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UNM / Engineering / ANTH 160 / What is the meaning of women's movement?

What is the meaning of women's movement?

What is the meaning of women's movement?

Description

School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Life Course
Professor: Tanya meuller
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Anthropology
Cost: 50
Name: Anth. 160-001 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: this study guide includes the questions asked on the weekly quizzes, as well as all components of the notes we took in class. It would be wise to look over Lectures 11 and 12 before taking the exam. As always, the exam is open book and note. Goodluck everybody
Uploaded: 05/05/2016
15 Pages 15 Views 5 Unlocks
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QUIZZES FOR EXAM 3:


What is the meaning of women's movement?



Weekly Quiz 12

1. Male reproductive success is limited by:

∙ The resources available to raise offspring

∙ The energetic demands of sperm production

∙ The number of available partners 

∙ All of the above

2. Female reproductive success is limited by:

∙ The resources available to raise offspring If you want to learn more check out What is quantitative variable?

∙ The energetic demands of sperm production

∙ The number of available partners

∙ All of the above

3. What's the difference between a 'cad' and a 'dad'?

∙ A 'cad' provides sperm only, while a 'dad' invests.


What sexual reproduction mean?



∙ A 'cad' invests, while a 'dad' only provides sperm.

∙ Both 'cads' and 'dads' invest, but 'cads' invest in multiple females.

∙ There is no difference between 'cads' and 'dads'.

4. Which of the following is a reason sexual reproduction may have evolved? ∙ Because of the large degree of sociality in species exhibiting sexual reproduction - with  so many potential social partners sex has evolved in order to help facilitate relationships ∙ To produce variation in offspring response to variable environments, especially host pathogen co-evolution - with variable environments, producing offspring that are not  genetically identical helps ensure that at least some of the offspring will survive  changing environmental conditions 


What does reproductive success mean?



If you want to learn more check out Why do we no longer consider diagrams of life a ‘tree’? what is it now considered?

∙ Because of the lack of success of asexually reproducing species - asexual reproduction is  never a good strategy, and asexually reproducing species have virtually disappeared ∙ None of the above

5. What is anisogamy?

∙ Unequal body size

∙ Unequal canine size

∙ Unequal gamete size Don't forget about the age old question of If we have a chiral center, how do we know where it points?

∙ Unequal production patterns We also discuss several other topics like What is the oxfam model?

Weekly Quiz Week 13

1. Which of the following is true about the differences between male and female maturation? ∙ Males experience their peak growth spurt in body size early in the process and  spermatogenesis late in the process.

∙ Males and females exhibit a similar timeline and order of maturational events – they  both become reproductively mature early in the process and experience the peak  growth spurt late in the process.

∙ Females experience their peak growth spurt in body size early in the process and  ovulation late in the process. Don't forget about the age old question of What is hearing in behavioral neuroscience?

∙ Males and females exhibit a similar timeline and order of maturational events – they  both experience the peak growth spurt early in the process and become reproductively  mature late in the process.

2. Which of the following is not true regarding the secular trend in the age of menarche? ∙ The age at menarche has been steadily declining over the past 100 years, with an  average decline of 3 months per decade.

∙ The average age at menarche has declined from approximately 15.5 years to 12.3 years. ∙ The secular trend is most likely due to improved nutrition, with more reliable food  availability as well as an increased abundance of food (particularly protein and fat). ∙ The secular trend has only occurred in the U.S., with no evidence of the decline in age at  menarche in other countries. This is most likely due to a “founder” effect of the original  female settlers of the U.S. If you want to learn more check out What are push forces in motivation?

3. Lancaster’s theory of human fat storage states that:

∙ The storage of body fat is a byproduct of selection for overall increased body size and  body fat percentage in both human males and females. This pattern of fat storage is  detrimental to our health because of the increases in disease rates that correspond with  increases in body fat.

∙ The storage of body fat is a necessary component of the developmental process in  females in order to support infant brain growth, and fat storage during pregnancy is also  specialized for brain growth 

∙ Male bodies are optimized for productivity; females’ bodies represent a compromise  between reproduction and production. This is made possible by male provisioning of  energy.

∙ Males and females face similar selection pressures and trade-offs between optimizing  the body for production and optimizing the bodies for reproduction. The results are  very similar patterns of fat deposition in both males and females.

4. Kaplan’s theory of human fat storage states that:  

∙ Male bodies are optimized for productivity; females’ bodies represent a compromise  between reproduction and production. This is made possible by male provisioning of  energy.

∙ The storage of body fat is a byproduct of selection for overall increased body size and  body fat percentage in both human males and females. This pattern of fat storage is  detrimental to our health because of the increases in disease rates that correspond with  increases in body fat.

∙ Males and females face similar selection pressures and trade-offs between optimizing  the body for production and optimizing the bodies for reproduction. The results are  very similar patterns of fat deposition in both males and females.

∙ Males and females follow a general trend present in all primates, with fat deposition  serving to subsidize increases in the body size of infants. Human males and females are  simply fatter than other primates because our babies are larger.

5. Which of the following triggers the onset of menarche in human females? ∙ The smell of an unrelated male’s pheromones and urine – sensing these immediately  brings on menarche in human females.

∙ Age – menarche is completely triggered by the age of the female, with very little  influence of environmental conditions.

∙ Patterns of growth – particularly a signal from the skeletal system that triggers an  increase in estrogen and the cessation of growth in height. 

∙ Being removed from the mother for longer periods of time - mothers suppress  menarche in their daughters through physiological suppression, and as girls enter  middle and high school, they spend more hours away from their mothers, allowing for  the onset of menarche.

Weekly quiz 15

1. Which of the following is not true with regards to male-male competition for mates ∙ Male-male competition can take a variety of forms, including direct physical  competition, male beauty contests designed to present their attractiveness to females,  accumulating resources to offer the female, etc.  

∙ Bride service is most common in groups where wealth cannot be accumulated, and  males offer their services to to the female's family (hunting or working) in order to gain  access to that particular female.

∙ The very nature of the competition between males for mates leads to greater variance  in male reproductive success, with some males having very high levels of reproductive  success and other males having very little. This is more apparent in polygynous societies  than monogamous ones.

∙ Dowry is most common in groups where wealth can be accumulated, and males offer a  large payment (in the form of dowry) to the bride's parents in order to gain access to  that particular female.

2. Though the Wodaabe practice of male beauty contests seems humorous to us, what are the  males advertising?

∙ The wealth they have available for the female through the elaborate nature of their  costume and headdress.

∙ Elaborate physical movements demonstrating their sexual prowess – the better dancers  will be better lovers

∙ Good genes – by accentuating their white eyes and white teeth they are indicating their  vigor and ability to withstand environmental and physical stressors.

∙ The numbers of children they already have – all sons participate in the dancing with  their fathers.

3. Resource defense polygyny refers to:

∙ Males compete to acquire resources such as feeding territories and females distribute  themselves in male territories according to polygyny threshold model.

∙ Males fight to out-compete other males and dominate a harem of females.  ∙ Female choice where females choose males for genetic quality and males vary in  markers of quality.

∙ Females compete to acquire resources such as feeding territories and males distribute  themselves in female territories according to the polygyny threshold model.

4. Which of the following increases the likelihood of males providing substantial amounts of  parental investment?

∙ Females dispersed in space, essentially solitary.

∙ External fertilization.

∙ Internal fertilization.

∙ When male support does not dramatically impact child survival.

5. Which of the following is not true of polygyny?

∙ It is always exploitative, and emerges with males' control of female movement and  sexuality, and is a way of subjugating women.

∙ It may emerge in situations where there is a large skew in mens' wealth and what they  can offer females.

∙ It may emerge in situations where females are essentially self-sufficient in food  production, and choose males based on underlying genetic quality or the protection  they may offer.  

∙ It may be associated with a fitness cost for females, or may be relatively neutral in terms  of fitness.

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