Study Guide for the Final Exam
Be able to identify each of the following in one paragraph, telling who or what the item was and why he, she, it, or they were important in World War II or the Cold War. On Part I of the final exam I will place 8 of the identifications below, and you will answer the 5 you can do best.
1. isolationists and the American First Committee versus interventionists and Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Interventionists, those who said we have to do everything but going to war ourselves to help GB and China, as early as May 1940 organized a lobbying group. The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies put out a lot of educational materials, propaganda, to convince the Americans how much we were in danger and how important it was that we do everything in our power to keep the British fighting. (Dr. Seuss created some comics).The leaders of this committee were William Allen White (journalist) and Robert Sherwood (playwright). They called for all out prepared ness for war, and give aid to any country who was trying to fight off the Axis powers. They reasoned it was so much better to do this than to wait until the Axis powers came after us when we had no allies. They had their most support from the East and West coasts. It was shared by most intellectuals (professors, writers, artists) it was very strongly held by minorities in this country, whose former homelands had been invaded and taken over by the Axis. (Chinese Americans, Jewish Americans, Polish Americans, etc.)
We also discuss several other topics like When did james rosenquist begin painting?
The American First Committee formed July 1940. Probably the most well-known and effective spokesman, Charles Lindbergh. Also among the leaders, head of sears, Robert Wood, two senators Arthur Vandenberg and Robert Taft. The only threat to America was if we stripped ourselves of our weapons and left ourselves vulnerable to attack and antagonize Germany. They believed that we should give no aid to any side. They preached Fortress America. Supporters were Nazi supporters ( The German Bund) , minority groups who hated Britain (Irish) Many of those who started out as supporters became liberal; Potter Stewart, Sergeant Shriver, John Kennedy, Rob Kennedy and Gerald Ford If you want to learn more check out What did friedrich froebel believe in?
Lend Lease Act Jan. 1941- March 1941 (ratification).Roosevelt creates Lend Lease Act to help Britain. The concept of this was that Britain would lend military supplies and would later be reimbursed for this lease. Isolationists made fun of it by saying you were lending chewing gum. It was really a loan that would be repaid in goods and services. This was a major step that departed from neutrality.
We also discuss several other topics like What is a polar aprotic?
3. German attack on Soviet Union, June 1941 and U. S. lend-lease aid to Russia Any country that was going against Hitler could be lent military supplies and would later be reimbursed for this lease. It was really a loan that would be repaid
in goods and services. This means once the Russians fought against the Germans they could benefit from this. June 22, 1941 Russia is invaded as Finland and other surrounding Nazi German controlled areas attack. The Russians become an ally with the British.
4. Atlantic Charter
FDR and Churchill hold a meeting to frame the charter. This charter anticipated that the US would join WWII this charter outlined the goals of the war that were Most goals were related to the post war period. It resembled the 14 Points in the If you want to learn more check out In biology, ultrastructure refers to what?
fact that Freedom of the seas, disarmament, people should create their own governments (right of nationalization).The US and GB would take nothing for themselves. Free trade, Right of Self-government, the UN should be created to fight off aggressors. The UN was the US, GB, Soviet Union and China originally. Destroy Nazi tyranny, Destroy military of those who were the aggressors and Occupy Germany.
5. Undeclared naval war with Germany, summer and fall 1941 April 1941 the US Navy secretly began patrolling the North Atlantic to provide American shipping assistance that was going to Iceland. July 1941, American troops replaced British Troops in Iceland. Declared Western Atlantic as a neutral zone and was to be patrolled by the Navy as hemispheric defense.US Navy started helping the British Navy track the German subs. By Sept. 1941. It was clear that Germans knew what was up. They attacked the Greer. It was damaged but not sunk. No American lives lost. US Navy was then allowed to shoot German subs on sight. FDR asked congress for authority to arm merchant ships (this is authorized in Nov. after the Reuben James). Oct. 17, The Kearny is hit. 11 casualties. Nov. 1941the Reuben James had 115 Americans killed Don't forget about the age old question of What is the stability of change?
6. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere v. the Open Door policy Some of the military and political leaders started building up "The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity." They started to drive out Western cultural influences out of Japan. ) Leaders say traditional culture is far more superior. Then they began to preach the economic problems and become as great as the US or Britain or the West, is that they have to come to control and dominate all of East Asia (economically, politically and militarily), and make it a special zone (Like the Monroe Doctrine, where the US says they have control of the entire rest of the Americas and not interfere). Under the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere all countries that were Western Colonies had to become part of Japan and the westerners had to be pushed out, and all of China had to be dominated. Japanese superiority was preached. To make this idea more acceptable for other Asian countries they said they would treat them better than the West. (To this day there is still strong resentment of what the Japanese did in WW2 from those they conquered).
7. Tripartite Pact of the Axis powers
Ignoring the Treaty of Versailles Hitler sends troops to the Rhineland remilitarizing it. Generals hesitated but went anyways. France and Britain did nothing about this. Hitler sends German planes and troops to Spain with Mussolini so that Franco comes to power. Mussolini and Hitler become allies. Rome- Berlin By 1938 Japan joins this alliance. Anti-Common turn Pact. This implies they were an alliance against communism. But really it just meant if anyone got involved with a war in another country over their aggression that the other two would come to their defense. If you want to learn more check out Historiography is a record of what?
8. Hideki Tojo
9. A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington Movement The March on Washington Movement was a movement that was to have black Americans march for better rights and equal treatment for working on the home front as well as better treatment in the military since there was discrimination in the Armed Forces, jobs, and government departments. A. Philip Randolph was a black rights activist in the 1920’s who organized Pullman car porters into a union.
10. President Roosevelt's Executive Order 8802: what it did about employment opportunities for African Americans, what it did not do about segregation in the army
Executive Order 8802 gave better employment opportunities for African Americans within industries, it did not however talk about segregation in the Army or the discrimination within the federal departments.
11. President Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 and what it did to Japanese Americans living on the West Coast
Executive Order 9066 was the order that created Japanese Internment camps within the West Coast. It forced all Japanese descendants to go into this camps if they were in areas that were considered military areas.
12. Korematsu v. the United States
Korematsu v. the United States was a court case that was battled about the Japanese Internment camps in America. The case determined that there was a right to force people to leave their homes and everything if the military commanded them to because they were forced.
13. testimony at the Nuremberg Trials
Testimony at the Nuremberg Trials was the testimony of those who were involved within Nazi Germany. These testimonies gave insight to the atrocities that the Nazis committed during the Second World War.
14. Leo Szilard, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Leslie Groves, and the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project was to make sure America made the atomic bomb before Germany. Raced to create not just one bomb, but two. One with uranium and the other with plutonium there was no procedure for the bomb, the president would have to say yes of course but otherwise things were made up as they went along. Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific leader. General Leslie Groves was the military leader and thought we should definitely use the bomb. Helped decide where the bomb should be dropped. He wanted some cities untouched so he could hit them. They put four cities off limits so they could drop and the atomic bomb.
Kyoto was one of the bombing targets, and not military targets. Target choices otherwise were not military targets at all. George C Marshal was the only who didn't think that we should drop the bomb. Hiroshima- largest untouched city.
Coastal city on the tip of the main island and the city itself had 300,000. Ground zero was the center of the city. Scientists were very uncomfortable with dropping the bomb. They wanted to give warnings because they were sure if they gave total surprise it would start a nuclear arms race. Leo Szilard was the most outspoken against the dropping of the Atomic Bomb. He was determined to meet with Truman, they instead went to meet with James Byrnes in the spring of 1945. They were the only ones who knew. Byrnes had seen the advances the Russians made and he wanted to impress the Russians. Byrnes literally didn't care about the idea of a Nuclear Arms race. He did not give up and he enlisted the support of 68 other atomic scientists.
15. Henry Stimson
Henry Stimson didn’t really trust Truman. He was on the Interim committee with James Byrnes and helped decided nuclear policy after the war. He was important to World War Two and the Cold War because of his beliefs that we should not use the Atomic bomb.
16. James F. Byrnes
James Byrnes joined the circle of Truman's info. He knew about the bomb and knew if the bomb did not work it would be scandal He knew that Truman would make sure that the bomb would work. He was Truman’s Secretary of State. He is relevant to the
Cold War because of the fact he is one of the possible reasons that the Cold War began because of his stringent belief that we should use the bomb to in a way show off to Russia.
17. the Tehran Conference
First meeting between FDR and Stalin as well as Great Britain. GB and the US guaranteed opening the West to more fighting. Stalin agreed to helping with the War against Japan.
18. the Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference was a conference that happened in Yalta with Great Britain, The Soviet Union and The United States. They decided what would happen to Europe after World War II.
19. Yalta Declaration of Liberated Europe
At Yalta, Churchill and FDR had wanted a democratic election so that people could pick their own governments. By 1945 the US and GB land troops on D-Day and fight their way towards Germany while the Soviet Union is coming in from the Eastern side to Germany as fast as they can. At Yalta it was clear that this was going to happen and they tried to get promises that Stalin would allow free democratic elections. Stalin did not keep this promise. It was super blatant in Poland because by the time they met in Yalta a Communist dominated government had already been created. Churchill and FDR were not amused and proposed the government in exile that was in GB.
20. George F. Kennan and the containment policy
Kennan was a Russian expert who had served in the US embassy in Moscow, he had studied the Russians and the Communists very closely. The Long Telegraph, he sent to the State department warning about the expansionist Soviet Union that would harm the US. In the article he wrote, he actually coined the phrase,
"Containment" policy. The Soviet Union sees itself in a historic struggle with Capitalism, and it is out bit by bit to destroy capitalism and spread socialism around the world. This is certainly not in the interest of the United states. He advised that the US must meet this threat by firm counter pressure. In each place the Soviet Union tries to push internal communist revolt the US must push back and keep the Soviet Union from expanding. He advised that we form strong military alliances with the threated governments and extend economic and military assistance to threated governments. Would this lead to world war three? Kennan didn't think so. What he saw as different from the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany is that the men who ran the Kremlin were not crazy and not determined to rule the world full speed ahead and did not an all-out war. Besides the they so thoroughly believed that in the long run that communism was going to win that when it came to any individual confrontation that they would back down and then try to probe and establish communism somewhere else. We had to not start a war with the Russians and would just contain Soviet expansion anywhere on the globe that the Soviet's try it. Truman was impressed with this advice and inclined to follow it. Was he getting enough similar advice and were people following it as well. It happened that other countries also were believing this by 1946. 21. Winston Churchill's iron curtain speech
While he still had tremendous prestige, but he had lost his prime minister administration in 1946 because they lost elections. He was retiring. He had a lot of time on his hands but he also had a lot to speak on his mind. Truman claims that he set this up, we're not sure if this true because there is no other evidence. Truman knew that there was a small college in Missouri, Westminster College was looking for a really big name speaker for their graduation, and he suggested Churchill. The College did extend an invitation and Churchill accepted. Truman accuses the Russians of putting communists in power in Eastern Europe, that they are isolating Eastern Europe from the rest of Europe like they are dropping and 'Iron Curtain'. Churchill believes that the US and GB should not allow the Russians to have atomic knowledge. He thinks that US and GB also must stop Soviet ambitions, he wanted a close continuing military alliance between GB, US, and other countries that Great Britain had control of. Together under this close military alliance they have to show strength and military firmness, and every time the Soviet Union tries to expand its influence they have to push back.
22. Truman Doctrine
Early in 1947 the British government told Washington (Truman administration) that there was a problem. The GB economy had not picked up after the war and they had been giving as much material support to the Greek government and the
Turkish government to help them resist as they could but they were out of money. They suggested the US take this over. Truman decided that it made good sense
and so he and General George Marshall came up with a plan. This became known as the Truman Doctrine. States that the US should help countries that support governments that are fighting against armed minorities and those being forced into things. He then asks 400 million in funds for Turkey and Greece, and for civilians and military to go to Greece and Turkey to assist them, putting the containment policy into action. Congress responds with being surprisingly willing to help. They appropriated 400 million dollars for weapons, military advisors, and other kinds of assistance to the Greek and Turkish governments.
23. George C. Marshall and the Marshall Plan
George C. Marshall’s plan was to finance Europe. The United States must undertake massive foreign aid program to help the European economies get back on their feet and by doing this we'll get rid of communism. In 1947 17 billion dollars was appropriated for the Western European economies. He got some resistance because we'd bankrupt ourselves. When the last of the eastern European countries, Czechoslovakia fell and was forced to be communists, congress agreed, they came up with more than 13 million and helped jumpstart Western Europe’s economy.
24. Berlin Blockade and airlift
Between 1948 and 1949 Soviet military force divided Germany and blockaded Berlin into Soviet controlled Eastern Germany. This lead to US and British forces sending in supplies by airlift to those who were part of Western Berlin that was once a West controlled area to make sure that they could get the supplies together.
25. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact NATO is a military alliance between the democracies of North America and Europe to counterbalance the Soviet Union’s Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance between all of the Soviet controlled states.