The Chem I Study Guide to End All Chem I Study Guides
The Chem I Study Guide to End All Chem I Study Guides CHEM - 10060 - 001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Manning on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM - 10060 - 001 at Kent State University taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY I in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE THE TIME IS NIGH. The final exam is here, and my study guide will help you pick out what is the most important thing from each chapter, and what I guess will be on the exam. IT IS 100% CUMULATIVE. That means everything is fair game. I sectioned this study guide off: Part 1 is a list of things from Dr. Leslie’s Study Guide and how to do them and Part 2 is Potential Calculation problems I hope you find this helpful, good luck! PART 1: I would know how to... identify the number of significant digits in a quantity give the name and/or symbol of all SI units (grams, Liters, etc.) give the symbol, name, or meaning of any metric prefix (centi = 2, milli = 3, etc.) for any given element (either name or symbol will be given) to determine number of protons, neutrons, electrons to determine atomic mass protons = atomic #, He = 2 neutrons = atomic mass – protons electrons = Atomic # (if neutral charge, if negative then add electrons, if positive subtract electrons) for any main-group element to draw a Lewis dot symbol and to determine the number of valence electrons (group #) calculate relative atomic mass, given isotopic abundance Find the mean of these isotopes, essentially for any given ion o determine number of protons, neutrons, electrons (refer above) o determine charge give the formula for any ionic or covalent compound, given its name o know all polyatomic ions (PowerPoint) o know which metals need Roman numerals and which do not CHECK give the name of any ionic or covalent compound, given the formula write a balanced chemical equation for a given reaction determine empirical formula, given o mass composition o % composition KNOW YOUR LIMITING REAGENT STUFF o Process to find which is limiting o Amount of reactant or product used or formed POWERPOINT convert between moles, mass, volume and molarity ELECTROLYTE INFORMATION o Which elements form electrolytes and why (ionic compounds, acids, and bases; they dissolve to form ions and can conduct electricity in a solution) o Know why acids and bases are electrolytes They conduct electricity in a solvent because they dissociate into ions ACIDS AND BASES o pH pH = -log(H3O+) pH = -log (molarity) o Strong/ weak acids; what they mean and which acids are which Molecular, total, and net ionic equations o Molecular = pretty much the normal equation, yet does not show the true substances in the sample o Total ionic = shows all substances dissociated and what really is going on in the sample o Net = total ionic but without the spectator ions REDOX REACTIONS o REVIEW POWERPOINT & PRACTICE PROBS Open, closed, isolated systems Energy v. Enthalpy o Endothermic v. exothermic reactions o Endothermic = energy enters the reaction; ⧍H rxn is positive o Exothermic = energy leaves the reaction and enters the surroundings; ⧍H rxn is negative Q=MC⧍T o Heat = mass * constant (given) * (final temp – initial temp) ⧍H rxn = q rxn = -q surroundings Standard Heat Reactions o ΔHrxn = ΣΔHprod – ΣΔHreactants (know equation) o ⧍HᵒF for specific substance Hess’s Law o Adding all of the parts of an enthalpy reaction together to get the correct overall; equation manipulation Wave behavior v. particle behavior o Refraction- bending of a light WAVE when it hits a medium of different density, think a straw in your glass o Diffraction- bends light wave around objects, think of one wave in a pond hitting a barrier and splitting Photoelectric Effect & the Bohr Atomic Model o Photoelectric effect - Metals can emit electrons when light of a certain frequency hits them o Bohr Atomic Model: Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle o You can only find the probability that an electron might be in a certain energy level, not for sure; orbitals = regions of probability o it is impossible to know BOTH the Energy and the position o for any particle, so we can only calculate one at a time Schrodinger Equation o describes a wave function; also says orbitals = regions of probability o High probability to find electron near nucleus Types & Shapes of orbitals o QUANTUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE 3 POWERPOINT 4 quantum numbers and what they represent o n = principal quantum number; size and distance from shell; tells you the energy level of the electron o l = orbital angular momentum; shape of the orbital, can be 0 up to (n-1); REVIEW SHAPES IN POWERPOINT o m =lmagnetic; orientation in space, can be –l to +l; i.e. if l= 3 then m lan be -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, or 3 o m =squantum spin; either +1/2 or -1/2, describes spin of the electron Assign quantum numbers to specific electron ELECTRON CONFIG. DIAGRAM (full and abbreviated) Know unpaired, core, outer, and valence e- o Core = all the e- from the filed inner shells o Outer = all the electrons in the highest numbered energy level (for example, a 5s2 4d3 element would look only at electrons in # 5 shells) o Valence = group # o Unpaired = all without both an up and down arrow o Charge formed by element, e- lost/gained, WHICH e- lost or gained, paramagnetic or diamagnetic Use Per. Table to: o Predict trends in Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Atomic Size, Metallic Characteristics (AND WHY- atomic structure – Check PowerPoint) IE and EA AS & MC o Acid/base behavior of oxides Know the three types of bonding and decide what bonds are in a substance o Ionic- metal and nonmetal; give and take of e- o Covalent- nonmetal and nonmetal; shared e- o Metallic- two metals; e- sea with pooled/delocalized valence e- LEWIS DOT DIAGRAMS o Octet rule of valency (also which atoms can have an expanded valence shell [Periods 3 and up]) IONIC BOND FORMATIONS o Lewis Dots, Partial Orbital Diagram, Electron Configuration, and energy changes (Powerpoint) o Properties of ionic compounds- MAKE SURE YOU ARE VERY CAREFUL WITH YOUR WORD CHOICES Lattice Energy- Measure of how strongly ions attract each other COVALENT BONDS o Describe formation of covalent bonds o How strength of covalent bond affected by: Atomic size & Bond type ( single, double , or triple) As atomic size shrinks, covalent bonds are stronger. Also, as more bond type increases, bond gets stronger o POLAR COVALENT- a bond involving sharing electrons where the electrons are not evenly distributed to both atoms Know how to calculate if polar or nonpolar by Electronegativity (if it is less than 0.4, it is nonpolar. Greater than .4, polar, greater than 1.7, it counts as ionic) LEWIS STRUCTURES o Correctly draw one o Find valence e- o Recognize & Draw Resonance Structures o Calculate Formal Charge Formal Charge = Valence electrons – owned electrons Group # - (lines + dots) o Expanded Octet (available anywhere Period 3 and up) VSEPR o Use Lewis structure to identify and draw VSEPR diagrams o BE ABLE TO DRAW THEM – almost guaranteed to be on the test!! o Use VSEPR and electronegativity to calculate overall polarity Equal pull = polar Not equal pull or lone pairs = nonpolar Intermolecular Forces o Dispersion All molecules. Have. Dispersion. o Dipole-Dipole When there are polar bonds that are not cancelled o Hydrogen When H bonds to an N,O, or F atom with a lone pair Hybridization o On an atom based on Lewis Structure o # of sigma and pi bonds in a molecule o Know how double & triple bonds coordinate in terms of sigma and pi bonds Molecular Orbital Diagrams o Draw a molecular orbital diagram for any element from H to Ne o Use MO to: Calculate bond order Determine # of unpaired electrons Predict magnetic properties (whether its paramagnetic or diamagnetic) Stability Definitely review the stuff we have been going over in class as it will almost be guaranteed to be a huge part of this final, since it is essentially a test over this new stuff as well as a final. PART 2: The Nick Picks™ for likely calculations / processes are……. o Limiting Reagent o Find limiting reagent, find mass of Element in excess, find mass of product o LEWIS STRUCTURES o VSEPR Diagrams (3-D graphing of Lewis structures) o Name of VSEPR diagram o Polar or Nonpolar o Core, outer, and valence e- o Formal Charge o Valence electrons – electrons owned AKA Group # - (dots + lines) o Hybridization o # of sigma and pi bonds o New orbitals formed o Molecular Orbital Diagram o REDOX REACTIONS o Definitely look over the Powerpoint from this one… they sneak up on ya Well this concludes the study guide for the final… good luck everyone!
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