symbolism of the form ○ Increased elaboration, larger tombs, etc. ○ Bianzhong (Chime of Bells), from the tomb of the Marquis Yi, Late Eastern Zhou Period, 433 BCE, bronze and wood ■ Waste of money ■ Will never see light of day ■ Possibly to remind the decease that someone is putting effort to ease their comfort ○ Bi disk, late Zhou dynasty, 4th 3rd century BCE, Jade (Chinese art 33) ■ Very often made out of jade (very highly valued) (semiprecious) ■ Jade is more associated with a world beyond ours, rather than our terrestrial world ■ Found in tombs in high numbers ■ No utilitarian function, possibly just a spiritual function ● Shang vs. Zhou ○ Shift is clearly reflected ○ Difference in vessels ● New Religious Developments ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou: The period of 100 Philosophies ○ 2 contemporary systems of thought ■ Confucius: Master Kong (ca. 551 479 BCE) (confucianism) ● Confucius (founder) ○ Ethics and rules of social etiquette interest in Order ● Analects ● “Ren” ○ Rational relationships ○ Filial Piety ● Junzi ○ Model citizen ○ Scholarly gentlemen ○ Experts in ritual, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, mathematics ● Morality = good government = society harmony ● Goal is to fix deterioration of foundations of society ● Cultivate and maintain harmonious relationships between people ● Chaos caused by deterioration of family relationships, people not doing what they are supposed to do, people not performing duties to ancestors, etc. ● Emphasis on knowledge ○ Must acquire wisdom through learning AND experience ● Must of Confucian ideology is directed towards the top ○ If you create order at the top, order will trickle down to everyone (setting the example) ■ Laozi: founder of Daoism (ca. 6th century BCE) ● Laozi (founder) ○ The inner “original” nature of self ○ Intuition and the Dao ● Daode Jing ○ The classic of the way and its power ● Key Concepts: ○ Heartmind ○ Immorality self cultivation ○ Wuwei ■ Nonaction ● No action is the best action ● Order internally on an individual level ● Remove yourself from the source of trouble (MISSED CLASS) ● Han Dynasty (202 BCE 220 CE) ○ Western Han Dynasty (202 BCE 8 CE) ○ Eastern Han Dynasty (25 CE 220 CE) ○ Flying Banner, from the Tomb of the Marquis of Dai, Changsha, ca. 186 168 BCE, Ink and color on Silk ■ Rare to have painted textile in tomb context ■ Rich in conveying importance of ancestor worship ■ Insuring comfort of both souls (one remaining in the body and one in the celestial realm) ■ Depiction of celestial realm ● Deceased body protected by a serpent ■ Flying Banner (Detail of funerary rituals) ○ Jade Suit, from the Tomb of Lui Sheng, Lingshan, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd Century BCE ■ Beginning of Han fusing old and new ■ Pieces of jade sewn onto cloth and drape fitted over body ■ Jade = frequently used ● Stone was believed to posses or reflect some type of property associated with celestial realm ● Continuing emergence of old ideas ● Desire of deceased to want to be surrounded by physical contact with jade ○ Body is being affected with transmission of properties of jade to the body ● Jade is hard to disintegrate; longlasting properties ○ Incense Burner in the Shape of A Magic Mountain, from the tomb of Lui Sheng, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd century BCE, Bronze inlaid with Gold ■ People and magical creatures embedded within it ■ Fusion of supernatural and natural world ■ Derived from Daoist practice ● Leaving everyday social world to pursue isolation for internal balance ● Emphasized being on mountain/in mountains ● Natural wondrous places expressed here ■ Pivotal important object of this early type of influence ○ Lam in the shape of Serving Girl, from the Tomb of Dou Wan, Lingshan, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd century BCE, Gilt Bronze ■ Not common for Han period, but would not be viewed as odd to come from another area/period ■ Responsibility of family lineages to maintain qualities necessary for restoration of civil society ● Very important and emphasized during Han dynasty; Essential conduct of scholarly gentlemen and their families ■ To provide light for ancestor ■ Small, but some similar style objects are made in different sizes ■ would presume she is young ● Youth revere elders ○ Paragons of Filial Piety, Painted in Lacquer on a basketwork box, L:39.1 cm, H:19 c; found at site of Han colony at Lelang, North Korea, 1st century AD, Eastern Han Dynasty ■ Series of mail figures represented in animated discussion ■ Could possibly convey what the deceased participated in ○ Palace Concert, from a tomb at Jingpin Xian, Shandong, ca. 114 CE, stone relief ■ Audience enjoying a music show ■ Confucian gentlemen doing what they’re supposed to do (enjoying fine things and expressing their intellect) ● If it didn’t belong to the Han dynasty, we would interpret in a different way ● Expression of highly specific Confucian ideals ○ Battle Scene, from the Wu Liangzi Shrine, Shangdong, ce. 147 168 CE, rubbing of a stone relief ■ Warfare ○ Hybrid objects (Daoist/Confucian ideals) ■ Hunting and Reaping Scenes, Chengdu, Sichuan, late Han Dynasty, Stamped Brick ● Activities that take place in nature (natural world) = Daoist (taking place in nature, outside of society) “back to the land” ● Conceptually there is more going on ○ Almost a Karmic lesson embedded ■ Karma: you reap what you sow (what you do matters) ■ Ideas that actions have consequences based on what you do binds to the individual ■ Actions necessary for bind the social world create chaos ○ Be careful how you act ○ Influence directly from 2 emerging traditions ■ Teacher and Students, Chengdu, Sichuan, late Han Dynasty, Stamped Brick ● Maintain hierarchy ● You only attain intellect for Confucian values by studying with teachers ● The Age of Dharma: Chinese Buddhism ○ Six Dynasties Period (220 589 CE) ■ 3 centuries of no real unified powers ■ Much of what was established during Han period was broken down ■ Opportunity for success for Buddhists (had the Han been able to stay in power, they would’ve prevented the incursion of Buddhism since they favored Daoism and Confucianism) ○ The Tang Dynasty (618 916 CE) ○ How did Buddhism get to China (East Asia)? ■ We know more about the transfer to East Asia than we did about the transfer of Buddhism to southeast asia ■ 2 important moments ● Gangetic Heartland (India Area) ○ Mathura, Buddh Gaya ○ Buddhist communities were flourishing ○ Followed route that connected them to the Great Silk routes of central asia (post Alexander) ■ Connected China to Mediterranean ■ Economic highway of ancient world ○ Seems that merchants traveled with Buddhist missionaries (wanted to expend religion) ○ Buddhism was attractive to people who were aware of Karma and Rebirth ○ Merchants helped with transmission of Buddhism ○ Buddhism was pretty well spread during 3rd CE ○ 9th12th century Silk Road practically diminished due to development of newer forms of navigation ○ 11th/12th CE arrival of Islam in Inda ■ Many monasteries sacced ■ Seated Buddha, 338 CE, the Houzhao Kingdom, GIlt Bronze ■ Buddhism moves from western region to the middle of China ● Received with great enthusiasm (possibly because of politically unstable environment) ● Liked it because it was similar to Daoism ○ Emphasis on renunciation ● Appealed to elite Confucians because of emphasis on ethical conduct ■ Buddha Image, Gandhara, 2nd/3rd Century ● Image style derived from early Pakistan ● Looks like it’s getting Shaded with leaves ■ Major sites of rock grotto art in China ● Yungang Caves ○ Earliest formal monastic space in China ○ Overview, Yungang Cave Site, Shanxi Sheng, 386589 A.D. ■ COlossal Buddha, 13.7 m., Cave 20, Datong, Shanxi, ca. 460 465 AD ● Bamiyan smile ○ Colossal Buddhas, Bamiyan Afghanistan 4th/5th CE ■ Built using massive wooden scaffolding ■ Had tunnels that go behind the sculpture ■ Monumental version of Gandharan Buddha ■ Was gilded gold in the 7th century ■ Lined with plaster, then thin layer of plaster, then gilded with gold and the face was painted with bright colors ● Buddha calling out to them from a distance ■ Mes Aynak; means hill of gold ■ Gautama Buddha & Beggar, Yungang Caves, 5th Century CE, stone relief ● Working from sanskrit, but fashioned in a very chinese style ○ Representation of divinity ● The integrity of the narrative is retained ● Gautama’s Escape ● Dunhuang Caves ○ Most extreme environment in terms of hot and cold temperatures ○ Total absence of water ○ Going west of Dunhuang was difficult (drudging through sand for years just to get to europe) ■ 1 trip taking the silk route through here would bring you many riches; enough to leave you own grandkids a large inheritance ○ “Caves of a Thousand Buddhas” Dunhuang, China, 4th14th Centuries CE ■ Lots of chambers ■ Caves not meant for massive congregation ■ Dunhuang and the Taklamakan Desert ■ Was abandoned; completely forgotten about a little after the end of the silk roads ■ Most of it fell back into the sand of which it was made (due to wind storms) ● One night of sandstorms can produce dunes of up to 200 ft. high ○ Aureal Stein ■ Aureal Stein was a British archeologist/adventurer, skilled trekker and mountaineer ■ In his travels he kept hearing vague references of beyond the Himalaya of lost cities ■ Some type of collective legendary memory ■ Took him 31 times (he was walking the whole time); hundreds of people died ■ At every time he found something interesting, he would either send it to London or bury it in hopes to find it when he came back (he never found them) ■ “Thief of cultural property” China ■ DiamondSutra scroll, 868 CE, Dunhuang Library Cave ● Chinese translation of a Buddhist text that was written in India very early ● Printed by a mechanical press ● Is the oldest book printed in the world by 600 years ● Preserves an accurate translation of Buddhist literature, Infinitely valuable, Masterpiece of art; probably one of the most intellectual creations of all mankind; extremely confusing to confront as a literary document ● Only has meaning if interacted with..if performed. ● Just one of tens of thousands of manuscripts from Dunhuang that aren’t even catalogued or translated yet ○ Paul Pelliot ■ French sinologist and orientalist ○ Dunhuang was very important and had this massive collection of texts because Dunhuang was a major center of preserving and educating about Buddhist culture ■ These texts survived because Dunhuang, in comparison to other places, is SO dry (little to no moisture) so the paper can last long amounts of time ○ Buddha Niche, from Dunhuang Cave 428, Gansu, 557 581, rockcut with painted clay ■ Beautiful, vibrant colors ● Crushed coral and lapis lazuli ■ Create the greatest carpets in the world in this area ■ Variation of chaitya hall in india ■ Instead of putting stupas in a hall, they built towers ■ Chinese appropriation of specific visual practices ■ A number of the Buddhas can be identified ● As maitreya = a future buddha ○ Crosslegged Maitreya Bodhisattva ● Longmen Caves ● You can see how merchant communities influenced the form of Buddhist practice and what was excavated MISSED CLASS ● Dong Yuan (active 947 970 CE) ○ Festival for Evoking Rain, Undated, Five Dynasties period, handscroll, ink & color on silk (looks similar to this picture, except more orange and closer up view and is offcentered with mountains closer to the right side of page) ■ Earliest landscape painting ■ Landscape dominates the composition ■ Dominates presence of humanity ■ Very good attention to detail; captures foliage that could convey a season/point in time ■ Creates a wonderful sense of depth and distance using perspective ● The Song Dynasty ○ Differences in style may have been political or just because of taste preference ○ Northern Song Dynasty (960 1126 CE) ■ Zhu Ran (active 960 980 CE) ● Seeking the Tao in the Autumn Mountains, Undated, Northern Song Dynasty, Hanging Scroll, Ink and color on Silk ○ Mathematical composition of the piece ○ The imprint of man is there ○ Daoist renunciation (living outside of society) ○ Aligns well with idea of moving outwards into nature to find something transformative and powerful ○ Sophisticated compositional device; juxtaposition between far mountain and close path; creates intermediary zone by exemplifying depth ■ Fan Kuan (active 990 1030) ● Traveling among mountains and streams, undated, Northern song dynasty, hanging scroll ○ Imprint of humanity in the form of buildings ○ Playful interchange of ideas of Buddhist renunciations ○ Taoist or Daoist? ○ Working from same idea template as Zhu Ran ■ Guo Xi (after 1000 ca 1090) ● Early spring, 1072 CE, Northern Song Dynasty ○ Use of clouds and fog to create distance ○ There isn’t one dominant form ○ Ambiguity persists ■ Emperor Huizong Painting Academy (last emperor of Northern Song dynasty) ● Train ALL types of artists; obsessive Confucian approach to success in the arts ● Train people in nature studies in hopes to lead to better landscape productions ● Incredible detailed animal studies ● Fivecolored parakeet, undated, Northern Song, Hand Scroll ○ Juxtaposed with poetry ■ When Southern Song took over, less money went to the arts, but it didn’t die out (change in leadership and change in institutional orientation OR change in taste?) ○ Southern Song Dynasty (1127 1279 CE) ■ Ma Yuan (late 12th early 13th CE) ● On a mountain path in spring, 12th/13th CE, album leaf, ink and slight color on silk ○ Lots of open space ○ Lots of detailed crammed into one corner ○ Still has tree and rock outcut ○ Assistant carrying easel in bottom left corner ○ Still shows depth ■ Xia Gui ● Pure and Remote Views of Hills and Streams, ca. 13th century, hand scroll, ink on paper ○ Very minimalistic ○ Ownership marked by stank ○ Empty pavilions ○ Presence of humans ○ Travelers ○ Axecut texture and stroke ○ Scholars in mountain caves ○ End result is strikingly different than previous iterations of landscapes ○ Chan Buddhist Painting (Meditative Paintings exemplify the insertion of Buddhism in art) ■ Chan (Dhyana) & Bodhidharma ● The first Chan patriarch ● Meditated for nine years ● “Legless” meditation ● The school of sudden enlightenment ● Painting as a meditative exercise ■ Mu Qi (mid 13th CE) ● Triptych: Guayin, Gibbon and crane, Ca. 13th century, hanging scrolls ○ Paragon of meditation; cloak, typical water bottle(only possession) ○ Precision and enormous complexity to capture every detail of the subject and its content ○ More than just anatomical, but wanted to represent their nature (i.e. their essence) ■ cranes=proub ■ Gibbon (monkey)=slothful ○ Not an artist doing an animal study; meditated practice ● Persimmons, ca. Mid 13th CE, ink on paper ○ Unvoiced syllable ■ Allude to unvoiced ____ of nature ○ Type of painting is interactive ■ Done by an artist considering the true nature of fruit ■ Illusions to karmic consequences ○ Produced by a meditator for anyone to use while meditating ● Lian Kai ○ Chan Priest, ca 12th CE, hanging scroll, ink on paper ■ Pairing of literary w/ visual (the literature is a koan; meant to jolt people out of problems of the mind that promote ignorance); “show me your original face” = what is your true form/nature (the face of who you are before all your rebirths ■ Rushed brush strokes, not the careful plotting and attn. To detail ■ Face obscured ■ satori buddhism (look this up) ● You are not you in the way you think you are ● Yuan Dynasty (1260 1368 CE) ○ Painting of Yuan period is so intimately connected to political development ○ Not a happy time in China from political point of view (during this time they were taken over ruled by Mongols) ○ Artists were not trained from the technical point of view ○ There is a mood problem and execution problem ○ Height of sophistication because art reflects ethos of the time period ○ Political expression ○ Zhao Mengfu (12541322) ■ Political undertone in his art ■ Refused to serve the Mongols ■ Did not have any social or political engagement ■ Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, 1296, Handscroll, ink and color on paper ■ Artist knew his history ● Compositional elements ○ Singular mountain in distance ○ Foliage ○ Obscure the presence of man ● BUT ○ Not the right types of mountains ○ Singular compositional elements not brought together in the best way ● Somber tone ○ Trees without leaves ○ Literati didn’t live in the best era for their craft ○ Diminished power ○ Colors are subtle ■ Not exciting, not springtime ■ Sheep and Goat, undated ● Political undertone in his art ● Accurate and naturalistic representations ○ Testament to his skill as a painter ● Successfully captured the inner and outer personality characteristics of the animals ○ Sheep painfully stupid; unbelievably vacant creatures; dumber than posts ■ Vacant, glazed over eyes ○ Goat absolute bastards; untrustworthy; violent; attackers ■ Lowers its head; about to attack ● These themes are about people ○ Mentality ○ Can be a sheep and serve your Mongol over bearers vacantly (traitors) OR you can be ready to fight stubbornly ● Writing = short comical poems that speak of the characteristics of sheep and goat ■ Bamboo, Tree and Rock, ca. 14th Century ● Technically a landscape ● Dead tree ○ Persistent element in Yuan paintings ○ Mood of the time ● Living bamboo next to dead tree ● Pessimism and optimism juxtaposed into one painting ● You can see what you want (glass half full/empty) ○ Yan Hui (ca. 12101320) ■ Daoisit Immortal, ca. 14th CE ● Religious goal offset negative experience of present ● By having these people move out into seclusion, they might offset all the negativity ● Fear of the person ○ Mangle hand ○ Mangled figure ○ Ni Zan (1301 1374) ■ The Rongxi Studio, 1372 ● Rock outcropping ● Compositional arrangement was intentional ○ Wang Meng (ca. 1308 1385) ■ Most similar to great Song Dynasty ■ Dwelling in the Bian Mountains, 1366 ● Successful reviving Song OR Slavish copycat ■ Thatched Halls on Mount Tai, ca. 14th CE ● Korea ○ Incredibly vivid art history ○ Manifestation of Buddhist art in Korea ○ Briefly, the aristocracy of Korea became Buddhist and deeply supported buddhist art/culture and development ○ Hundreds of images produced during this time period ○ Amitabha Buddha; gilt bronze, unified Silla period (c. 8th CE Korea) ■ Some are diminutive and some are almost lifesize (approx. 5 ft.) ■ Should not be mistaken as Chinese ● Distinctly Buddhist art ○ Robes ○ Approach to drapery ○ Typical snailshell curl ○ Elongated ears ○ Top knot bun ● Korean Buddhist images ○ Remarkably rotund compared to Chinese images of the time ○ Buddha is not fat, but seems “bloated” ■ Never fully explained ■ Tendency in Korea to equate prosperity to being a healthy weight ● Understanding that the buddha was powerful and a protector ○ Treatment of gestures ■ Variant ways of portraying attitudes in Korean context ■ Comes from dependence on literature rather than sculptural ■ Reflect both the fierce individuality of Korean skill and their heavy dependence on literature ○ Maitreya and Avalokitesvara Bodhisattvas; Unified SIlla Period, 8th century; Korea ■ Born into paradise of Maitreya and wait for him in the afterlife ■ Maitreya ● Still actively working to become a buddha ● Has not attained the full body of being a buddha (so he is slender) ■ Avalokitesvara ● Ever shifting gender translation ○ Female in China ○ Male in India ○ Due to reliance on sanskrit lit., they knew in India it was a male, but they also knew it was a female in china; so they made it androgynous ○ Male in Japanese ○ AMitabha Buddha with Bohdisattvas, ink on paper, Chosen period c. 13th CE ■ Korean distinctness of representation is very consistent ○ Sokkuram Cave Grotto, 774 CE, near Kyongju; Korea ■ There was a natural cave there initially ■ Royally patronized ■ In essence, Korean version of Ajanta type cave ■ Deep suspicion of practice of worshiping relics ■ Very hard to attain relics because they were mainly in India and they wouldn’t part with it ■ Entrance has guardian figures ● Dominance of what was first created at Sanchi 1 is being replicated here (the architrave) ● East asian guardian figures ● Similar to Yaksha; guardian deities ○ Consitent trend found in areas where Buddhism found success ■ Successful religion because they accept all, even those who are not Buddhist ■ Bhumisparsa Mudra Buddha ● Relic placed in center of temple ● Not replicated in any other Buddhist sacred space in all of Asia ● Shows Korean style ■ Inner Walls ● Whole host of Buddhist personalities ○ Arhats buddhist practitioners who attained nirvana ○ Buddhist bodhisattvas ○ Chinese/Korean guardian deities ■ Standing on trolls ● Guardians of different directions ● Emphasizes that all direction are protected by buddhist deities and buddha resides in the middle ■ Some have iconographic markers ● Carrying a book ● Japan ○ Jomon Period: 10,500 BCE 300 BCE ■ Neolithic Japan ■ Pot, ca 7500 5000 BCE, Earthenware ● Not sure of function ● Rudimentary decoration ○ Usually made with cords of rope and pressed onto it ● BIG and common ● not sure of purpose ● bigger than average human being ■ Umataka Vessel, Middle Jomon, 2,500 1500 ● forms that are inscrutable ● could be influenced by clouds or water ● no attempt to replicate the natural world ● visual expression ■ Dogu Figurine, Middle Jomon Period, ca. 3000 2000 BCE, earthenware ■ Nonakado Stone Group; Late Jomon, ca. 2500 1000 BCE ● Upright mysterious stone shafts ● Common in south asia and in Europe ● Function in ritual context SOMEHOW ● Possibly burial, but they are typically nowhere near burial sites (evidence does not affirm) ● Megalithic arrangement ● Has parallels to central asia and northern Europe, but not in China ○ Shared ideas among people? ○ Yayoi Period: 300 BCE 300 CE ■ During this era we have an understanding of chronological history ■ Earthenware & Bronze vessel (massive amount from southern islands) ● Massive bronze, usually called bells (reminiscent) ● Dotaku Bell, ca. 300 BCE 300 CE, bronze ○ No idea what use is ○ Buried, but not in relation to tombs ■ Buried in agricultural areas ■ Connected to fertility/abundance ● Why? ● Presence would somehow impact the land positively ■ Prior to interment? Don’t know ○ Geometric pattern and design ○ Decorated with birds sometimes, really any animal ○ Association with natural world and animals ○ Kofun Period: ca. 300 CE 600 CE ■ Appearance of monumental tombs for wealthy ■ Era of the Ancient Tombs ■ Extremely manmade and maintained ■ Modern Day Osaka ■ Powerful significance attributed to the shape? Connected to afterlife? ● Symbolic association to deceased in afterlife ● Forge relationship with prosperity of bell shape ■ Kofun Tombs ● Keyhole shape ● Restricted entrances ● Princes and emperors buried in them ○ Maintained by descendents of people buried there ● Ancient Tomb of Emperor Nintoku ○ Haniwa Figures, Earthenware, Terracotta, Kofun Period ■ Warrior figure ■ Martial figures ■ Some are small and some are lifesize ■ Buried in tomb context ■ Not naturalistic ■ Highly abstracted ■ Looks like a mask ● Generic form ■ Haniwa Farmer Figure (Farmer with plough blade) ■ In death the emperor would be surrounded by an entourage ■ Guardians for the tomb ■ No strong evidence that ancestor worship was as prominent in Japan as it was in China ○ The Emergence of Japanese Nationhood ■ Asuka Period (552 646 CE) ■ Hakuho Period (645 710 CE) ■ Nara Period (710 794 CE) ■ Shinto: the way of the Gods ● Prebuddhist ● Ancient Japanese Religion that has survived to modern times ● Large undocumented tradition ● Very old ● Key Terms ○ Shamanism ○ Kami no michi ○ Kami ■ Manifest in different forms ■ Some are literally spirits ● I.e. deceased family members, manifestations in nature (similar to Yakshi tree nymphs) ○ Ujigami ■ Type of Kami associated with guardianship ■ Protects an area of residents ○ Amaterasu ■ One of the more powerful Kami ■ Solar deity ■ Embodiment of the sun or queen that resides over solar realm ○ Iwakura ■ Physical components of what come to be the abode of a Kami ■ Points of nature ■ Specific object ○ Torii ■ Physical components of what come to be the abode of a Kami ■ Etymology ■ Tori → torana (sanskrit) ● Derived from term: Torana ■ Gateway of sorts ■ Marks gateway of Kami ○ Religious Continuity ● The Ise Jingu Shrine Complex, wood and other natural materials, ca. 4th century CE, rebuilt every 20 years since the 7th century ○ Patronized by Japanese imperial family ■ Very important due to the strong connection to the imperial family ○ Where the deity resides is not a public space; complex is not designed for things like circumambulation ○ Kami is sensitive to distraction/noise; need a serene space ○ Very enclosed, non public space ■ People can approach the boundary wall ■ Seeing the rooftops is powerful enough ■ Only head priest and member of the imperial family are allowed to enter ○ Solar divinity resides here ■ A part of the royal family ○ Rebuilding ■ Shrine requires attention ■ Active maintenance of shrine if it did not take place, the patrons would not truly be fulfilling their duties ■ Gender associations with the caretaker ■ Rebuilt every 20 years possibly relationship with the avg. length of rule? Generationally? ● Done for benefit for Kami ○ Don’t want to disturb them all the time, but you don’t want to leave them idle too long ● Rebuilding is celebrated ○ Torii Gateways ■ Nothing here is distinctly religious about these spaces ■ Distinctly homes for objects ■ Tradition style of architecture ■ Becomes quintessential marking transitional space between sacred and secular space ■ Japanese adoption of Indian Buddhist Torana ■ No Toris in Japan have elaborate narratives carved into them ○ Main Hall (shoden) ■ Details of wood construction ● Emphasis on the natural ■ People respect the space ● Want to cultivate a positive relationship with Kamis so the Kamis will intercede in a positive way ■ Wood is mostly cedar ● Do not reuse materials ○ Temporary space for Kami and mirrors for when they reconstruct the spaces ■ 3 primary objects the relate to the legitimacy to the imperial family of Japan ● Locations kept secret ● Draped in cloth when the priests transport them so you don’t actually know what they are transporting ■ Buddhism in Japan: the Mainland Connection ● Terms/Concepts: ○ Introduction of Buddhism ■ 6th CE ■ King of Paekche (Korea) ■ Emperor Kimmei (Japan) ○ Prince Shotoku ■ Studied korean distillations of the word of the Buddha ■ 573 621 CE ■ Seventeen articles ● 604 CE ● Methodological approach to accepting Buddha into Japan ○ Done prior to becoming Emperor ○ Father was not against it, but he was old and unwilling to enact the 17 articles ○ Formal adoption of buddhism ■ The Horyuji Temple compound, associated with Shotoku, built by Soga Clan, late 7th century ● 1st major Buddhist site in Japan ● Shotoku died shortly after it was built, then it burnt to the ground, but was rebuilt ● Key architectural Elements ○ Pagoda japanese structure of a stupa ○ Kondo image hall ■ Tori Busshi, Shaka Triad, 623 CE, gilt Bronze ■ Earliest bronze buddhist image in Japan ■ Chunkiness of body and face taken from korea ■ Hand from chinese style ■ Not very unique to Japan.. It’s just a fusion of Chinese and Korean styles ○ Chumon subsidiary structure ■ Acquisition of relics ● Relic of buddha acquired from India ■ Why was architecture style ok for japan? ● Stairway entrances allow lowest interior space to be seen and entered into ● Oldest wooden structure in the world ■ Tamanushi Shrine ● Jataka of the Hungry Tigress from Tamanushi Shrine in Horyuji Treasure house ○ Commission patronized images to publically demonstrate that you support Buddhism ○ Bodhisattva throws himself off a cliff to feed the tigress that can't feed herself ■ Extreme loyalty and self sacrifice for others; compassionate service for others ○ Buddhist Art in Japan ■ The Nara Period (Nara at the time, the capital of Japan) ● Todaiji, “The Great Eastern Temple,” & the Daibutsuden “The Great Buddha Hall,” Nara Period, 747 CE ○ Houses largest bronze image of the Buddha ○ Daibutsuden ■ Birushana Buddha ● largest bronze image of the Buddha ● Imperialistic patronage ○ They were tending to the needs of getting things back on track ○ Buddha is here, have no fear ○ Ganjin Seated in Meditation, dry lacquer, Nara Period, late 8th CE ■ Monk from China ■ In Nara period, Japanese imperialists invited model Buddhist Chinese to teach the new lineage of Japanese Buddhism ■ Extremely naturalistic ■ Rigorous adherence to conduct ■ Advocated the practice of meditation ■ More service oriented/hands on ● Very involved in social world ■ Ganjin wanted to valorize isolation and retreat ■ Furuna (one of the 10 great Disciples), ca. 734 CE ● Incorporated into lineage in Japan ■ The Heian Period ● Array of attempted developments ● Lots of stability ● Pure Land Buddhism in Japan ○ Rise of Pure Land Buddhism ■ Seen acutely and Dunhuang in China ■ Longing for a relationship with a living, active Buddha ■ Jodo ■ 8th CE and beyond ○ Amida (Amitabha) Buddha ■ Amitabha Buddha (india and China) ○ Phoenix Hall, 11th CE ■ Former state of aristocrat summer retreat, converted to Buddhist sacred space ■ Attempt to create a pure land where a Buddha could be present ■ If you need to be reborn or encounter the Buddha ■ Shorten time span by which people could be in the presence of the Amitabha Buddha in a pure land ■ Gilded architecture, lotus ponds, etc. ■ Architecture looks like a Phoenix ■ Sanskrit vowel “ah” ■ Jocho, Amida Nyorai, Byodoin, Phoenix Hall, Kyoto, 1053 CE, wood and gold leaf ● Compare to Tori Busshi ca. 623 ○ Clearly much more evolved ○ More successful and sophisticated ● Surprising it took this long to create successful sculpture ○ The Flying Storehouse, Shigisan Engi, Hand Scroll, ink on color paper, late 12th CE, late Heian ■ Japanese Buddhism though of as corrupt ■ Buddhist monastery collecting taxes to support wealthy buddhist monastics where CONVERSELY, the Japanese Buddhist monastics helped others and provided services ■ Mangled aristocrate running after money that the Buddhists have stolen ■ Criticism of the social elite and monasteries ○ Hungry Ghosts, from the Gaki Zoshi scroll, late 12th CE ■ Imperial and Zen Arts ● Conflict led to new form of Buddhsim ○ Changes in buddhism are linked to politics ○ Introduction emperor ○ Development state interest in utilizing buddhist monastic space ● Zen Buddhism ○ Emphasis on meditation ○ Follow the rules ○ Attractive to Shoguns (militarized control) ○ Monk Eisai (Rinzai ○ Militaristic Zen approach to art (in terms of portraiture) ○ Fujiwara Takanobu (1142 1205) ■ Minamoto no Yorimoto ● Unarmed and weak looking ○ Mokuan Reien (active 1330s 1345) and inscribed by Xianfu Shaomi ○ Four sleepers, 14th CE ■ Product of meditative practice ■ Use of art to promote meditation ■ Revered japanese buddhist monk (big fat guy) ■ Tiger ■ 2 friends ■ All asleep ■ Pun bc goal of buddhism is to be awakened ■ Who is awake and who is asleep ○ Josetsu (act. ca. 1400) ■ Catching a Catfish with a Gourd, early 15th CE ● Illustrating how ludicrous all our approaches to everyday life are ● Attaining awakening either do it right, or do it wrong ○ Wrong catching a catfish with a gourd ○ Sesshu Toyo ■ Attempts to recreate Song Landscapes ■ Landscape, hanging scroll ● Has all song components ○ Meditation impacted architecture ■ Golden Pavilion, Kyoto, 1398 CE ● Original destroyed by fire ● Retreat place for cultivation of seated and walking meditation ● Carefully crafted gardens ○ Garden of Daisenin, Daitokuji, early 16th century, Muromachi Period ○ Challenges the eye greatly ○ Dry Landscape Garden of Ryoanji, Kyoto ■ Water and islands or clouds and mountain peaks?
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