Anth. 160-001 Exam 3 Study Guide
Anth. 160-001 Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH 160
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 160 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Tanya M. Meuller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Life Course in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
QUIZZES FOR EXAM 3: Weekly Quiz 12 1. Male reproductive success is limited by: The resources available to raise offspring The energetic demands of sperm production The number of available partners All of the above 2. Female reproductive success is limited by: The resources available to raise offspring The energetic demands of sperm production The number of available partners All of the above 3. What's the difference between a 'cad' and a 'dad'? A 'cad' provides sperm only, while a 'dad' invests. A 'cad' invests, while a 'dad' only provides sperm. Both 'cads' and 'dads' invest, but 'cads' invest in multiple females. There is no difference between 'cads' and 'dads'. 4. Which of the following is a reason sexual reproduction may have evolved? Because of the large degree of sociality in species exhibiting sexual reproduction - with so many potential social partners sex has evolved in order to help facilitate relationships To produce variation in offspring response to variable environments, especially host- pathogen co-evolution - with variable environments, producing offspring that are not genetically identical helps ensure that at least some of the offspring will survive changing environmental conditions Because of the lack of success of asexually reproducing species - asexual reproduction is never a good strategy, and asexually reproducing species have virtually disappeared None of the above 5. What is anisogamy? Unequal body size Unequal canine size Unequal gamete size Unequal production patterns Weekly Quiz Week 13 1. Which of the following is true about the differences between male and female maturation? Males experience their peak growth spurt in body size early in the process and spermatogenesis late in the process. Males and females exhibit a similar timeline and order of maturational events – they both become reproductively mature early in the process and experience the peak growth spurt late in the process. Females experience their peak growth spurt in body size early in the process and ovulation late in the process. Males and females exhibit a similar timeline and order of maturational events – they both experience the peak growth spurt early in the process and become reproductively mature late in the process. 2. Which of the following is not true regarding the secular trend in the age of menarche? The age at menarche has been steadily declining over the past 100 years, with an average decline of 3 months per decade. The average age at menarche has declined from approximately 15.5 years to 12.3 years. The secular trend is most likely due to improved nutrition, with more reliable food availability as well as an increased abundance of food (particularly protein and fat). The secular trend has only occurred in the U.S., with no evidence of the decline in age at menarche in other countries. This is most likely due to a “founder” effect of the original female settlers of the U.S. 3. Lancaster’s theory of human fat storage states that: The storage of body fat is a byproduct of selection for overall increased body size and body fat percentage in both human males and females. This pattern of fat storage is detrimental to our health because of the increases in disease rates that correspond with increases in body fat. The storage of body fat is a necessary component of the developmental process in females in order to support infant brain growth, and fat storage during pregnancy is also specialized for brain growth Male bodies are optimized for productivity; females’ bodies represent a compromise between reproduction and production. This is made possible by male provisioning of energy. Males and females face similar selection pressures and trade-offs between optimizing the body for production and optimizing the bodies for reproduction. The results are very similar patterns of fat deposition in both males and females. 4. Kaplan’s theory of human fat storage states that: Male bodies are optimized for productivity; females’ bodies represent a compromise between reproduction and production. This is made possible by male provisioning of energy. The storage of body fat is a byproduct of selection for overall increased body size and body fat percentage in both human males and females. This pattern of fat storage is detrimental to our health because of the increases in disease rates that correspond with increases in body fat. Males and females face similar selection pressures and trade-offs between optimizing the body for production and optimizing the bodies for reproduction. The results are very similar patterns of fat deposition in both males and females. Males and females follow a general trend present in all primates, with fat deposition serving to subsidize increases in the body size of infants. Human males and females are simply fatter than other primates because our babies are larger. 5. Which of the following triggers the onset of menarche in human females? The smell of an unrelated male’s pheromones and urine – sensing these immediately brings on menarche in human females. Age – menarche is completely triggered by the age of the female, with very little influence of environmental conditions. Patterns of growth – particularly a signal from the skeletal system that triggers an increase in estrogen and the cessation of growth in height. Being removed from the mother for longer periods of time - mothers suppress menarche in their daughters through physiological suppression, and as girls enter middle and high school, they spend more hours away from their mothers, allowing for the onset of menarche. Weekly quiz 15 1. Which of the following is not true with regards to male-male competition for mates Male-male competition can take a variety of forms, including direct physical competition, male beauty contests designed to present their attractiveness to females, accumulating resources to offer the female, etc. Bride service is most common in groups where wealth cannot be accumulated, and males offer their services to to the female's family (hunting or working) in order to gain access to that particular female. The very nature of the competition between males for mates leads to greater variance in male reproductive success, with some males having very high levels of reproductive success and other males having very little. This is more apparent in polygynous societies than monogamous ones. Dowry is most common in groups where wealth can be accumulated, and males offer a large payment (in the form of dowry) to the bride's parents in order to gain access to that particular female. 2. Though the Wodaabe practice of male beauty contests seems humorous to us, what are the males advertising? The wealth they have available for the female through the elaborate nature of their costume and headdress. Elaborate physical movements demonstrating their sexual prowess – the better dancers will be better lovers Good genes – by accentuating their white eyes and white teeth they are indicating their vigor and ability to withstand environmental and physical stressors. The numbers of children they already have – all sons participate in the dancing with their fathers. 3. Resource defense polygyny refers to: Males compete to acquire resources such as feeding territories and females distribute themselves in male territories according to polygyny threshold model. Males fight to out-compete other males and dominate a harem of females. Female choice where females choose males for genetic quality and males vary in markers of quality. Females compete to acquire resources such as feeding territories and males distribute themselves in female territories according to the polygyny threshold model. 4. Which of the following increases the likelihood of males providing substantial amounts of parental investment? Females dispersed in space, essentially solitary. External fertilization. Internal fertilization. When male support does not dramatically impact child survival. 5. Which of the following is not true of polygyny? It is always exploitative, and emerges with males' control of female movement and sexuality, and is a way of subjugating women. It may emerge in situations where there is a large skew in mens' wealth and what they can offer females. It may emerge in situations where females are essentially self-sufficient in food production, and choose males based on underlying genetic quality or the protection they may offer. It may be associated with a fitness cost for females, or may be relatively neutral in terms of fitness.
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