Final study guide
Final study guide Biol 2041
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
● Chapter 14 vocabulary ○ Pathogen ■ Disease causing organisms ○ Pathology ■ Study of disease ○ Etiology ■ Cause of disease ○ Epidemiology ■ Occurrence and transmission in a population ○ Epidemiologist ■ A person who studiepidemiology ○ Infection ■ Invasion or colonization by pathogenic (disease causing m/o) ■ Depends on irulencend host (predisposing factors ) ○ Virulence ■ egree of pathogenicitrain related ○ Predisposinol factors ■ Makes the body more susceptible to a disease and may alter the course of the disease. Think gender ○ Normal flora ■ Permanent microorganisms that are commonly found on the host that do not cause disease maintainsymbiotic relationship ○ Symbiotic relationship ■ Relationship between two organisms ○ Commensalistic ■ One organism benefits and the other organism is unaffected ● + 0 ○ Mutualism ■ Both organisms benefit from one another ● + + ○ Parasitic ■ One organism benefits at the expense of another organism ● + ○ Opportunistic ■ A non pathogenic organism takes advantage of host ● 0 ○ Pneumocystis pneumonia ○ Microbial antagonism (competitive exculsion) ■ Where normal flor benefit from the host preventing overgrowth of harmful bacteria ○ Symptoms ■ Changes in body function such as pain and malaise ○ Signs ■ Object changes the physician can observe and measure ○ Communicable disease ■ Any disease that spreads from one host to another ○ Contagious diseases ■ Communicable disease that spreads easily. Think Chickenpox ○ Noncommunicable disease ■ Diseases that are not spread from one host to another ○ Incidence ■ Number of people in a population who develop a disease during a particular time period ○ Prevalence ■ The number of people in a population who develop a disease at a specified time, regardless of when it first appeared ○ Sporadic disease ■ A disease that occurs occasionally. Think “flu season” ○ Endemic ■ A disease constantly present in a population ○ Epidemic ■ Many people in a small area catching a disease in a short amount of time ○ Pandemic ■ A globalpidemic ○ Acute ■ A disease that develops rapidly and lasts a short amount of time ○ Chronic ■ Develops slowly can continue and recur for long periods of time ○ Subacute ■ Intermediate between acute and chronic ○ Latent ■ The causative agent remains inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce symptoms of the disease. Think shingles ○ Herd immunity ■ Prevention of a rapid spread of a disease within a population who were are vaccinated. ○ Local infection ■ In which the invading microorganisms are limited to relatively small area of the body. Think UTI ○ Systemic (generalized) infection ■ Microorganisms or their by products are spread throughout the body by the blood or lymph ○ Focal infection ■ Infection arising in areas such as teeth, tonsils, sinuses. Think gingivitis ○ Sepsis ■ Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focused infection ○ Septicemia ■ Blood poisoning ■ A systemic infection arising from the multiplication of pathogens in the blood ○ Bacteremia ■ The presence of bacteria in the blood ○ Toxemia ■ The presence of toxins in the blood, pertaining mainly to tetanus ○ Viremia ■ The presence of viruses in the blood ○ Primary infection ■ Acute infection causing initial illness ○ Secondary infection ■ One caused by opportunistic pathogens after the primary infection has weakened the host body ○ Subclinical (inapparent) infection ■ One that does not cause any noticeable illness ○ Incubation period ■ Interval between infection and first appearance in the organism ○ Prodromal period ■ Incubation of disease mymptoms ○ Period of illness ■ Peak of disease ○ Period of decline ■ Signs nd ymptoms subside ○ Period of convalescence ■ Host returns to predisposed state ○ Reservoir of infection ■ Where disease can survive ○ Carrier ■ Host the bacteria with minimal ymptoms ○ Zoonoses ■ Diseases that go from animal host to a human one ● Think H1N1 ○ Contact transmitter ■ Spread of disease virect transmission, indirect transmission, or droplet transmission ○ Direct transmission ■ Person to person, source to host no intermediate ○ Indirect transmission ■ Reservoir to source via no living obomite ke f ○ Fomite ■ Tissues, towels, inanimate objects that transfer germs ○ Droplet transmitting ■ Results from contact with mucous membranes (sneezing, coughing) ○ Vehicle transmitting ■ Disease agents transferred via food, water ● I.e. Salmonella ○ Vector ■ Arthropods play an important role! ■ Animals that carry pathogens from one host to another ○ Mechanical transmitting ■ passive transport through feet of insects ○ Biological transmitting ■ Active process of transmission through insect bites ○ Health care associated infection (HAI) ■ Infection occurring due to hospital sanitation ○ Compromised host ■ One whose resistance is impeached by disease, therapy or burns ○ Descriptive epidemiology ■ Collecting all data that describe the occurrence ○ Analytic epidemiology ■ Analysis of a particular disease to determine probable cause ○ Experimental epidemiology ■ Hypothesis about disease tested on groups of people ○ Center of disease control ■ Central source of epidemiology study and information ○ Nosocomial ■ Infections that occur due to hospitalization ○ Morbidity ■ Illness occurrences ○ Mortality ■ Death due to disease ○ Morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR) ■ Gives weekly statistics on nosocomial infections ● Chapter 15 ○ Pathogenicity ■ Ability for microorganism to overcome host defense ○ Virulence ■ Extent of hopathogenicity ○ Portals of entry ■ How organism gets inside host ○ Patrental route ■ Cuts, injections, bites, being where infection enters ○ Adherence (adhesion) ■ Where pathogen attaches to host cell ○ Ligands (adhesions) ■ Where pathogen attaches to host cell ○ Receptors ■ Where Luganda bind to on the the surface of host cell ○ Biofilms ■ Extracellular parasites that bind to living and no living things ○ Mprotein ■ Produced by treptococcus pyogenes ■ Heat and acid resistant ○ Fimbriae ■ Used by bacteria to attach to host cell ○ Opa ■ Used by bacteria to attach to host cell ○ Waxy lipid ■ increases virulence by resisting digesting by phagocytosis ○ Coagulates ■ Clot the fibrinogen in blood ○ Kinases ■ Bacterial enzymes that break down fibrin ○ Hyaluronidase ■ Hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid ○ Coagulases ■ Helps spread gas gangrene ○ IgA ■ Can destroy the antibodies ○ Antigenic variation ■ Alter surface of antigens ○ Invasins ■ Surface protein that rearranges nearby actin filaments of the cytoskeletons ○ Siderophores ■ Secreted protein trying to find iron ○ Toxins ■ Poisonous substances that produced by some microorganisms ○ Toxigenicity ■ The capacity of produced toxins by a microorganisms ○ Exotoxins ■ Toxins produced insides bacteria and are released when cell is lysis ○ Toxemia ■ Presence of toxins in blood ○ Antitoxins ■ Secreted by host cell to provide immunxotoxin ○ Toxoids ■ Alteredexotoxin ○ AB toxins ■ Type ofxotoxinmade up of two polypeptides ● Diphtheria Toxin ○ Membrane disruption toxins ■ Type ofexotoxin ● Example ○ Leukocide ○ Hemolysis ○ Streptolysins ○ Leukocytes ■ White blood cells typxotoxin ○ Hemolysis ■ Destroys red blood cells tyxotoxin ○ Streptomycin ■ Produceemolysis bytreptococci ○ Superantigens ■ Provoke very intense immune responsentigens ○ Endotoxins ■ Toxin produced externally on gram negative bacteria ○ Lipid A ■ lipid portion of LPS ○ Interleukin1 (IL1) ■ Caused by endotoxins to cause macrophages ○ Shock ■ Lifethreading decrease in bloodpressure ○ Septic shock ■ Shock caused by bacteria ○ Limulus amebocyte Lysander assay (LAL) ■ Lab test testing for endotoxins ○ Lysogenic conversion ■ Change in characteristics of microbe due to prophase ○ Cytoplasmic effect (CPE) ■ Visual effect of vial effect ○ Inclusion bodies ■ Granules found in cytoplasm or nucleus of infected cell ○ Syncytium ■ Large multicellular end cell produced by viral infections ○ Interferons ■ Produced by viral infected cells ○ Contact inhibition ■ normal cells cease frowning near infected area ○ Sclerotia ■ Toxin containment due to highly resistant portions of mycelia of fungus ○ Ergot ■ The fungal toxin itself ○ Aflatoxin ■ Produced byspergillus flavas carcinogenic properties ○ Mycotoxin ■ Fungal produced toxin ● Example ○ Phalloidin ○ Amanitin ○ Portal of exit ■ How disease leaves the body of the host ● Chapter 16 ○ Antibodies ■ also called immunoglobulins, are large Yshaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria. Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen ○ Natural immunity ■ Skinm tears and eyes, mucus membranes, interferons, naturally occuring phagocyte cell ○ Inflammation ■ Where the dermis reacts to cuts and works to recover and heal self from bacteria ■ ○ Chemotactic response ■ Also known ashemotaxis ○ Chemokines ■ family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cell ○ Marination ○ Emigration ○ Phagocytosis ■ Know the cycle ○ Immunity (resistance) ■ Ability to ward off disease ○ Susceptibility ■ Lack ofimmunity ○ Innate immunity ■ Defenses present at birth ○ Adaptive immunity ■ Specific response to specific microbe ○ Tolllike receptors (TLRs) ■ Activator on plasma membrane ○ Pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) ■ Where TLRs attach on the cell ○ Skin ■ Largest organ ○ Dermis ■ Skins inner thicker portion ○ Keratin ■ Top layer oskin made up of dead cells where this protective protein is found ○ Mucous membranes ■ Connective tissue and epithelial cell ○ Mucous ■ What mucous membrane s ecretes ○ Lacrimal apparatus ■ Group of structures that manufactures and drains away tears ○ Hairs ■ Filter inhaled air and trap microorganisms, dust, pollutants ○ Cilia ■ Coats mucous membrane lower respiratory tract ○ Ciliary escalator ■ Keeps mucous with blanket moving toward throat ○ Ear wax ■ Ce rum keeps dust, pollutants out of ear, acts as a chemical protectant ○ Urine ■ Cleans urethra to prevent microorganism has lysozyme and increase the pH ○ Vaginal secretions ■ Used to move microorganism out of the body. Glycogen produced by vaginal epithelial cells broken down by lacticactobacillus acidophilus ○ Peristalsis ■ How to expel microbes from body ○ Defecation ■ How to expel microbes from body ○ Vomiting ■ How to expel microbes from body ○ Diarrhea ■ How to expel microbes from body ○ Sebum ■ Preventshairfrom becoming dry and brittle ○ Perspiration ■ Helps maintain body temperature, eliminate certain waste, flushes microorganisms frokin ○ Lysozyme ■ Contained in perspiration enzyme capable of breaking down gram positive cell wall ○ Saliva ■ Contains amylase by microbial inhibitors ○ Gastric juice ■ Produced in stomach. Destroys bacteria and bacterial toxin ○ Normal microbiota ■ Not considered first line of defnnate immune system ○ Probiotics ■ Liv microbial cultures applied to or ingested that are intended to exert a beneficial effect ● 16.2Second line of defense ○ Plasma ■ Blood contains this fluid ○ Formed elements ■ Cell and cell fragments suspendelasma ○ Leukocytes ■ White blood cells ○ Granulocytes ■ Large granules in cytoplasm visible under microscope. Three different types neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils ○ Neutrophils ■ Stains pale lilac with a mixture of acidic and basic dyes ○ Basophils ■ Stains bluepurple with the prescience of methyl blue. Releases histamine in response to an allergic inflammation ○ Eosinophils ■ Stains red or orange with acidic dye called eosin ○ Agranulocytosis ■ Granules found in cytoplasm so that are not visible under microscope. Three different tyMonocytes, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes ○ Monocytes ■ Not actively phagocytic until leaving circulating blood and entering body tissue ○ Macrophages ■ Maturemonocytes found in body tissues ○ Dendritic cell ■ erived fromonocytes estroys microbes via phagocytosis initiate adaptive immune response ○ Lymphocytes ■ Natural killer cells, T cells and B cells ○ Natural killer (NK) cell) ■ Found in blood, lymph nodes, spleen and red bone marrow ○ Perforin ■ Protein contained in granules creates perforations in target cell ○ Cytolysis ■ Cell loosening in which extracellularly fluid flows into target cell ○ Granzymes ■ Released byK cellsprotein digesting enzymes indpoptosis n target cell ○ Apoptosis ■ cell destruction ○ T cells and B cells ■ notphagocyticbut are important in adaptive immunity ○ Phagocytosis ■ ingestion of microorganism or other substances ○ Phagocytes ■ types of white blood cells or white blood cell derivatives ○ Fixed macrophages ■ history test macrophages found in certain cells and tissues of the body ○ Free (wandering) macrophages ■ roaming in tissues gatherinfectionnd nflammation sites ○ Mononuclear phagocytic (reticuloendothelial) system ■ Various macrophages of body ○ Chemotaxis ■ Chemical attraction of phagocytes n organisms ○ Adherence ■ Attachment of the phagocyte. Plasma membrane to the surface of the macroorganisms or other foreign material ○ Opgonization ■ Coating process once organism is phagocytized ○ Inflammation ■ Local defensive response ○ Acutephase proteins ■ Found inactive in blood will become active when inflamed know process of inflammation ○ Vasodilation ■ Increased blood flow to an area ○ Inflammation ■ Local defensive response ○ Increased permeability ■ Allows defensive substances normally retained in blood to pass through the walls of the blood cells and enter infected area ○ Edema ■ Accumulation of fluid ○ Histamine ■ Present in body realized in direct response to stimulation by certain components ○ Prostaglandins ■ Released by damaged cells intensifistaminend Kirin to help phagocytes move through capillary wall ○ Leukotrienes ■ Produced by mast cells ○ Cytokines ■ Bring abouasodilationnd increased permeability ○ Pus ■ Dead cells and body fluid ○ Abscess ■ focus infection with mixturpus ○ Margination ■ sticking process in response to local cytokines ○ Dipedests ■ Migratory process ○ Fever ■ Body temperature increased in response to infection ○ Crisis ■ When the deer causes skin to warm and sweat comes weveris falling ○ Complement cycles ■ Defensive system produced by liver ○ Complement activation ■ Cascade of completing proteins that occurs during infection. Three different types classical pathway, alternative pathway, lectin pathway ○ Lectin ■ Proteins that bind to carbohydrates ○ Interferons (IFNs) ■ Similar to antiviral proteins produced by animal cells after viral stimulation ○ Antiviral proteins (AVPs) ■ Disrupts multiplication of cells ● Chapter 17 ○ Innate immunity ■ Protection against infection ○ Adaptive immunity ■ Induced immunity that changes into a specific microbial invader ○ Humoral immunity ■ When describing immunity brought about by antibodies ○ Thymus ■ Lymphoid organ found in upper chest ○ B cells ■ Recognizentigensnd make antibodies against them ○ T cells ■ Basis of cellular immunity ○ Antigens ■ Proteins on large polysaccharides ○ Epitopes ■ Antigenicdeterminate wherntigenintersect with specific regions on antigens ○ Haptens ■ A low weight compound that can cause an allergic reaction ○ Antigen binding sites ■ Two identical sites that pitopes ○ Valence ■ Number of binding sites on an antibody ○ Monomer ■ Simplest molecular structure ○ IgG ■ 80% of antibodies in serum ○ IgM ■ Large size 510% serum ○ IgA ■ 1015% serum common in mucus ○ IgD ■ .2% of serum antibodies ○ IgE ■ .0002% of serum antibodies ○ Tdependent antigen ■ Proteins found on viruaptens ct ○ antigen antibody complex ■ When an antibody comes in contact with an antigen this complex forms ○ Affinity ■ The strength of the bond between an antigen and an antibody ○ Specificity ■ Can distinguish between minor differences in the amino acid sequence ○ Agglutination ■ Antibodies causing antigens to clump together ○ Opsonization ■ The antigen is coated with antibodies that enhance its ingestion and lysis by phagocytic cells ○ Neutralization ■ IgG antibodies inactivate microbes by blocking their attachment to host cells and neutralize the toxins in a similar manner ○ Thymic selection ■ Where T cell don’t remember ○ M Cells ■ Microfold cells gateway cell of digestive tract ○ Antigen Presenting cells (ACPs) ■ First step oT celecognition ○ Dendritic cells (DCs) ■ Characterised by extensions ■ Macrophages found in the resting state ○ Antibody titer ■ The amount of antibody in serum ○ Primary response ■ Slow rise at first then a gradual decline ○ Secondary response ■ Reacts quicker and more effectively. This is common when the host finds and recognize the infected cells and already has antibodies formed to fight off the infection ○ Gamma globulin ■ Contains most of antibodies often used to transfer passive immunity ○ Attenuated organism ■ Virence is decreased ○ Inactivate ○ Fractions ■ Subunits of vaccines ● Think H1N1 ○ Recomnination DNA ■ Building a vaccine ● Chapter 18 (Not all the vocabulary just the focus of class) ○ Variolation ■ First method to induce immunity to smallpox ○ Vaccine ■ Suspension of organisms that can be used to induce immunity ○ Adjuvants ■ Aluminum salts added to vaccines ○ Sensitivity ■ The possibility the test is reactive if the specimen is positive ○ Specificity ■ The probability that the positive test will NOT be reactive the the specimen is a true negative ○ Agglutinin reaction ■ Where antigens can be linked together by antibodies to form aggregates ○ Precipitin ring ■ Cloudy precipitation line appears where the zone of equivalence is ○ Serology ■ Antigen reactions studied of visualized in vitro ○ Neutralization reaction ■ Antigenantigen reaction where harmful effects of bacterial exotoxin or virus are blocked by antibodies ● Chapter 19 (vocabulary is focus of the class) ○ Hypersensitivity ■ Immunological responses to allergen that results in tissue damage. Has 4 different types of reactivity ○ Type 1 ■ Anaphylaxis ● Reactions caused by antigens combined with IgE antibodies. Causes systemic reactions may result in circulatory collapse ○ Type 2 ■ Cytotoxicity ● Mediated by IgG or IgM directed toward foreign cells may result in lysis of cell ○ Type 3 ○ Type 4 ○ Erythroblastosis fetalis ○ Immune complex ○ Delayed hypersensitivity ● Chap 20 ○ Normal flora ○ Intoxication ■ ○ Infection ■ Questions ● Chapter 14 ○ What is koch’s postulate ■ A associate organism with disease ■ Isolate organism from diseased host/ grown in culture ■ Demonstrate disease upon rein ovulation into healthy host ■ Reisolate organism and demonstrate relatedness to original isolate ○ What are exceptions to koch’s postulate ■ T. palladium ● Can’t culture on artificial media ■ M. leprae ● Can’t culture on artificial media ■ HIV ● Postulates satisfied?? ○ What are types of reservoirs ○ What is infectious means of transmitting ○ What is the way infection leaves the host ○ symbiosis ■ Commensalistic ■ Mutualistic ■ Parasitic ■ Opportunistic ● Systems to be familiar with ○ Cardiovascular ■ ○ Lower respiratory ■ ○ Upper respiratory ■ ○ Digestion ■ ○ Nervous ■ ○ Genitals ■ ● Dermis ○ Bacterial Disease Name Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Portal of entry Staphylococcus Streptococcal Streptococcal Necrotizing Open sores skin infections profress fasciitis Erysipelas Impetigo Swimmer's ear Pseudomonas Primary cause Enters via hot aeruginosa of cystic fibrosis tubs, pools, skin surgeries Acene Propionibacteriu where skin cells Benzoyl m acnes shed around the peroxides hair follicle ○ Viral Diseases Name Portal of entry Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Warts Warts Freeze them off (Shopes papilloma) Smallpox Lesions and Mortality rate droplet 20% Chicken pox Respiratory Herpes zoster and shingles Measles Respiratory Highly contagious German measles Herpes simplex Cold sore ○ Fungal Disease ■ Tinea capitis ringworm of head Tricophyto ■ Tinea cruris ringworm of groin (jockitch) Epidermophyton ■ Tinea pedis ringworm of foot (athlete’s foot) ■ Candidiasis genital mucous membranes/thrush ● Eye infection ○ Known as conjunctivitis ■ Simply means infection of the eye ○ Disease ■ Ophthalmia neonatorum ● Associated with . gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis also in Amoebic keratitis caused by acanthamoeba ● Treatment is with silver nitrate ● Gentoo urinary system diseases ○ UTI ■ E.coli ■ Proteus ■ Klebsiella ● All are opportunist ■ Goon coal urethritis ■ Nongooncoccalurethris ■ Chlamydia trachomatis ● 4 million cases ● Displays latency ● Women are 5 times more likely to have this disease ● 50% of the men and 60% of the women are unaware they have it ○ Bladder infection ■ Known as cystitis ○ Kidney Name Portal of entry Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Pyelonephritis Antibiotic combination ● Reproductive STD ○ Bacterial Name Portal of entry Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Gonorrhea Direct sexual Neisseria Pelvic contact gonorrhoeae inflammatory disorder (PID) Syphilis Direct sexual Treponema 1chancre contact pallium 2lesions on body in secondary place 3gumma lesion ■ Viral Name Portal of entry Causative Symptoms Treatment agent Genital herpes Direct sexual HIV2 Acyclovir contact Valacyclovir Genital warts Direct sexual Human Vaccination contact papillomavirus Cryotherapy es Surgery ■ Fungal ● Candidiasis ○ Not an STD ● Oral cavity ○ Periodontal disease ■ Gingivitis ● Gum infection ■ Periodontitis ● Chronic gingivitis ■ Caused by ● Streptococci ● Spirochetes ● Fusobacterium ● Toxins ○ Effects of the organism ■ Salmonellosis ● S. typhimurium ● Human to animal ■ Typhoid ● Caused by Salmonella typhi ● Human to human ■ Shigellosis ● Bacillary dysentery ● S. dysenteriae ■ Cholera ● similar to shigellosis ■ Other cases ● E. coli ○ Traveler's diarrhea ○ STEC ■ Shiga Toxin producing E. coli o157.H7 ● 2.3 % of cattle may carry ● Campylobacter ○ Causes simulate to shigellosis caused by chicken ● Clostridium difficile ○ Nosocomial ○ Helicobacter pylori ■ Treated with antibiotics. ● Digestive tract Diseases ○ Viral ■ Noroviruses ● Cruise liner ● Discovered ○ Norwalk, Ohio 1968 ■ Rotavirus ■ Hepatitis ■ Mumps ○ Protozoal Name Causative agent Grid Giardiasis Amoebiasis Entamoeba Cryptosporidium ○ Fungal ■ Causative agent ● Aspergillus flavus ● Upper respiratory ○ Viral ■ Common cold ● Causative agent ○ Rhinovirus ● Portal of entry ○ Droplet ■ Adenoviruses ○ Bacteria Name Causative agent Portal of entry Symptom Treatment s Tonsillitis Sinusitis Inner ear infection (Otitis Media) Diphtheria irregular shape gram positive rod Pharyngitis Streptococcal penicillin phylogenies ● Lower respiratory Name Portal of Causative agent Symptoms Treatment entry Pertussis Droplet Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Gram negative cough) coccobacillus Tuberculosis Droplet Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis skin test Acid fast gram CT scan negative rod Pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Psittacosis Chlamydia psittacosis Influenza Chills Tamiflu Fever Muscle ache Pneumonia Pneumocystis Pneumonia jirovecii ● Cardiovascular ○ Viral Name Portal of entry Causative Symptom Treatment agent cytomegaloviru Body Fluids Enlarge mouth s (CMV) Human herpes and eyes 5 ○ Bites Name Portal of entry Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Lyme disease Tick bites Borrelia 1Bulls eye Antibodies burgdorferi rash 2 Irregular heartbeat 3 Arthritis Plague Infected rat Yersinia pestis (Black Death) bites ○ Disease Disease Portal of Entry Causative agent Symptoms Treatment Gangrene C.perfringes Loss of blood Penicillin Strict anaerobes supply to Hyperbaric infected area chamber Anthrax Animal eats spore Bacillus Treat the Through abrasions anthracis symptoms as Wool’s other they arise diseas Rheumatic S.pyogenes arthritic heart fever damage due to antiimmune complexes Bacterial Staphylococcus Inflammation of endocarditis Streptococcus myocardial tissue
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